Hypospadias and Genital Development
Springer Science & Business Media, 2004 - 258 pages
This book focuses on the current basic science research of hypospadias and genital development. Congenital anomalies of the genitalia are the second most common birth abnormality besides congenital heart defects. Genital anomalies come in many varieties with the most common abnormality being hypospadias. The etiology of hypospadias remains unknown and the incidence is doubling in western countries with no definable explanation. It therefore seems especially germane to study this common congenital anomaly with a baseline incidence of 1/125-250 newborn males.
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50-reductase type abnormalities alpha-reductase analysis androgen receptor antiandrogens Baskin birth defects bladder boys with hypospadias cells chemicals clitoris cloacal membrane Cunha cytokeratin deficient mutant developmental disruptors distal ectodermal effects embryonic endocrine disruption endodermal environmental enzyme epithelium estrogen exposure expression external genitalia fetal FGF8 Figure formation function fungicide fusion gene genetic genital development genital tubercle gestation glans Gray Haraguchi hormone human hypospadias incidence of hypospadias increased isolated hypospadias Kelce Kurzrock linuron male rat malformations masculinization maternal mesenchymal mg/kg/day mice midline molecular morphogenesis mouse genital tubercle mutations newborn normal Ostby outgrowth patients Paulozzi Pediatrics penis phenotype phthalate pregnancy prepuce prochloraz procymidone prostate proximal rates of hypospadias reductase reproductive risk sexual differentiation Sonic hedgehog spotted hyena steroid syndrome testicular testosterone tissue Toxicol tract urethral development urethral epithelium urethral folds urethral groove urethral plate urethral seam urethral spongiosum urogenital sinus Urol Urology utero vagina ventral vinclozolin wild type