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· But this is not all the evil which the Doctor perceives in this substitution.

" The predecessors," says he, “ of the good men (who composed the committee which proposed thus to alter the formula, entertained opinions and withes very differenc from theirs ; they gloried in being the descendants, and the only true representatives of a national church; and, having laid their foundation on the Scriptures, they made the standards, adopted by the established Church of Scotland, in her purest times, in the years 1647 and 1648, the corner-store of their new church. Ever since their secession, they liave carefully preserved the memory of their descent, and held up the national church as the point to which they wished to return, whenever certain obstacles should be removed :-hut now, they will have nothing in common with the Church of Scotland, not even her Standards, which they themselves had Jubscribed, as the confession of their faith, which they were folemnly engaged to adhere to, and according to which, they had bound all parents of their per. Juafion to educate their children :- now every fence is to be pulled down by the daring hand of innovation and every thing which promised stability to the cause of Protestantism is to be reinoved. We behold the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government of the famous Church of Scotland, set afloat on the stormy sea of the present times, and the Seceders----the Burghers Seceders !--committing this small bark to the variable winds of innovation, or the fierce tempest of infidelity.”

This is, indeed, a dismal prospect; but it is a prospect, whichi the good Doctor must have viewed through a false medium ; for the cause of Protestanti'in might certainly continue stable, though every copy of the Scotch Confeffion of faith; of the acts of 1647 and 1648; and of the Associate Synod's formula were annihilated. For the Church of Scotland we have a very fincere respect. Her clergy are men of liberal and enlightened minds, the friends of civil order and of true religion ; and as such they shall have our cordial support against every Jacobinical fect which may labour to leffen their influence among their people : but God forbid that we should think more highly of their famous church than of our own, or approve of the conduct of that man, who, in times like the present, thall by such unguarded expressions as those of Dr. Porteous labour to set the two churches at variance. If, by the cause of Protestantism be meant the cause of Christianity purged from the errors of the church of Rome, we must have leave to think that it has been, at least, as ably supported at home by the Clergy of the Church of England as by those of the Church of Scotland; and which of the two churches has been looked up to by the Protestants abroad as the bulwark of the Reformation, Dr. Porteous needs not be told, unless he be a greater stranger than he ought to be to the history of the reformed churches.

Hitherto we think the Doctor's attack upon the feceders neither judiciously planned nor ably conducted; but after his useless skirmithing with their proposed Formula, we find him occupying ground whence he annoys them with force irresistible. “ The Rev. Mr. Frazer (lays he has explained to us the miner in which

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this measure was suggested, or recommended to them.-Many years ago, a pamphlet was published, which has gone about whispering in the ears of young Burgher ministers, that all legal establishments of religion are improper and unwarrantable.'~This opinion has been adopted by some members of the Burgher or Associate Synod. - This Synod, with all the presbyteries of which it is composed, have." borne" with those who avow this opinion; they have made no distinction between them and other brethren ; and now, that their profession may harmonize with their real principles, they renounce all present or future connection with the established Church of Scotland, even in the purest times of presbytery *"-In this manner they have been led, not only to bend, but to break those standards they had engaged to maintain, and one considerable part they have thrown away with disgrace : henceforward, instead of building on the authority of the Assemblies 1647 and 1648, their new church is to be built on the authority of some future act of some future Synod, who may reject or introduce whatever they please. Their plan, at present, is to pull down, not only established churches, but their own; and when the work of destruction is fully accomplished, we are to wait for the new church, and to expect the model of it in an embryo act of the Associate Synod in the year 17–. 'They, too, must have a revolution ; conftituled authorities must be pulled down.—They will leave it to others to build a new confession and catechism, in the year 17"

This is a heavy accusation, and we are afraid it is too well grounded; for Mr. Peddie, who, in his fcurrilous defence of the Associate Synod, repels, with success, the Doctor's former attacks, makes no other reply to this, but that he “knows of none of the Burgher feceders, who have written against establishments; and that he knows of some who have written in their defence.” He does not deny that some members of the Affociate Synod have adopted the opinion that all legal establishments of religion are improper and unwarrantable, or that the Synod, with all the Presbyteries of which it is composed, have borne with those who avow this opinion. He says, indeed, that they rejected Mr. Frazer's petition, and that they did not inquire into the accuracy of the petitioner's statement! If they be, indeed, friendl; to establishments of religion, the omiffion of this inquiry was very strange and very culpable; for if Mr. Frazer's statement was false, they ought to have reprimanded him for writing a libel against his brethren; and if it was true, they ought to have censured such brethren as maintain the dangerous opinion that all religious establiments are unwarrantable. As they did neither, we must believe that this charge, brought against them by Dr. Porteous, is founded in truth; but if it be, his reasonings from their proposed alterations of the Formula, which, considered by themselves, are extremely childish, have in conjunction with this circumstance considerable weight. No man, who is an enemy to all establishments of religion, is entitled to much credit, when he professes his attachment to the constitution of the State ; for unsupported by the fanctions of a national religion, the best poisible civil conftitution cannot be perinanent.

