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Verùm ea eft quodammodo artis noftræ conditio, ut Medica quamvis fit eruditus, quamvis fit acer et acutus in cogitando, quamvis fit ad præcipiendum expeditus, fi fuerit idem in moribus ac voluntatibus civium fuorum hofpes, parùm ei proderit oleum operamque inter calamos et fcrinia confumpfiffe. Warrenus autèm in omni vitæ et ftudiorum decurfu, fi quis unquam alius, Pallade dextrâ ufus eft, atque omnium quibufcum rem agebat mentes fenfufque guftavit; et quid fentirent, quid vellent, quid opinarentur, quid expectarent arripuit, percepit, novit. Tantam denique morum comitatem et facilitatem habuit, ut nemo eo femèl ufus effet Medico, quin focium voluerit et amicum."


Letters of Sulpicius on the Northern Confederacy. With an Appendis, containing the Treaty of Armed Neutrality, together with other Documents relative to the Subject. 8vo. Pr. 72. Cobbett,

Pall Mall. 1801.

HESE Letters first appeared in a daily paper, THE PORCU

prietor of that paper very wifely formed the determination to reprint them in the form of a pamphlet. We are not in the leaft furprised that they should have excited fo much attention, fince they em brace a queftion of the first importance to the political and commercial fate of this country, which is difcuffed with a degree of ability, and a ftrength of argument, that carry conviction along with them. The mind, that, after the perufal of these sheets, can entertain a doubt of the existence of a right in belligerent powers to fearch the fhips of Neutral States bound to an enemy's port, under a well-founded fufpicion of their being employed for the conveyance of warlike ftores, must be perverfenels itfelf. The principle of public law, the point of juftice and equity, and the uniform practice of maritime States, are clearly and fully expounded; and the documents annexed form a valuable addition to the Letters. Our very existence, as a commercial nation, depends, as much as upon any other point whatever, on our maintenance and affertion of this clearly-cftablished right; and we had better encounter the dangers of a war with the whole world, than suffer ourselves to be intimidated into a base refignation of it.

An Eftimate of the Number of Inhabitants in Great Britain and Ire land. By Sir Frederick Morton Eden, Bart. 8vo. Pr. 94 2s. 6d. Wright. 1800.

THE perfect competency of Sir F. Eden to difcufs any subject of political economy, or political arithmetic, cannot be queftioned by any one who has the fmalleft acquaintance either with him or his works. The difference which has appeared in the accounts of dif


ferent writers on the very interesting topic of the population of the country, from Davenant to Price and from Price to Beeke, may, perhaps, be more juftly referred to the different data which have conftituted the basis of their calculations, than to any want of care or to any wish to mislead. Dr. Becke, whose able letter to a county Member was reviewed in a former Number of our work, eftimated the population of Great Britain much higher than any former writer; and Sir F. Eden, who has confulted every preceding writer, after much deep inveftigation, much attentive confideration, and much able difquifition, is of opinion that the population of the United Empire of Great Britain and Ireland amounts to no less than 16,510,600, allowing to Ireland 3,800,000; and to Scotland 1,500,000 which we incline to think is confiderably underrated. The author's calculations feem to be founded on folid data; and he makes it appear that the increase of population in the last century was progreffive and regular. This must be a fource of heart-felt fatisfaction to every y Briton who feels as a Briton ought to feel.. Our author laughs at thofe political economifts who "gravely lament that great cities are inimical to the multiplication of the fpecies and that a devouring metropolis drains the country of its inhabitants." But, notwithstanding this rebuke, we shall continue to lament the increafing extent of this overgrown capital, not as political economifts, from an opinion that it is inimical to the multiplication of the fpecies, (though it remain to be proved that it is not fo, for which purpose, we think, it will be neceffary to demonstrate the nutritious qualities of filth and Gin), but, as moralifts, from a conviction that it tends to increase profligacy and corruption of every kind, together with a total contempt of all religious and focial duties.

We fully agree with Sir F. in the fact, and a most important fact it is, that our agricultural parishes are better ftocked than they were an hundred years ago;"but when he tells us, that then "the vifonary evils. afcribed to the exiftence of commercial and agricultural capitalifts did not exist," we cannot relift the temptation of afking him, when VISIONARY evils did exift ?

