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He was a Member of both the affemblies of Notables which Louis the Sixteenth convened in 1786 and 1788 ; and in the last, he declared, with energy, his inviolable attachment to the old principles of the Monarchy which the Court itself betrayed a difpofition to abandon. In 1787 he was appointed Commandant en Second of the Province of the Three Bishopricks, and when the Revolution began, in 1789, he retained his command, contrary to the general example of the times, In 1790 he was entrusted with the command, no: only of that province, but of Alface, Lorraine; and Franche-Comté; and he was afterwards appointed to the command of one of the four divisions of the newlyconitituted French army. The Memoirs which he published in Lon. don, in 1797, and which, as Mr. Mallet DU PAN so justly ob. served, are written with the veracity of a man of honorr, and the frankness of a soldier,” give a faithfui account of his conduct and his efforts in circumstances of extreme difficulty. It will be sufficient to remark, thai; in the midst of general disorder and confusion, he maintained order and discipline around him, and always extorted respect from the troops under his command. He ftifed in its birth, by the adoption of decisive measures, the insurrection of the garrison and in. habitants of Nancy, on the 31st of August, 1790, and, by the vigour which he displayed on the occasion, he disconcerted, or, at leaft, retarded, the plans of the Jacobins. In short, calm and moderate amid/ the violence of contending parties, by all of whom he was equally courted, and only listening to the voice, and only attending to the sera vice of bis unfortunate Sovereign, he maintained himself, by his own personal exertions, in a difficult and dangerous poft, in order to wait for the moment when he might be of ule to his master. He adopted the means proposed by the King for bis efcape in 1790; and, in 1791, he had prepared a retreat for him in the district which he commanded. But here fortune forfook him, and made himn for ever regret that she had not reserved for this event all the favour which she had lavished on him before. From that time M. de Bouille partook of the exile and misfortunes of the other Royalists ; and, without making any provision for the future, faithful to those disinterested and honourable principles which had ever actuated his conduct through life, he paid to the brothers of the King the money which he had received from his Majesty, to make the neceflary preparations for his escape, to the amount of 32,000l. fterling.
The consideration in which his services and his attachment to his Sovereign were hollen was not confined to his native country. IC procured him fore brilliant offers both from the Empress of Rullia and the King of Pruffia; but being, at the same time, solicited by Goftavus the Third, King of Sweden, the antient ally of France, who projected a descent in Normandy of which M. de Bouillé was promised the command, the delire of ftill serving, and, if poflible, of saving Louis the Sixteenth, made him reject every other proposition in order to attach himself to that unfortunate Prince.
In 1791 he attended the conferences at Pilnitz and followed the Enperor Leopold, at his own desire, to Prague, to concert with the Austrian and Pruffian Generals, the measures to be taken relative to
the state of France. In 1792 the King of Prussia, being on the eve of declaring war against France, sent for him to Magdebourg to consult with him on the operations of the campaign.
He accompanied the Duke of York, in the campaign of 1793, during which he was solicited by the Vendeans, and urged by the French Princes, to place himself at their head; but conceiving that the allied powers had no intention of affording effectual assistance to his loyal countrymen, and despairing of succels, without such asliftance, he declined the invitation. He came over to England soon after, when he was consulted by government, on the redu tion of the French islands, and being employed by them, on different occasions, he recived marks of their confidence, liberality, and esteem.
The last years of his life were past in sufferings, in which he difplayed as much courage as he had formerly manifeited amidit the dangers
of war, which he had so often braved. He died, on the 14th of Novembir, 1800; with a firmness conformable to his actions, and with that tranquillity which results from the consciousness of a well1 pent
life. The modesty which marked his chara&ter was evident in his regulations respecting his funeral; and in his last exhortations to his children to practice virtue more than he had practiced it himself.
JUNIUS AND BURKE.
