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Abbreviations (besides those on the cover of Zeitschrift für Assyriologie): DP• Documents présarqoniques (Allotte de la Fuÿje); EG - Smologie und Geographie des Ollten Orients (5.Lommel 1926); EI Encyclopaedia of Islam (X.T.-Houtsma et al., in progress); GJ - Seographical Journal (your of the Boy Geog. Seve. For); Palgrave, CEA- Contral & Eastern Arabia * (865); Philby, HAXH.J B. Philby, The Heart of Orabia; PSP- doème sumerión du Paradis...[Hippur 4561 ed. Langdon]; RTC - Fee de kablettes chaldéennes (Chureau-Dangin); Kustenfeld, BJ - Bahrein und Jemâma... in Abh. S. X. Ses S. Wiss. zu Göttingen, Hist. phil. XI. XIX (1874) 17h ff. Transcription of Sumerian as Seimel, Pantheon, App.

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(I) bilmum is the name of an island), and of a continental coast-land of the Ersian Sulf, probably on the Arabian side: Bahrain, insular and continental 4), is so for (II) There in fact the name has survived: Túlos (Bahrain -ds.); \e) < or


lek (probably Bahrain-Jr.); Thâlum (- Thâlun ?) modern name of a bay in the opposite continental Bahrain according to the Persian Gulf Pilot (OLZ 20, 1997, 201-3). (III) The inscription found in Bahrain - Js. (JRAS 1880, 193) names & In-za-ag, i.c. don-zag god of Cilnum, CT 25,35 obv. 20 and 115).



A. 6. Clay, Miscell. Inscriptions. No. 42, 9.

2. q. KB II 54, 22.


→ bilm is named with Magan and Aduhha in End. Stat. DH, 7-10; Scorain, Museum Journ. (Pennsylo.) 1923, 208, col. 6'; Del. AL 88 V 5-7; ZA 11, 409 f.; CT 13,44 obo. 166, UMBS X 2 pol. VII 1-4; 5R 27 a 25-27: with Jeuḥha in KAH 2, IL: 61, 15: with Ilagan in KAV 92, rev. 42.

use Bahrain in this inclusive sense, and call the principal island of the Bahrain group BahrainBahrain-Is. The restriction of the name to this island is quite ᏉᎳᏛ -Dern (cf. European books and maps till the middle of the 19th cent., c., 2. q. Ritter's Map 1852). $. Würstenfeld concludes from his study of the old arab authorities that Bahrain denoted continental castern Arabia from Başra to Oman (BJ 174). It may safely be assumed that the stone is from Bahrain and not from the Persian side of the Gulf. The author (whose name is Semitic, Rimu-um) is amîlu a-qa-ruum & perhaps from the palace Céthere, and Agarum corresponds exactly to ivor (cf. OLZ loc. cit.), (bl. s. v. Hadjar; EG 5522) arabic capital of Bahrain till the 10th. cent., and residence of the Persian governor before that.

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The conclusion seems to be obvious, and there is no serious objection to it. Sangson PSP p.6 shows indeed that Bilmun is sometimes noticed in connection with Ilam: α) Sarpantum of Elam named after Sarpantum of Bil. mun, CT 25, 35 obo. 19; B) presages in Virolleand, Astrol, chald., Sin XXXIII, refer a lunar eclipse in airu to Elam and then that of Sivan to Bilmun; of. also y) NITUK-KJ dates called Tilmunnu and Asm, which could be the ethnic from Ansan. But although real and literary connections between Bilmun and the opposite shore of the Gulf would be natural enough, it seems doubtful whether any of the above significant: 1) anyway they surely outweighed by the documents cited


above p. 33.

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The main problems about Bilmun which await solution concern its name or names ands its products. 1.Name. NI+TUK and NI-TUK-KI have a dem value kabtu). kabtu- Sum. dugud. NI +TUK apparently has phon. compl. - da in DP 70,1,1. Therefore there is reason to suspect that NI+TUK had sometimes, a pronunciation duqud in Sumerian. The sign would be either the corruption of a special ideogram 3 meaning, dugud; or really what it appears - a combination of NI and TUK. In the latter case the sign might have primarily the value ni-tuk (Xerrible), and thus secondarily the nearly synonymous value dugud (majestic); or old phonetic values equivalent to dugud are preserved in this combination, - in fact, NI has a value dig (3r. 5306; SG1. 136; DOG 40 [Fara I:] No: 513) and TUK perhaps had a value ... à of

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be raised

Is it certain that min in CT loc. cit. 13-18 refers to Tilmun and not merely to Sarpanitum? A similar doubt about the next paragraph: the relation of dEnzag to Tilmun is confirmed by other texts (JRAS loc. cit.; PSP rev. II 39 f.), but not so that of the titles which follow, so that min there may refer to Nabû merely, not to dNabû Tilmun. 3) In the astrological texts the lands are not arranged in geographical order: of. Weidner, RSO9 (1922) 287-295. y) On asnū v. infra p.16.

