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not sparing in throwing shells, and supporting a great cannonade upon the works of the provincials, which had little other effect than to inure them to that sort of service, and to wear off the dread of those noisy messengers of fate. On the other side, they seem to have been cautious in expending their powder.

A regiment of light cavalry which arrived at Boston from Ireland, and which were never able to set foot beyond that garrison, served only to create new wants, and to increase the incommodities of the people, as well as of the army. The hay which grew upon the islands in the bay, became now an object of necessary attention, as well as the sheep and cattle which they contained; but the provincials having procured a number of whaling-boats, and being masters of the shore and inlets of the bay, were, notwithstanding the vigilance and number of the ships of war and armed vessels, too successful in burning, destroying, or carrying away, those essential articles of supply. These enterprizes brought on several skirmishes, and they grew at length so daring, that they burnt the light-house, which was situated on an island at the entrance of the harbour, though a man of war lay within a mile of them at the time; and some carpenters being afterwards sent, under the protection of a small party of marines, to erect a temporary light-house, they killed or carried off the whole detach


During these transactions a kind of predatory war commenced, and has since continued, between the ships of war, and the inhabitants on different parts of the coasts. The former, being refused the sup

plies of provisions and 'necessaries which they wanted for themselves or the army, endeavoured to obtain them by force, and in these attempts were frequently opposed, and sometimes repulsed with loss by the country people. The seizing of ships in conformity to the new laws, or to the commands of the admiral, was also a continual source of animosity and violence, the proprietors naturally hazarding all dangers in the defence, or for the recovery of their property. These contests drew the vengeance of the men of war upon several of the small towns upon the sea coasts, some of which underwent a severe chastisement:

The pernicious consequences of the late Quebec-act, with respect to the very purposes for which it was framed, were now displayed in a degree, which its most sanguine opponents could scarcely have expect ed. Instead of gaining the French Canadians to the interest of government by that law, the great body of the inhabitants were found as adverse to it, and as much disgusted at its operation, as even the British settlers. General Carleton, the governor of that province, who had placed much confidence in the raising of a considerable army of Canadians, and being enabled to march at their head to the relief of General Gage, (a matter which was so much relied upon at home, that 20,000 stands of arms, and a great quantity of other military stores had been sent out for that purpose) found himself now totally disappointed. The people said that they were now under the British government; that they could not pretend to understand the causes of the present disputes, nor the justice


of the claims on either side; that they did, and would shew themselves dutiful subjects, by a quiet and peaceable demeanor, and due obedience to the government under which they were placed; but that it was totally inconsistent with their state and condition, to interfere, or in any degree to render themselves parties, in the contests that might arise between that government and its ancient subjects. It was in vain that the governor issued a proclamation for assembling the militia, and for the execution of martial law; they said they would defend the province if it was attacked; but they absolutely refused to march out of it, or to commence hostilities with their neighbours. The governor, as the last resort, applied to the Bishop of Quebec, to use his spiritual influence and authority with the people towards disposing them to the adoption of this favourite measure, and particularly that he would issue an episcopal mandate for that purpose, to be read by the parish priests in the time of divine service; but the bishop excused himself from a compliance with this proposition, by representing, that an episcopal mandate on such a subject, would be contrary to the canons of the Roman Catholic church. The ecclesiastics, in the place of this, issued other letters, which were however pretty generally disregarded. The noblesse alone, who were chiefly considered in the Quebec-act, shewed a zeal against the English colonists. But, separated as they were from the great body of the people, they exhibited no formidable degree of strength.