Jan. 1801. OUR having, some time ago, entered into an inquiry con
cerning the author of the Letters of Junius, I thought the following account might not be unacceptable to you. I, therefore, take the liberty to send it you, for your private satisfaction. You nay, however, make what uté of it
A. B. THE more attentively I consider the remarkable phraseology of the three following extracts (so remarkable, in my opinion, that I much question, whether any thing similar to it is to be found in any other publication *), and the resemblance in the general air and manner of style between the whole of the three paragraphs, the more I seem to be convinced they proceed from the same pen. I have, however, no doubt, but this piece of criticism
be thought by some to be vague and futile ; and enough may be said against ihe poor critic, who could be vain enough to flatter himself with having
discovered a secret of such magnitude, after so many years concealment and fo much inquiry, by means seemingly lo trivialmon folitary internal proof. But before the laugh is carried too far against him, he hopes the laugher will call to mind the old Latin proverb--Ex pede Herculem.
“ From whatever origin your influence in this country arises, it
* I confess, that it is on this circumstance the strength of my asgument chie!ly relts,
is a phenomenon inthe history of human virtue and understanding Goo men can hardly believe i he fact: wise men are unable to account for it: religious men find exercise for their faith ; and make it the last effort of their piety not to repine against Providence."
Junius's Letter to the D. of Grafton, Vol. ii. I. 51. “ Every project of a material change in a government so complicated as our's ; combined at the same time with external circumstances still more complicated, is a matter full of difficulty ; in which a considerate man will not be too ready to decide: a prudent man too ready to undertake : or an honest man too ready to promise.”
Thoughts on the Cause of our present Discontents, p.99, 3d edit.
" I really think for wise men this is not judicious: for fober men not decenti for minds tin&tured with humanity, not mild and merci. ful." Mr. Burke's Speech, March 22, 1777, P. 49. 3d edit.
N. B. The punctuation is exactly conformable to the originals. I mention this circumstance with a particular view to the colons in each of the three extracts. This remark will, probably, appear to you, Mr. Editor, very irifling, and of no weight in confirmation of what I had laid before. Indeed, I lay very little stress upon it myself. But I thought there would be no harm just to mention it.
P.S. A Mr. Dyer, bofom friend of the orator in question, dies, Junius dies with him. Mr. Dyer was, therefore, the author of the Letters of Junius. Not quite that. He was not the author; but there are strong reasons for believing he was a great help-mate to the author, and the manager for him, respecting the printing these letters, &c.
The writer of the above was, with five or fix more, at supper in a house in Leicester-fields, when Mr. B. came into the parlour. He told us, with great einotion and concern (his eyes full of tears), that Dyer wa:, dead. He then took a paper out of his pocket (which was handed round the table *), containing a character of his de: cealed friend, which he laid he intended to get inserted in the public prints.
VERAX. * This was occasioned by Mr. Burke's wanting a word in ex• change for one he had wrote, which he disliked. One of our com
pon one, which Mr. B. adopted.
THE NEI CENTURY.
sensible, that what I am now going to offer is contrary to the general opinion, particularly to that of the celebrated astronomer, La Lande. This makes me strongly suspect, that I am mistaken ; although I cannot discover where the mistake lies. And this, on the other hand, tempts me to venture my troubling you with it, trusting to your candour, in case my Sulpicion should be jult. Yours, &c.
A. B AN argument tending to prove, that the year when first dated R 3
on the ift of January is then complete ; that it is a cardinal, not an ordinal, number. To prove this, I observe, that the Golden Num. ber is a Cycle of 19 years complete. Now in order to find the Golden Nuanber for any year, the rule is, to divide that year by 19-the remainder is the Golden number, which is the number of years come plete since the beginning of the then current Cycle. For example To find Golden Number for the present dated year 1801, . is first to be added to it,* which makes 1802; which divided by
19 | 1802 / 94 Cycles since the beginning of 171
the year preceding the birth
of our Saviour,
16 years complete fince the beginning
of the present current Cycle. Now, I say that the above dividend is 1 802 years complete fince the beginning of the Cycle current at the time of the birth of our Saviour; and 1801 years complete since that event, and surely, to suppose the dividend an ordinal, when it cannot be denied, that the divisor is a cardinal nu.nber, appears to me, I confess, very much like an absurdity:
P.S. Three years complete from the ist of this month January (1801) will be January the ift, 1804; at which period the present current Cycle of 19 years will terminite. This will make 95 Cycles, or 1805 ears complete fince the beginning of that Cycle, which was current at the time of the Nativiry, and, consequently, 1804 years complete fince the beginning of the Christian æra. This appears to me a Venoritration, that the year, when first dated on the ift of Janua!y, is chen conplete. Ii i3, indeed, the dated but not the cur
* This is done on account of the Cycle, current at the time of the Nativity, beginning tirit one year before that event,
TO THE EDITOR.