2) CT 15, 13, 1-2 with SBH 82,9 and 4R 28* 6 5-7; 3. Zimolong, assur. "Facial, 523137; d. SA1 3706.


m. avainst the

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3) Q. Langdon RA 15, 113; Zimolong loc. cit.; but gestion that the meaning kabtų comes from tion of NI+TUK to ni-tuk fared is the use of sign already in DOG 45 [Fara III] No. 75, 13 and glo. 142,2 (NI + TUK-gal | šubur | šu-i | sangu. gar) probably to denote an office (as probably in RTC 4 II 3; BEUP VI 2, 47 scal), very likely with the meaning, great one or the like, i. e. kabtu, dugud.

which there is a trace in the ideogr. PA-TUK - (DU) (cf. PA-TUK, PA-TÙK-DU, PA-TUKDU in SAK 22, 7, 6; 76 53; 12; 214 5 rev. 18; 216, 2, 13; 134, 13,17).

In almost any of its meanings dugud would be a possible mame for Bahrain - J.: venerable, with reference to "Holy Eilmun", or (better) in a •physical sense with reference to the frequently mentioned Kur-Tilmun, probably Jebel Duḥān, the central and to seafarers principal feature of the island (410 feel, Philby HA I1). The word could thus mean massive or sleep (cf. miktu, M6971): but, best of all, it has the nuance of dark ( and the ordinary sign for dugud, probably a rain-cloud), and so is actually equivalent to the modern name of J. Duḥān, Mountain of Smoke, so called because it looks to be black like a cloud of smoke".

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NI-TUK (having p.c. - na HGT glx. 1, 6, 12, glo. 157, 1, 2; UMBS X & pl. VII 4; PSP rev. III 50) was also pronounced d/tilmun in Sumerian. The name may Semitic. That it occurs in Sum. makes no difficulty: it would not be Akkað., but the native proto-Arab name, and as such quite as likely to be adopted by the Southern Sumerians as by the Semites of Babylonia (2)

It has been assumed that the sum, name or names were


names of Bahrain. Is, extended by the foreigners to castern Arabia. This is probable, for Tilmun can be traced through a long period island but not as a native name on the mainland.

as name

of the

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NI-TUK Ki was, then, ambiguous. It would seem that KUR NI-TUK and šadū Tilmun were sometimes used to distinguish the island from greater Silmun (PSP, in the earlier part about the home of the goddess (cf. infr. p.9; ASKT p. 127, 37f - the well where Ištar washed). If this was so KUR would not be available Sum. determinative for the land of Cilmum in general (nor in any case could kur be suitably applied to the cast-arabian littoral). Possibly it is for this reason that we find má - NI +TUK (-da) in DP 69,1,1; 69, 2, 6; 70, 7, 1; 72, 3, 1; 72, 5, RTC 23, rev. 1,4; Ur-Nina SAK 2 a 5(3); 4 & 4 (1); 6, 1, 16; 8 m 3 4; where má may 4ę ma(d)-land. It never occurs together with prefixed kur, and so could be on





one this explanation of Duḥan to Jr. &. Mackay, who was excava ting in Bahrain - Is. last winter.


find an



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It is unnecessary to find stymology, but I's black might be considered. Then a (cf. dalamu p.11 (?)) would have become t at some period before the appearance of Bylos and Telun, either through zing which by way of Babyloman affected the native pronunciation, (more simply) through the influence of the following liquid. ImEG 1291 sees a probable dissimilation of the mimation, comparing laḥāmun, riḥāmun... It might also be the nominal afformative (cf., as somewhat analogous to Hommel's instances, 15775, 11D7).

un Hommel

alternative 2). People who called the region dugud would be especially inclined to ade some word that would distinguish dugud from the ordinary appellative, and have been adopted at one period - with sign

ma may

má gần, name

of the adjacent district.

by analogy with 2. Products (or Exports). They are: dates, onions (?), copper, bronze, wood, spices. The references to the vegetable products generally suit Bahrain


well: questions are raised by the others.