All doubts refpe&ting the extent of our population will very foon be removed by the operation of the late act; though great accuracy on fuch a fubject cannot be expected. It would, we conceive, have been more effectual, and more eafily executed, if it had compelled every houfholder throughout the kingdom, under a certain penalty, to deliver, on a given day, to the Overfeer, or other Officer, of the parith, a statement of the number of perfons who flept under his roof the preceding night. This operation would have been equally fimple, intelligible, and effective, which is far from being the cafe, with the regulations which the Legiflature have thought proper to enact. But until the refult of their labours fhall have been afcertained, we fhall fatisfy ourselves, and we have no doubt that our readers will alfo be fatisfied, with the confolatory reflections with which this judicious writer concludes his interefting tract. "The population of France and her dependents, the Batavian Republic,


Republic, and Spanish Monarchy, fhould not appal us, whilft our enemies are befieged at home by our fleets, which blockade their ports from the Texel to Gibraltar, and the British Empire is protected by a military force of half a million of men. "Thefe are the fubflance, finews, arms, and ftrength" of this "Heaven-protected ifle:"-whilft fhe poffeffes fuch means of defence, her arts and in dustry, her colonies and her commerce, will continue to flourish, and her inhabitants live profperous and free.

"At the close of the laft century, Davenant made the following remark on our population; taking it at 5,500,000, according to Gregory King's eftimate, (which is confeffedly low), and eftimating the quantity of land, in England and Wales, at 39,000,000 of Acres, (which is probably near the truth), he fays,

we feem now to have about 74 acres per head; but there are many reasons to think, that England is capable of nourishing dou ble its prefent number of people, which fuppofing them now to be 5,500,000, would be 11,000,000, and even then there will be as many acres per head, as they have in Holland. And, when we have this complement of men, either in the natural courfe of time, or fooner, by the help of good conduct, we shall be in a state of power to deal with any ftrength in Europe." That we have attained "this complement of men" cannot admit of much doubt; that we are in a state of power to deal with any strength in Europe," has been proved by our exertions in the present awful conteft; and I truft we fhall long continue, what we now are,

"A land, that distant tyrants hate in vain.”

Letter to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, on the Subject of the late Common Halls, for petitioning his Majesty to affemble his Parliament for the Purpofe of confidering the High Price of Provifions. By a Liveryman. 8vo. PP. 30. Downes, 1801.

THIS Liveryman appears to be well acquainted with the nature and compofition of thofe licentious meetings ycleped Common Halls, as well as with the true character and principles of the prefent worthy Chief Magiftrate of the city of London. If his remarks be not very profound, they are very juft; and if his language be not very correct, it is very pointed. What he wants in accuracy he makes up in loyalty. He affures us that he recognized at the late Common Halls the fame faces which he had formerly teen at the meetings at Chalk Farm, Copenhagen-House, Palace-Yard, and Thelwall's lecture-rooms." To the needy patriots of this defcription he gives fome wholefome advice, to which it is heartily to be wifhed that they would attend, as their families would unque tionably experience the benefits of such attention. This pampidet is profeffedly anonymous, yet we fufpect that the author's name is vilible, even in the title-page,-to the Critic's eye.



An historical and practical Essay on the Culture and Commerce of Tobacco. By William Tatham. Vernor and Hood. London. 1800.


THETHER the advantages which have been produced by the introduction of tobacco into Europe more than counterbalance the evils which followed in its train, is a question which it would be no easy task to decide. But the great capital, and the numerous hands employed by our merchants and manufacturers in the tobacco trade, have certainly raised it to great importance in a commercial view; while the great revenue which it produces to the state give it no less importance as an article of political economy. The present publication, then, on the culture and commerce of tobacco, will, doubtless, prove interesting to those merchants and manufacturers who are engaged in the tobacco trade, and to those persons who wish to be informed about this particular branch of commerce and agriculture. The author appears to have paid great attention to the culture of tobacco, and, having resided in Virginia, where that culture is so well understood, he had the best opportunity of accurate information: his facts, therefore, may be depended on. Much of their interest will, no doubt, be lost in Britain, where no tobacco is raised; but to the Virginians, whose riches, in a great measure, depend upon that plant, they will, doubtless, prove very interesting. The book consists entirely in an account of the mode of cultivating the tobacco plant, in Virginia; of the method of packing it up, after it is ripe, in order to transport it across the Atlantic; and of the duties to which tobacco, imported into Britain, is liable. We shall present our readers with a short abridgement of it for their amusement and instruction; taking the liberty, at the same time, of altering the arrangement, and of omitting what we consider as of little importance, or not connected with the subject..