nay, perhaps, be allo'ved to claim the privilege which I every month see exercised by others, (who do not think with us on the great points of religion and politics,) of foliciting information from yourself, Sir, or foire of your correspondents. The subject of my enquiry is of importance ; it is one, which at this moment, is the cause of much feverith irritation in the country, and to which if any regard be paivi io che feelings of the inhabitants of the distant counties, attention mult, and ought to be given by high authority:
I am, Sir, a plain unletrered country gentkeman, of small fortune, and, conftantly resident in a retired village of one of the midland counties; and, from being the only inhabitant of the parish above the Tank of a small farmer, small I mean compared to the great ones with which this country is now infested, an frequently referred to for inforınarion by my neighbours en matters which fall not immediately within their means of accurate knowledge ; and, perhaps, you will give me credit when I affert it, that I am highly delighted when I am able to satisfy them, and to satisfy myself, in the explanation I may have it in my power to give them.
I would not have said thus much of myself, had it not been neces. fary that you fhould keep constantly in mind, chat, from a man so cir. cumstanced, and fo fituated, you are not to expect great vigour of conception, or, what is now more generally acceptable, great elem gance of expression; but, that if you honour me with a page in your work, you must reit satisfied with the plain thoughts of a plain mang endeavoured to be given in a plain manner. Thas much by way of preface ; now to my point,
We are weekly, nay daily, informed of the immense importation of all sorts of grain in " the river." i fuppose the Thames is meant by this expresion ; all this is well; but we are also informed that this grain is permitted to remain, (nay worse than permitted, absolitely dtained) theri, until it becomes unfit for food, and that it is, in an actual state of putrefaction; thrown into “ the river,” and not brought to market for fear of a too rapid diminution of the prices. It is also afierted, that before this nefarious operation of in jection takes place, this grain has been regularly entered at the custom-house, and has actually received the bounty for iinportation ; and thus is the country plundered of its money, and what is an ad. ditional grievance defrauded of that bread, for the arrival of which it has been, or is to be, extraordinarily taxed, and is still left to the mercy and conscience of commercial speculators!! On this subject cf the arrival, and destruction of grain, I have been more than once almost 66
put to the question," and really have not been able to give any fatisfactory answer. My enquiries hitherto have only produced accounts various and contradictory ; some times, and with the ap. pearance of authority, the fact has been absolutely denied, and as often times as itrenuously supported. In this “ conflict of opinions," as Johnson called it, “ I do (not) delight," I wish the truths to be ascertained, and made public. The feelings of the country should not be outraged. You muit be sensible, Sir, that the prevalence of such an opinion may be productive of the moft calamitous consequen. ces; and if you or any of your correspondents are enabled to contradiet it, for the sake of the community, I entreat you, or them to do it; I will not say that Jacobins only affert the fact, but I will say that it is the part of Anti-Jacobins to disprove it.
I have not at this moment leisure to say more on the subject; but in a future Number if you think me worth your attention, I mean 10 intrude upon you my thoughts on some other subjects, not altogether inconsistent with the desiga of your work, particularly the caules, and probable effects of the present scarcity ; and among the latter, to consider the extravagant and ill-judged relief in money, which almost every complainant at this time obtains from the provincial magistracy, Jan, 18, 1801,