The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland
Harvard University Press, 1 janv. 1994 - 327 pages
World War II was over, Western Europe was rebuilding, and laborers were in short supply. The masses of foreign workers recruited to fill the gap presented, or so it seemed to their host countries, a temporary solution - but then the guests opted to stay. How have these permanent visitors fitted into Western European societies, where xenophobia and liberalism coexist in an uneasy balance? Have such marginalized groups developed any recognizable forms of political participation? This book, a rare account of political activity among these immigrants, reveals the extent of their impact on and interaction with the policies and politics of their adopted countries.
Comparing France and Switzerland, and focusing on four cities, Patrick Ireland tests various existing explanations of how and why immigrant political participation has taken certain forms: homeland-oriented, geared toward the country of origin; institutional, conducted through regularly accorded channels in the host society; or confrontational, developed outside legal and favored channels. Through extensive research and interviews, Ireland finds that national and local institutional frameworks, rather than ethnic origins or class status, determine the form of immigrants' political mobilization. He shows how indigenous trade unions, political parties, and other institutions have acted as gatekeepers, controlling access to avenues of political participation, and describes the ways in which immigrants have availed themselves of the different opportunities in each institutional context. Documenting changes from one generation to the next, his account identifies distinctive forms of political activity that have evolved in recent years.
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France before 1974
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1979 European election activists Algerian anti-immigrant Beurs canton canton of Neuchatel Catholic CFDT CFE/EKA Chaux-de-Fonds citizenship CNTSE Council Courneuve cultural demands democracy Democratic developed economic elections electoral ethnic Europe European factors FCLIS federal foreign population foreign workers forms France and Switzerland France's French Communist Party French political French society grants harkis host society immi immigrant associations immigrant communities immigrant political immigrant workers industrial initiative institutional channeling integration Islam Italian Jean-Marie Le Pen labor left-wing left-wing political March ment migrants militants mobilization Monde municipal Muslim National Front noncitizens officials organizations Paris participatory percent Personal interview political activity political participation political parties political system Portuguese protests racism refugees resident Roubaix Schlieren Schliermers second-generation immigrants Socialist Party solidarity groups SOS-Racisme Spaniards Spanish strikes Switzerland Tages-Anzeiger tion tional trade unions Travailleurs Turkish Turks Verbunt vote voters Wihtol de Wenden working-class xenophobia xenophobic Zurich