Other endeavours which were used to involve the colonies in do

mestic troubles proved equally abortive. Considerable pains were taken, by the means of several agents who had influence on them, to engage those numerous tribes of Indians that stretch along the backs of the colonies, to cause a diversion, by attacking them in those weak and tender parts. But neither presents, nor persuasions, were capable of producing the desired effect. From whatever chance or fortune it proceeded, those savage warriors, who had at other times been so ready to take up the hatchet without support or encouragement, now turned a deaf ear to all proposals of that nature, and declared for a neutrality. They used much the same reasons for this conduct that the Canadians had done; they did not understand the subject; were very sorry for the present unfortunate disputes; but it was not fit nor becoming for them, to take any part in quarrels between Englishmen, for all of whom, on both sides of the water, they had the highest affection. This was an object of too much importance to be overlooked by the congress. They accordingly employed proper persons to cultivate favourable dispositions in the Indians; and by degrees took such measures as obliged the agents for government to provide for their own safety. It is said, that some of the Indians made proposals to take up arms on their side; but that they were only requested to observe a strict neutrality.

General Gage's late proclamation increased the animosity, indignation, and rage, which were already so generally prevalent, and brought out a declaration from the general congress, July 6th. which, in the nature of those general appeals

appeals that are made to mankind, as well as to heaven, in a declaration of war, set forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms. Among the long list of those supposed causes, besides the late hostilities, they state the endeavours used to instigate the Canadians and Indians to attack them, and severely reproach General Gage, for, what they call, perfidy, cruelty, and breach of faith, in breaking the conditions which he had entered into with the inhabitants of Boston; they are not less free in their censure of the army, whom they charge with the burning of Charlestown, wantonly and unnecessarily.

In stating their resources, they reckon upon foreign assistance as undoubtedly attainable, if necessary. They, however, afterwards say, that, lest this declaration should disquiet the minds of their friends and fel low-subjects in any part of the empire, they assure them, that they mean not to dissolve that union which has so long and happily subsisted between them, and which they sincerely wish to see restored; that necessity has not yet driven them to that desperate measure, or induced them to excite any other nation to war against them; they have not raised armies with ambitious designs of separating from Great-Britain, and establishing independent states; they fight not for glory or for conquest.-This declaration was read with great, serious, and even religious solemnity, to the different bodies of the army who were encamped around Boston, and was received by them with loud acclamations of approbation.

This declaration was followed by an address to the inhabitants of

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Great-Britain; another to the peo ple of Ireland; and a petition to the king. All these writings were drawn up in a very masterly man ner; and are, in respect to art, ad, dress, and execution, equal to any public declarations made by any powers upon the greatest occasions.

The congress had in their de claration, without naming it, reprobated the principles of Lord North's conciliatory proposition, which they call an insidious ma, nouvre adopted by parliament. They, however, afterwards took the resolution more formally into consideration. It had been communicated to them by direction, or at least permission from that minister in the hand-writing of Sir Grey Cowper, one of the two principal secretaries of the treasury, In the course of a long and argumentative discussion, they condema it, as unreasonable and insidious; that it is unreasonable, because, if they declare they will accede to it, they declare, without reservation, that they will purchase the favour of parliament, not knowing at the same time at what price they will please to estimate their favour; that it is insiduous, because individual colonies, having bid, and bidden again, till they find the avidity of the seller too great for all their powers to satisfy, are then to return into opposition, divided from their sister colonies, whom the minister will have previously detached by a grant of easier terms, or by an artful procrastination of a definitive answer.. They couclude upon thự whole, that the proposition was held up to the world, to deceive it into a belief, that there was nothing in dispute but the mode of levying taxes; and that parliament having


now been so good as to give up that, the colonies must be unreasonable in the highest degree if they were not perfectly satisfied.

chief of all the American forces. They also appointed Artemus Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler, and Israel Putnam, Esqrs. to be major-generals; and Horatio Gates, Esq. adjutant-general. Of these general officers, Lee and Gates were English gentlemen, who had acquired honour in the last war; and who from disgust or principle now joined the Americans. Ward and Putnam were of Massachuset's Bay, and Schuyler of New-York. The congress also fixed and assigned the pay of both officers and soldiers; the latter of whom were much better provided for than those upon our establishment.