Dr. *“Does the Doctor indced think, 1647 and 1648, the purest times of presby. tery? We trust, and are perfunded, that few of his brethren think so.".

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Dr. Porteous requests the Associate Synod, and we beg leave to requeft our readers of every denomination, to reflect

“ That, till within the last fixteen years, all lawgivers have thought it necessary to the well-being of the state, to have an established religion.

“That God himself was pleased to give an established religion, which has led many plain men to believe, that there is no moral evil in legal establishments of religion ; and that they have not all been improper and unwar. rantable,

“ That in the history of Providence, as soon as miracles were entirely withdrawn from the church, ettablishments were introduced, and have been hitherto blessed, as the great means of preserving and diffusing the knowledge of religion.

“ That the recent instances of subverting the legal establishments of religion, as they have not improved the people, so they cannot yet command our approbation. In America a very large proportion of the people are deftitute of public inftruction in religion, and of opportunities of public worship. The number of apostate parishes is every year increasing considerably; and when the worship of God is once abandoned by a people, how can we hope that a succeeding generation, trained up in ignorance and ungudliness, will be at the expence of restoring and supporting the worship of God—a religion which they neither know, nor believe, nor desire.—A voluntary church will no doubt be supported, wherever religion is believed and loved; but where it is not even known, humanly speaking, it can never be restored, or maintained, without a legal eftablishment.--a voluntary affociation for worship presupposes a pro. feffion of religion ; but it can be of little use to those who are hostile to it, and do not consider themselves as being under any obligation, or as having any right, to enter within the walls of their temples.

“The instruction of an ignorant people must be accomplished, either by misfionaries, or by miracles; and one cannot easily perceive how it should be thought improper or unwarrantable for a Christian legislature, or any other set of men, to send missionaries in a regular manner to minister among

those who could not otherwise be instructed : yet such an institution, if made by the Legislature, would be, in so far, a legal establishment.

“ Beside the above considerations, there are some propositions relating to this subject, which are not matters of doubtful disputation.' “ That the civil magistrate is ordained of God for the good of the people.

hat the good of the people consists in their security and prosperity. “ That the Christian religion is much better calculated than any other in. Aitution, to promote the peace and happiness of the people; or, in other words, the security and prosperity of states.

“ That if the civil magistrate study the good of his people, he will recommend the Christian religion to them, he will provide for their instruction in it, and by fo doing, he will, in the most effectual manner, fulfil the pur. poses of his ordination and office: nor is it easy to suppose, on what grounds the civil magistrate can be precluded from the application of religion for the good of his people,

" That if any man, under pretence of religion, teach doctrines inconsistent with the peace, security, and prosperity of the people, it is surely incumbent on the civil magistrate to be a terror to eyil doers, and he must not bear the {word in vain :-On the other hand, if any man, or set of men, teach the pure, peaceable, and blissful doctrines of the Prince of Peace, it is surely

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incumbent on the civil magistrate to be a praise to them that do well ; and he, as well as every other Christian, is bound to obey the law concerning those who serve at the altar, that they shall live by the altar; and, as a Christian | magiftrate, it is incumbent on him to enforce that law.

« That lawful authority has a great deal to fear from impiety and irreligion, appears from the recent history and present condition of France :—That it has likewise much to fear from misguided zeal, appears from the history of the Anabaptists in Germ-ny-of Clement and Ravaillac.-—(He might have added from the Allenblies or 1647 and 1648.) On the other hand, lawful authority has much to hope from true religicn. Some duties must surely be connected with these hopes and fears. By the latter, the inagiit rate will be im. pelled to discountenance all impiety, and all false religion ; by the former, to encourage and fupport true religion.”

