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and as a proof, that the Jacobins of France were no more than imitators. of the American Whigs.
"The quantity of our paper money is too great, and the price of goods can be only effectually reduced by reducing the quantity of this money. The next point, then, to be confidered is, the method to reduce it. [Mark well this method.] The circumftances of the times require, that the public characters of all men fhould now be fully understood, and the only general method of ascertaining it is by an oath or affirmation, renouncing all allegiance to the King of Great Britain, and to fupport the independency of the United States, as declared by Congress. Let, at the fame time, a tax of ten, fifteen, or twenty per cent. per annum, to be collected quarterly, be levied on the property of all those who refuse to take the oath. Thefe alternatives, being perfectly voluntary, will take in all forts of people. HERE IS THE TEST; OR HERE IS THE TAX. Further, it would not only be good policy, but frict juftice, to raise fifty or an hundred thousand pounds, or more, if neceifary, out of the estates and property of the Quakers in Philadelphia, to be distributed as a reward to those inhabitants of the City and State who fhall turn out against the enemy; and likewife to bind the property of the Tories, to make good the damages which that of the Whigs may fuftain."
These were the means recommended for giving freedom to America! The advice was not thrown away. The intrigues of the leading Whigs, that is to say, rebels (the terms were, and are, fynonymous) had so far fucceeded, as to gain over a great number of the sturdy rabble to their fide, while the violence, with which they exercised the power they had ufurped, ftruck terror into the hearts of the peaceable and the rich.
Now began a fcene of pillage, of confifcation, of infult, of cruelty, of perfecution of every species, in which the loyal and unfortunate Quakers were the principal fuffers. They were robbed of their corn, their flour, their cattle, their fhop goods, and fometimes of their household furniture, and the very beds from under them, by virtue of those requifitions, on which the French have fo greatly improved. This moveable property was generally feized by armed ruffians, fent by the Committees of Safety, (another inftitution which the French have borrowed from the Americans,) who generally accompanied the execution of their orders with the groffeft indecencies towards the females of the families they plundered. The men they frequently beat and lacerated in the moft unmerciful manner. Some they ducked and pumped others they carried aftride upon a fharp rail, till they dropped off in a ftate of infenfibility; others they dragged to prifon, fhut them up with deferters or common thieves, giving them the cold earth to lie on, and bread and water for their only fuftenance. Barely to enumerate the various modes which the ingenious cruelty of the Whigs difcovered, for the tormenting of these inoffenfive people, for their fidelity to their King, would occupy one half of the pages of your Review.
One regulation, which thefe inexorable rebels adopted, has not, as far as I have heard, been imitated by the regicides of France. It was this: They iffued a decree, forbidding any perfon, who refuted to take the tift, thất is, who refufed to abjure his King, and become a rebel, to go out of his township, or parish; and, as the houses and inhabitants are fo widely fcattered, this prohibition operated as a most unbearable cruelty. A great portion of the loyalifts, the Quakers in particular, were at once totally cut off from their places of worfhip, from their markets, their neighbours, their acquaintances, their friends, relations, parents, and children. If a man were at the point of death, his child, if a loyalift, dared not crofs the township boundary to fee him. An old Quaker doctor, in Chefter County, was
called up in the night to come to the affiftance of his daughter, who was fuddenly taken in child-birth, in a township where no midwife refided. It was thought that the father, who alfo lived out of the township, might efcape, if detected in paffing the boundary but those who thought so were not yet fully acquainted with the barbarity of Whiggifm. The old man was feized juft before he reached the houfe of his daughter, who actually expired for want of help, while the father was dragged to Chefter, and lodged in the common prifon, from the grates of which he afterwards faw his daughter's corpfe carried to the burying-ground. In fact, this cold-blooded, this favage, this moft hellish decree, fevered the Quakers from all the felicities, all the comforts, all the charities of life. I myfelf knew a man in Bucks County, who, during a part of the continuance of this decree, was, by its operation, e arated from all medical aid, at a time when a dyfentery raged in the neighbourhood, and when he had ten children, together with his wife and himself, ftretched on their beds by that moft dreadful difcafe. A phyfician was at last found bold enough to crofs the townfhip line, and to come to this fcene of human woe; but for want of timely aid, four of the children died in one and the fame day. One would think, that distress like this would have foftened the hearts of tygers: it might, perhaps, but it produced no fuch effect on the Whigs, who, having heard that this Quaker had a Tory doctor of another township fecreted in his houfe, fent a detachment of ruffians to fearch for him, and to carry him to prifon! I do not believe it poffible for the Jaco' ins of France to furpafs in cruelty the Whigs of America. The former have been more violent, more fierce, they have difcovered more of what may be called ferociousness; but, that they have been more crue', that they have difcovered greater del ght in tormenting the mind or the body of the objects of their perfecution, I utterly deny.