The colony of Georgia at length joined in the general alliance. A provincial congress having assembled in the beginning of the month of July, they speedily agreed to all the resolutions of the two general congresses in their utmost extent, and appointed five delegates to attend the present. As it were to make amends for the delay, they at once entered into all the spirit of the resolutions formed by the other colonies, and adopted similar; and declared, that though their province was not included in any of the oppressive acts lately passed against "America, they considered that circumstance as an insult rather than a favour, as being done only with a view to divide them from their American brethren, They also addressed a petition, under the title of an humble address and represenrent tation, to his majesty; which, how ever threadbare the subject had already been worn, was not deficient in a certain freshness of colouring, which gave it the appearance of novelty. From this accession to the confederacy, they henceforward assumed the appellation of the Thirteen United Colonies.

In the mean time the general congress, in compliance with the wishes of the people in general, and the particular application of the New-England provinces, appointed George Washington, Esq.; a gentleman of affluent fortune in Virginia, and who had acquired considerable military experience in the command of different bodies of the provincials during the last war, to be general and commander in

The Generals Washington and Lee arrived at the camp before Boston in the beginning of July. They were treated with the highest ho nours in every place through which they passed; were escorted by large detachments of volunteers, composed of gentlemen, in the ditte

provinces; and received public addresses from the provincial congresses of New-York and Massachusett's-Bay. The military spirit was now so high and so general, that war and its preparations occupied the hands and the minds of all orders of people throughout the continent. Persons of fortune and family, who were not appointed officers, entered chearfully as private men, and served with alacrity in the ranks. Even many of the younger quakers forgot their passive principles of forbearance and nonresistance, and taking up arms, formed themselves into companies at Philadelphia, and applied with the greatest labour and assiduity to acquire a proficiency in military exercises and discipline. It was said, (but no computation of that


sort can be ascertained) that no less than 200,000 men were in arms and training throughout the continent.

The blockade of Boston, was continued with little variety, throughout the year, and during a considerable part of the ensuing. The troops, as well as the remaining inhabitants, suffered much from

fevers, fluxes, and the scurvy, which were brought on through confine ment, heat of weather, and badness of provisions. Other matters which originated in this season, particularly the proceedings on the side of Canada, being extended in their principal consequences into the ensuing year, will with more propriety find a place in its history.


Spain. Preparations against Algiers. Siege of Melille raised. Spanish armament effect a landing near Algiers; engagement with the Moors; Spaniards repulsed, and obliged to retire to their ships. War continued with Morocco. Italy. Cardinal Braschi elected Pope. Character and conduct of the new Pontiff. Inquisition abolished in Milan. Scarcity of corn, and distresses of the people in France; great disturbances; coronatim at Rheims. Insurrection and devastations of the peasants in Bohemia. Grand commission appointed. Edict from the court of Vienna in favour of the peasants, puts an end to the troubles. Poland. Treaty of commerce with the King of Prussia. Regulations in favour of the Dissidents. Russia. Execution of Pugatscheff. Taxes laid on for the support of the late war taken off. Various other regulations for the benefit of the people. Trade on the black sea. Turky. Death of Mehemet Aboudaab. Death of the Chick Daher. Siege of Bassora.


UROPE has not for a long time, been so destitute of matter for political speculation, as in the year of which we treat. The keeping up of vast standing armies, and an avidity for increasing them equal to what the most immediate danger could excite, are now be come so common, as neither to produce surprize or apprehension. Reviews, encampments, with the continual marching and manoeuvring of troops, are grown equally famiLar; they are considered as common occurrences, and passed over without notice or observation. The small princes find other amusements to call off their attention from military and political affairs; matters

in which, in the present state of a few overgrown powers, they are indeed but little concerned. The great powers are so nearly poized, as neither wantonly to seek, wor much to dread a rupture. Thus a general distribution of strength is capable of producing the same effects, which a general imbecility has often done. Europe, however, has the seeds of contention at all times plentifully lodged in her bosom, and her fertile soil, in a favourable season, makes them shoot with wonderful luxuriance. A small change in the circumstances of any of the leading parties, would soon involve the rest in its consequences, and might, without the concurrence


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