As we do not mean to stain our pages with the abusive language of Mr. Peddie, of his pampniet we shal say, that it contains many pallages which display both ingenuity anacuteness; that he has laid hold of the weak parts of his antagonist's work, and exposed their weakneis sometimes with argument, fonetimes with coarle ridicule, and often with insolent inveciive; and that he has with confiderable addiefs exhibited as harmless the act of forbearance, the propoled alterations of the formula, and the preamble which the Synod has adopted. He has not, however, evinced the necessity of making these innovations, unless he confiders the covenants as bringing him

C and his brethren under the same obligation with those who swore them ; and in that case, he must be sensible that it is not in the power of the Affociate Synod to make any alterations whatever without incurring the guilt of perjury. The clauses in the confefhon of faith, which seem to give to the civil magistrate a compulsory power in matters of religion, have been authoritatively explained by that act of the legislature which repealed the fanguinary laws against herely; after which there was surely no necessity for a second explanation by so obscure a body of men as the Associate Synod of the Burgher Seceders. But if such an explanation, by such a Synod, would have been uv seasonable at any time, it was more than unfeasonable in the year 1795: it was factious.

" At that time," as Dr. Porteous observes, “ the minds of the people were greatly agitated, the enemies of our peace and liberty were employing every engine to drive them to distraction, and to disseminate revolutionary principles. Watt and Downie had been recently tried in this country, and convicted of High-Treason. Hoine Tooke and Thelwall had been tried in England-Ireland was preparing the weapons of rebellion, which were to be sharpened by theological contention in a word, Sedition and Treason were walking about at noon day. When our country was in these circumftances, and when our army had been obliged to evacuare Holland, leaving it in poleifion of the French--then, the Arociate Syned grasped at the first opportunity of questioning, and discuiting the extent of the Magistrate's power, and of inviting the public attention to such topics. Was this one of ihde public deeds' of loyalty of which the Synod to idly boast ? Was not this a controversy that tended to strife, and which ought to have been fupi



of the peo

pressed by the hand of power, as well as by the spirit of the gospel ? And, Now, when by the mercy of God, and his blessing on the energy ple, feceders as well as others-now, when the nation is emerging from its dangers, and raising its head on high, this Synod will whine the song of loyalty, and yet retain a preamble, which, like a postern gate, will give them admission to the fortress of our conititution as joon as the day of danger returns,"

The only method, that we can think of, by which the Synod may remove these suspicions arising naturally from their unfeasonable innovations, and yet avow their abhorrence of religious persecution, is to come forward in a body, and openly abjure the Scotch national covenant, and the solemn league and covenant, two engagements which they must know to have been repeatedly declared illegal by the Legif{ature. They will then have no occasion for oils of forbearance, or preambles to the formula, to convince the public that they are men of as liberal minds, and of as undoubted loyalty as the members of the established church; but while they continue to quibble as they do in this address upon the obligation they are laid under by the paths of their ancestors, especially such rebellious oaths, it will be impossible for them to make any innovation in their church without exciting well grounded fufpicions of their own loyalty.

Literary Antiquities of Greece, as developed in an Attempt to ascertain

Principles for a new Analysis of the Greek Tongue; and to exhibit those Principles as applied to the Elucidation of many Passages in the ancient History of that Country. To which are added Observations concerning the Origin of several of the literal Characters in the Uje among the Greeks. By the Rev. Philip Allwood, A. M. Fellow of Magdalen College, Cambridge.

4to. Pp. 621.


London. 1799.

"HERE are, certainly, many passages in the ancient history of

the Greeks, which have never undergone a particular investigation; or have been considered only in a partial view. The affairs of Greece, prior to the era of the Olympiads, are involved in great obscurity. The time, even of the Argonautic expedition, of the introduction of letters into Greece, of the war of Troy, of the takinig possession of Peloponnesus by the Pelopians, and of the first fettle: ents of the Cecropians and Cadmians in Atrica and Bæotia, are dates, which, with many others, have never yet been fatisfactorily ascertained.

In treating these subje&is, ancient writers have run into varinus errors and abfurdities; and they have indulged much in allegorical description. The Titans derived their naine (Tit-ain-es) from their templės or high altars to the fun. Hence thote temples were thenselves personified, and changed into giants of an earth-born race. Tie epitheis 74.Yevels and 7:7/(UITES weil exprefled both their origin and dimensions. Demeter was confidered by the Greeks the faa.e Tu Mun; and Typhon was turpote to derive his name from Tuqu.


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