The fertility of Bahraim is much praised by the Arab poets (Wistenfeld, BJ; El s. v. Hadjar [the old capital, known for its honey, and a pro. verb for palms ]) and by modern travellers (cf. E. Seadman 6J XLill, 1914, 520; J. B. Jackie, GJ LXIII, 1924, 205). The latter mentions onions: so also Palgrave, CEA II 156.2)



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It now appears that the much discussed dates of Cilmun ([gišimmar] Til-mu̸/mun-nu-u and as-nu-u, ZA 12, 409 - 411; as-ni-e also else where; Strass. Camb. 12, 2-4, as-sa-ni-e; 332,7, is-sa-ni[]) were the most famous of all dates: Babilu is a date of Bilmum (su-lum NI-TUK - as-sa-[? nu-u]) whose fruit is sweet", KAR8, 13 f.; Jleissner, Sab. n. Ass. II 429: cf. also Sangdon VAB ↳ 160,13; 168,24; (154, 44;) where the saluppē as/aš-ni-e are paralleled with white figs offerings for the gods. The dates of al-Aḥsa' or al-Hasa', the great oasis around the present capital of Bahrain, have the same reputation: Palgrave, CEA II 111173 Describes them as semi-transparent like amber and facile princeps: Mackie I. c. says the pride of the Hasa gardens is the Thalasi [Khalāsi ?] Sate - perhaps the most famous of all dates", prizes and esteemed in all parts of the Arab world", „one of the most important articles of export"; and EI s. v. Hoshif the balas3 dates are the best in Arabia", only grown in Hasa", a lucrative article of export." It would seem possible that the puzzling may derived from a word like ḥasa' or hisa = lands containing ground-water, probably quite an ancient name of the oasis: - anu would naturally be the souble adjectival termination, sometimes shortened to -nū (as in rimna for riminū).

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name assanu or issanū


Metals. a) Copper - 5R 27 a 25; B) copper? - RTC 26 rev. 1; Y) bronze-ware : DP 69,1,1; 69, 2, 6; 70, 1, 1; 72, 3,1; 72, 5,4; cf. Förtsch VS XIV 1, 13, 2: 8) bronze (or other?)


Probably kur was impossible in the texts cited because the merchandise in question came from continental Bahrain (vid. infra).

2) for the very frequent entry sum NI-TUK in the economic texts of DP, Jikolsky, and Förtsch, see Seimel, Orient. 17 (1925); but Does NI-TUK perhaps denote not Filmunian but a large and heavy rariety (dugud)?


» The name must mean, approximately, „perfection".

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have been smelted in Bilmun because the latter abounded

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It is possible that bilmun extended southwards or castwards into mining country, but the evidence for this appears to be slight when the Xexts are examined. Firstly, bronze does not require local ores: ores of Magan, for instance, may in wood. Secondly, the series of DP under y refer to manufactured articles. Copper or brass vessels (coffee pots) are, or were recently, manufactured in Bahrain and had a great reputation, were one of the products for which Lasa is famous", were exported from Hasa in considerable numbers" (GJ, 1924, 199; El, s. v. Hofhuf 325). Thirdly the text ẞ probably means merely that a merchant from the port of Bahrain - Is. brought copper or some alloy (urudu-a+en-da... kur NI-TUK -ta). ε also refers to a merchant, of bilmim apparently, a similar explanation would apply to the other texts. For the port of Bilmun of. PSP obr. II 5 ( with Witzel, Heil. - Stud. I 57, 77 › uruzu é-gu-kar-ra kalam-ma-ka he-a, may thy city (in Cilmun) become the port of Sumer; also KAV 84 A 7 é-kar-ra Temple of the quay (in Eilmun).


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The wood of bilmun. There is certainly, according to the author's cited above p. 6, plenty of wood in Bahrain. The only difficulty is in the expressions used by Ur-Hina (places cited p.5): má-NI+TUK kur-ta gú-giš mu-gál, arts by Endea (Sat. D. 4,7-10); má-ganki me-luh-ha' me-luh-haki gu-biki kur Ni +TUKki gu-qiš mu-na-gál·la ám. Both texts rather suggest, at first sight, a land of wooded mountains, and Poebel, UMBS IV I, p.62 arques from the second for a situation of Cilmun on the southern shores of the Eulf, in Oman or more probably in Persia. Bot on closer consideration it appears that both princes of Sagas referred to a particular mountain •generally not mountainous, distinguishing this from BahrainJs. or Jebel Duhan, which would have been called simply kur-NI-TUK. Ur-Hina probably means, from bilmun, from a mountain (there)", and Endea, from Gubi, a mountain in Eilmun". Where Eubi (or Gubin: cf. Stat. B 6, 45 f.) was one Does not know: possibly J. Sahran (about equivalent to 17 in meaning), the principal landmark on the coast as one approaches Bahrain from the north, 500 pk. (Philly HA, I1

in a land that was



The meaning of mu-gig)-gi NI-TUKki-a-ka, CT 15, 27, 7, is doubtful. The text being pure mythology, the detail need not be taken literally. The pre



" Serhaps, however, the bronge dilims in the texts cited were not vessels but a daborate hairpins used by the Sumerians: of. R.C. Thompson, Proc. of the R. Soc. of Medicine XVII (1924) 16 for the sign as denoting needle or the like in medical texts. 2) The wood obtained here was ḥa-lu-úb (Stat. B), as to which I have no suggestion. Willow (R. C. Bhompson, Assyr. Herbal 168) seems difficult here.

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