Factor Five: Transforming the Global Economy Through 80% Improvements in Resource Productivity : a Report to the Club of Rome

Couverture
When first published in 1997, Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use by renowned economic and engineering experts Ernst von Weizs?cker, Amory Lovins and L. Hunter Lovins, transformed how economists, policy makers, engineers, entrepreneurs and business leaders thought about innovation and wealth creation. Through examples from a wide range of industrial sectors, the authors demonstrated how technical innovation could cut resource use in half while doubling wealth. Now twelve years on, with climate change at the top of the world agenda and the new economic giants of China and India needing ever more resources, there is a unique historic opportunity to scale up resources productivity and radically transform the global economy. And Factor Five is the book set to change all of this. Picking up where Factor Four left off, this new book examines the past 15 years of innovation in industry, technical innovation and policy. It shows how and where factor four gains have been made and how we can achieve greater factor five or 80%+ improvements in resource and energy productivity and how to roll them out on a global scale to retool our economic system, massively boost wealth for billions of people around the world and help solve the climate change crises. Spanning dozens of countries including China and India and examining innumerable cases of innovation in design, technology and policy, the authors leave no engineering and economic stone unturned in their quest for excellence. The book tackles sustainable development and climate change by providing in depth Factor 5 resource productivity studies of the following sectors: Buildings, Industry, Agriculture, Food and Hospitality, and Transportation. In its systematic approach to demonstrating how Factor 5 can be achieved, the book also provides an overview of energy/water nexus and energy/materials nexus efficiency opportunities across these sectors. Given that these sectors are responsible for virtually all energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions globally, this book is designed to guide everyone from individual households, businesses, industry sector groups to national governments in their efforts to achieve the IPCC recommended target of 80 per cent reductions to greenhouse gas emissions. It also looks at innovation in regulation to increase resource productivity, pricing, carbon trading, eco-taxation and permits and the role of international institutions and trade. The authors also explain exciting new concepts such as bio-mimicry and whole system design, as hallmarks for a new generation of technologies. The last part of the book explores transformative ideas such as a long term trajectory of gently rising energy and resource prices, and new concepts of well-being in a more equitable world.Like its predecessor this book is simply the most important work on the future of innovation, business, economics and policy and is top drawer reading for leaders across all sectors including business and industry, government, engineering and design and teaching. This book is full colour throughout.Published with The Natural Edge Project"
 

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Table des matières

About the Authors
ix
Acknowledgements
xiii
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations
xvii
The Global Imperative
1
Balancing economic aspirations with ecological imperatives
4
A global green new deal
8
Kondratiev Cycles
11
The new cycle will be green
12
Best practice case study The Hypercar revolution
214
Discouraging the use of cars
218
Heavy freight trucks
226
Best practice case studies
237
Alternatives to the use of trucks for freight
240
Air travel
247
Avoiding the need to travel by air through videoconferencing
252
Fast trains
254

From labour productivity to resource productivity
15
Kick it off quickly but smoothly
17
A Whole System Approach to Factor Five The Natural Edge Project
21
Preface to the Sector Studies
23
A Framework for Factor Five
29
A whole system approach to resource productivity
34
1 Energy efficiency
37
2 Fuel switching
39
3 Heat and power recovery
40
4 Renewable energy
43
5 Feedstock change materialsenergy nexus
46
6 Product change
49
7 Improving material efficiency energywater nexus
50
8 Reducing nonCO2 greenhouse gases
53
A snapshot of the Sector Studies
54
The heavy industry sector
55
The agricultural sector
57
The food and hospitality sector Online Sector Study
58
The transportation sector
60
The Buildings Sector
67
Best Practice case study The Passivhaus
70
A whole systems approach to Factor Five in residential buildings
77
Factor Five in homes in developing countries
92
The office and commercial buildings sector
96
Best practice case studies New construction
104
Best practice case studies Building retrofit and refurbishments
112
A whole systems approach to Factor Five in commercial buildings
116
The Heavy Industry Sector Steel and Cement
143
Best practice case study Nucor Corporation
147
A whole system approach to Factor Five in the steel industry
148
The cement industry
154
Best practice case study Zeobond aluminosilicate cement
161
A whole system approach to improving cementmanufacturing resource productivity
164
The Agricultural Sector
175
The potential for Factor Five improvements in agricultural energy productivity
176
A whole system approach to Factor Five in agricultural energy productivity
177
The potential for Factor Five improvements in agricultural water productivity
184
A whole system approach to Factor Five in agricultural water productivity
186
The Transport Sector
201
Cars and light vehicles
203
Making It Happen
265
Introduction
267
Regulation The Visible Hand
269
Energy efficiency regulation
271
Banning or discouraging wasteful technologies
274
Water purification and reuse
275
The modern form of waste legislation
276
The needed paradigm shift will require more than regulation
277
Economic Instruments for the Environment for Efficiency and for Renewable Energies
279
Economic instruments for the environment
284
The EUETS
286
Global equity
289
Ecological taxes focused on energy
291
Water pricing
294
Feedin tariffs for renewable energies
296
Outlook
297
Addressing the Rebound Dilemma
301
The KhazzoomBrookes Postulate
302
The Industrial and the Neolithic Revolutions
307
Overcoming the rebound effect
309
A Longterm Ecological Tax Reform
313
Two centuries of falling resource prices
315
The concept of a longterm ecological tax reform
318
History of energy taxes
319
Overcoming the dilemma of shortterm instruments
320
The poor the bluecollar workers the investors and the fiscal conservatives
321
The paradigm of a twentyfold increase of labour productivity
324
How could it work in market economies?
327
Balancing Public with Private Goods
333
Why communism collapsed
335
Market triumphalism
339
Global rules and civil society can help defend public interest
342
Sufficiency in a Civilized World
345
Measuring happiness
348
Satisfaction in strong communities
350
Mary Clark on satisfaction
351
Time jobs and growth reconsidered
354
Reference List
357
Index
387
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Professor Ernst von Weizsacker is Co-Chair, International Panel on Sustainable Resource Management. He is also the lead author of Factor Four (Earthscan 1998). Karlson Charlie Hargroves, Michael H. Smith, Peter Stasinopoulos and Cheryl Desha are members of The Natural Edge Project, a Sustainability Think-Tank hosted by Griffith University and the Australian National University.

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