Tobacco was cultivated by the Virginian Indians long before they had any intercourse with Europeans. Our author, after considerable search, could not succeed in finding the plant growing wild in that country. Hence he conjectures, that it is not a native of Virginia, and that it was brought originally from the more southern parts of the Continent of America, probably by the Chackaw and Chickasaw nations, who seem to be descended from the Tlascalans, ☀ and to have migrated to the eastward of the Mississippi, soon after the conquest of Mexico, by the Spaniards. The first accounts of it appear to have been brought to Britain by Sir John Hawkins, in 1565. Sir Walter Raleigh introduced it into England, about the year 1585. It was first iinported into Spain from Tobaco, a province of Yucatan, whence its common name, tobacco. Repeated attempts had been made, by Sir Walter Raleigh, to form a settlement in Virginia, but none of them succeeded. Tobacco, however, had been gradually introduced into Britain as a medicine or luxury; for, in 1606, King James I. laid a duty of six shillings the pound upon in order to put a final stop to its consumption,

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In 1606 two companies of adventurers were established, under the names of the London and Plymouth companies; and they formed the first permanent settlement in Virginia. The planters applied themselves immediately to the cultivation of tobacco, which was soon raised, in considerable quantities, and imported into Britain. In consequence of the attention constantly paid to the culture of this plant, and the wise regulations formed by the Virginia planters, their tobacco soon acquired a superior reputation, which it still continues to enjoy. The botanical name of tobacco is nicotiana. It was thus named from Iean Nicot, ambassador from Francis II. to Sebastian, King of Portugal; because that gentleman first brought it to France. The species cultivated is the tabacum, an annual plant, with large lanceolate leave; there are many varieties of it, but our author, who is no botanist, does not pretend to give any description of them.

Tobacco requires a rich soil. The Virginia planter prefers land in its natural uncultivated state. He cuts down the trees with which it is covered, and rails in a sufficient quantity of it for his purpose. In March or April, beds, previously prepared, are sown with tobacco seed, usually mixed with lettuce seed, and a border of white mustard is often sown round the bed to protect the young tobacco plants from a caterpillar, which, without this precaution, would prove very destructive. The caterpillar prefers the mustard, and therefore never attacks the tobacco while any mustard remains. From these beds the plants are transplanted, on the first favourable season that occurs, between the beginning of April and June. The ground intended for their reception has been carefully dug up, with hoes, and formed into loose hillocks, each as high as a man's knee, and their centres are from three to four feet distant from each other, a tobacco plant is planted on the top of each of these hillocks. The time pitched upon for planting is always during a shower of rain, because the plants do not succeed well if the ground be dry. Dur ing the whole of the season the planters are busily employed in keeping the ground perfectly clean, and in turning it over frequently, that the earth may lie loosely around the plants. After the plants have arrived at a certain size, the planters rip off the lop of each, leaving only from five to nine leaves on every plant, according to their respective vigour. This operation is performed by the finger and thumb, and the Virginia planters allow the nail of their thumb to grow long for the purpose. The remaining leaves become stronger and require greater flavour: in like manner all the small shoots which make their appearance, at the origin of the leaves, are nipt off. When the plants are ripe, which is judged of by the, size and firmness of the leaves, and by their yellowish green colour, they are cut down, almost by the root, with a sharp knife. After remaining on the field till they become so pliable that they can be handled without danger of breaking, they are carried into a large open house, like those used in this country for drying paper, where they are hung upon poles and kept to dry slowly. If the weather be moist, small fires are kindled in different part of the floor to promote the drying. When the plants are so far dried that no moisture can be


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