Thefe things ought not to be buried in oblivion. The fuccess of the American Whigs has ftifled the voice of truth in that country, and the fingular fituation of parties here, at and fince the end of the war, has hitherto ftifled it in this country alfo; but, Sir, I hope, we fhall yet fee the day, when all the crimes of this moft foul, unprovoked, and unnatural rebellion, and when all the criminals (whether British or American) therein con erned, fhall be expofed to the abhorr nce of the prefent generation, and be fo collected and recorded as to infure the abhorrence of pofterity. As an humble effort of my own towards the effecting of this good work, I fhall now proceed to relat two or three remarkable inftances of the cruelty of the Whigs, and of the fidelity and fortitude of the Quakers. All the oppreffive meatures which I have mentioned above, did not induce one fingle Qua er to take the hateful test. The members of the Congrefs, irritated at this obftinate loyalty, which, while it was very convenient in itself, was a living fatire on their own conduct, fell upon a new mode of perfecution, which, as well as moft of their other tyrannical inven tions, as been improved upon by the republicans of France. On the 28th of Auguft, 1777, they paffed a refolve, in compliance with which the EXECU TIVE COUNCIL (another inftrument of oppreflion that the French have borrowed from them) of Pennfylvania, of which Thomas Wharton, jun. was prefident, George Bryan, vice-prefident, and Timothy Matlack, fecretary, iffued an order to arreft all perfons who had, in their general conduct and converfation, evinced a ifpofition inimical to the caufe," and particularly feveral perfons who were named in the same warrant. The execution of. this order was committed to twenty-four Whigs, (compofed chiefly o. Prefbyterians
byterians) remarkable for their violence and cruelty*.
Thefe men were
empowered to feize perfons and papers, "particularly the records and pȧpers of the Meeting of Sufferings of the fociety of the people called Quakers." A fimilar order refpecting the Quakers was extended to all the Colonies, the leading rebels in each being requested to transmit all the papers of the Quakers for the infpection of the Congress.
In Philadelphia and its vicinity the order was executed with great rigour. Houfes and chambers were broken open, defks and fcrutoires were rifled; the most atrocious acts of violence and fraud were perpetrated under the pretence of preferving the liberty of the people. Finally, after loading themfelves with the papers and ipoils of hundreds of families, after driving great numbers of men from their homes, after extorting forbearance-money from some and reluctant promiles from others, the Committee of Philadelphia, whofe names. I have above recorded, feized on between forty and fifty of the richest and most reputable men in that city and its neighbourhood, whom they placed under a military guard.
To these men, thus feized and imprifoned, the Whigs offered their freedom upon certain conditions, one of which was, that they fhould take a teft, renouncing all allegiance to their king. Some of the prifoners had been releafed upon various grounds, foon after their confinement, and of those who remained, fome took the test; but amongst these there was not one Quaker.
The number was now reduced to twenty-two, to whom was reserved the honour of giving a moft memorable proof of their loyalty and resolution. They were informed, that, unless they took the teft before a certain day, they would be banished to a diftant part of the Continent. They remonstrated ftrongly against a proceeding which dragged them from their homes and fent them into banishment, without confronting them with their accusers, and even without fpecifying their crime; but they continued fteady in their refufal to take any teft, whereby they fhould abjure their Sovereign, or acknowledge allegiance to thole who had ufurped their rights and his authority.
On the 9th of September the tyrannical Executive Council iflued an order for their banishment, which order was, without delay, carried into execu tion. The prisoners were placed in a barricadoed waggon, and were thus conveyed under a military escort [forming altogether a perfect prototype of the Cayenne Diligence], from the city of Philadelphia to Stanton in Virginia. Their route was rendered as long and as painful as poffible. They were taken through the back parts of Pennsylvania and Maryland, and did not perform a journey of less than five hundred miles, before they reached their new place of imprisonment, where, when the difpofition of the people was confidered, the Whigs of Philadelphia must have expected, that the exiles would not long efcape death. Those who have travelled on the roads in the back parts of the American States, and who confider the cooped up fituation of thefe loyal prifoners, together with the almoft unbearable heat of the season in which they were compelled to travel, will be aftonifhed that one half of
* William Bradford, Sharpe Delany, James Claypole, William Heysham, John Purviance, Jofeph Blever, Paul Cox, Adam Kemmel, William Graham, William Hardy, Charles Wilfon Pea.e, Captain M'Cullo k, Nathaniel Donnell, Robert Smith, William Carfon, Lazarus Pine, Birney Captain, John Gallaway, John Lile, James Longhead, James Cannon, James Kerr, William Tharpe, Thomas Bradford.
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them did not perish on the way. The danger, to which they were neceffarily expofed, was encreased by the cruelty of their guards, who, when they stopped to regale themselves, in the towns and villages, through which they paffed, fpared nothing to inflame the populace against them.
Arrived in Virginia, they were confined to certain limits, and were prohibited from all manner of correspondence, even with their friends and relations. In this most cruel fituation they remained 'till near the close of the war, conftantly refusing to forfwear their king, a refusal which they re peated as often as the oath or affirmation was tendered to them.
The names of these men should be recorded in your loyal publication; Į therefore infert them here; and it will, I am perfuaded, give you no fmall fatisfaction to perceive, that thofe of them who were not Quakers, were of the Church of England.
Q. Ifrael Pemberton,
Q. Samuel R. Fisher,
Q. Owen James, jun.
C. Charles Eddy,
The fate of Mofeley must not be forgotten. This young man, who was a Quaker, had been abfent from the city of Philadelphia for fome weeks. Upon his return he was falfely charged, by the Whigs, with having conveyed intelligence to the British army; for which offence, though no proof appeared against him, they hanged him, and buried him under the gallows. Soon after they committed this murder, the near approach of General Howe's army compelled them to feek for their own fafety in flight. The reign of juftice and of real liberty having been once more restored by the actual arrival of the army, two of poor Mofeley's friends took up his body, and interred it in the burying ground of the feet, of which he had been a member. But, after the subsequent evacuation of the city, the Whigs refumed their former fway, and, ever as cruel as they are cowardly, they ordered the two friends of Mofeley, on pain of inftant death, to dig up his body a fecond time, to replace it at the foot of the ignominious tree, and to give notice, in the public papers, that they had fo done, and that the body and the empty grave were ready for "the infpection of the friends of liberty:" nor could the tears and intreaties of the friends and relations of their innocent townfman, whom they had murdered, prevail on them to defift from their purpose, or to abate one jot of the gratification of their bafe and black hearted revenge. This abominable act has been imitated by no republican Frenchman, except the ferocious Victor Hugues, who, after he had recaptured Guidaloupe, ordered the body of General Dundas to be dug up, and to be fufpended on a gibbet. How little difference is there between the heart of a Whig and that of a Jacobin!
Suffer me, Sir, to give you one inftance more of the cruelty of the Whigs, and of the lufferings of the people, whofe conduct I have taken upon me to defend.
Wherever the melancholy ftory of John Roberts and Abraham Carlisle fhall be related, there will the principles and the practices of Whigs be
held in abhorrence. These two Quakers fell a facrifice to their loyalty in the city of Philadelphia, a city of which their forefathers were amongst the founders, in which they themselves were born, and in which they had long been univerfally refpected and beloved.
The alledged crime of Carlile was, his having kept one of the barriergates, while General Howe held the city; a poft, which he had accepted at the request of all those who wifhed for mild measures, and in which he had conducted himself with fo much moderation and humanity, towards men of all parties and descriptions, that every difinterested perfon, even amongst the Whigs, looked upon his poffeffion of the post as a most fortunate circumstance.
Roberts's offence was of a nature equally trifling. His houfe in the country, lay without the British lines, whence, being apprehenfive of being taken, and probably murdered, by a party from Washington's army, who were continually fpreading havock through his neighbourhood, he had made his efcape into the city, leaving his wife and children behind. Some weeks after his arrival in the city, a foraging-party went out into the township where his houfe was fituated. Anxious to fee his family, who had been, in the mean time, expofed to the infults and violence of the rebels, he eagerly availed himself of the protection of the foraging-party, with whom he went out and returned, bringing in his family with him. Out of this circumstance, in which, one would have thought, matice itfelf could find nothing to blame, the Whigs trumped up an accufation against him, as a man who had volunteered his fervices as a Spy and guide to the British army !
Yet, on charges fo frivolous were thefe two refpectable and inoffenfive men dragged before the Supreme Court at Philadelphia, in which M'Kean and Bryan fat as Judges, and of which the Revolutionary Tribunal of Robespierre was fo ftriking an imitation, that, ever fince the proceedings of the Tribunal have been heard of in America, M'Kean has been honoured with the name of Fouquier Tinville. It was well known at the time, and has fince been openly avowed by the Whigs themselves, that the putting of these men to death was a mere ftroke of policy; a measure folely intended to terrify the Tories, and to commit the wavering Whigs beyond the poffibility of receding. The voice of juftice and of mercy had long been filenced; but, they were again heard on this memorable occafion. The intention of the leading Whigs to take away the lives of Roberts and Carlisle was no Jefs manifeft than was the injuftice of the act itself. The great mass of the people once more refumed their natural feelings, and the Prefident of the Executive Council, Reid, together with the whole Council, and the Judges feemed to fear that, if they fucceeded in procuring a condemnation, a rescue would be effected. Every measure was therefore taken to prevent the failure of their fanguinary project; but, notwithstanding the jury was packed for the purpose, notwithstanding no counfel of eminence was found bold enough to defend the prifoners, notwithstanding the number of witneffes that were fubborned, notwithstanding the partiality and violence of the judges, it has ever been believed that the jury would have refused to find them guilty, had it not been for fear of being murdered themselves, an appre henfion which was artfully excited by the appearance and the dreadful menaces of a fet of mifcreants who had been prepared for the purpose, and who came into the court just as the jury were retiring. Care was taken in the mean time, to draw forth all the ftauncheft of the Whigs under arms. The city had the bayonet placed to its throat, and, while every man was in hourly dread of being inurdered himfelf, he thought lels of the judicial murder