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of the colonies been thoroughly take foriegn troops into British

understood, or the true principles of their connection with the mother-country been duly weighed: we are therefore necessarily constrained to impute blame to those by whom your Majesty and the parliament have been designedly misled, or partially informed of those matters, on a full knowledge of which alone, determinations of such importance should have been founded.

We beg leave further to represent to your Majesty, that, in questions of high national concern affecting the dearest interests of a state, speculation and experiment are seldom to be justified: That want of foresight is want of judgment; and perseverance in measures, which repeated experience hath condemned, ceases to be


We might appeal to the history of all countries to shew, that force hath never been employed with success, to change the opinions or convince the minds of freemen; and, from the annals of our, own in particular, we learn, that the free and voluntary gifts of the subject have ever exceeded the exactions of the sword.

Restraining, prohibitory, and penal laws have failed to re-establish the public tranquillity; and the present state of this unfortunate dispute affords reason to believe, that, as it commenced without policy, it must be prosecuted by means which the natural and constitutional strength of Great. Britain cannot supply.

In your Majesty's justice we confide for a fair construction of an apprehension we have conceived, that your Majesty hath been advised to

pay, and to raise and discipline Papists both in Ireland and Ca nada, for the purpose of enforcing submission to laws which your Majesty's Protestant subjects in America conceive to be destructive of their liberties, and against which they have repeatedly petitioned in vain.

Anxious to vindicate the national honour, we would willingly dis credit reports of slaves incited to insurrection, and barbarous nations encouraged to take arms against our American brethren, if they had not prevailed without refutation, and filled the minds of your Majesty's faithful subjects with indignation and horror.

If to these ciscumstances of peril and distress our fears could suggest any addition, we might justly expect it from the resentment of those powerful enemies, who have ever shewn a readiness to take advantage of our internal commotions, and will joyfully embrace the occasion of avenging that disgrace shey sustained, during the late glorious war, from the united arms of Great-Britain and Ame rica -and we should indeed be reduced to despair, but that we are encouraged to look up to your Majesty, the common father of all your people, as the happy instruinent in the hands of Divine Providence, which bringeth good out of evil, for restoring to this dis tracted empire the blessings of mu tual confidence, liberty, and peace.

For the speedy eflecting of which, we most humbly beseech your Majesty to cause hostilities to cease in your Majesty's colonies in America, and to adopt such mode of reconciling this unhappy controversy as


may best promote the interest of commerce, and the welfare of all your people.

[Signed by 1171 persons.]

Address of a very numerous Body of the Merchants and Traders of the City of London, presented by a Deputation of them to kis Majesty, on Saturday the 14th of October, 1775. Which Address his Majesty was pleased to receive very graciously; and the Gentlemen of the Deputation had the honour to kiss his Majesty's Hand.-'

in law, or in the constitution of Great-Britain,


We are convinced by the experienced clemency of your Majesty's government, that no deavours will be wanting to induce our delided fellow-subjects to return to their obedience to that constitution which our ancestors bled to establish, and which has flourished, pure and uninterrupted under the mild government of the House of Hanover.

May that Being, who governs the universe, so direct your Majesty's councils and measures, that from the present confusion, order may arise, and peace again be re

To the King's most Excellent Majesty. stored.

Most Gracious Sovereign,

That your Majesty may long reign over an happy and united

WE your Majesty's faithful people, is the earnest prayer of,



chants and traders of the city of London, filled with the deepest concern at the unjustifiable proceedings of some of your Majesty's cofonies in America, beg leave to approach your royal throne to tes-. tify our entire disapprobation and abhorrence of them, with the most solemn assurances that we will support your Majesty with our lives and fortunes, in maintaining the authority of the legislature of this country, which, we conceive, does and ought to extend over and pervade every part of the British dominions.

With regret and indignation we see colonies, which owe their existence, and every blessing that attended their late prosperous situation, to this their parent country, unnaturally regardless of the fosterng hand that raised and supported them, and affecting distinctions in their dependence, not founded

it please your Your Majesty's most faithful and loyal subjects. [Signed by 941 persons.]

His Majesty's most gracious Speech to both houses of Parliament, on Thursday, the 26th Day of October, 1775.

My Lords and Gentlemen,

HE present situation of Ame

rica, and my constant desire to have your advice, concurrence and assistance on every important occasion, have determined me to. call you thus early together.

Those who have too long successfully laboured to inflame my people in America by gross misrepresentations, and to infuse into their minds a system of opinions repugnant to the true constitution of the colonies, and to their subordi


nate relation to Great-Britain, now openly avow their revolt, hostility, and rebellion. They have raised troops, and are collecting a naval force; they have seized the public revenue, and assumed to themselves legislative, executive, and judicial powers, which they already exercise, in the most arbitrary manner over the persons and properties of their fellow-subjects; and although many of these unhappy people may still retain their loyalty, and may be too wise not to see the fatal consequence of this usurpation, and wish to resist it; yet the torrent of violence has been strong enough to compel their acquiescence, till a sufficient force shall appear to support them

The authors and promoters of this desperate conspiracy have, in the conduct of it, derived great advantage from the difference of our intentions and theirs. They meant only to amuse, by vague expressions of attachment to the Parent-state, and the strongest protestations of loyalty to me, whilst they were preparing for a general revolt. On our part, though it was declared in your last session, that a rebellion existed within the province of the Massachusett's Bay, yet even that province we wished rather to reclaim, than to subdue. The resolutions of parliament breathed a spirit of moderation and forbearance; conciliatory propositions accompanied the measures taken to enforce authority; and the coercive acts were adapted to cases of criminal combinations amongst subjects not then in arms. I have acted with the same temper; anxious to prevent, if it had been possible, the effusion of the blood of my subjects, and the calamities which are

inseparable from a state of war;
still hoping that my people in
America would have discerned the
traiterous views of their leaders,
and have been convinced, that to be
a subject of Great Britain, with all
its consequences, is to be the freest
member of any civil society in the
known world.

The rebellious war now levied
is become more general, and is ma-
nifestly carried on for the purpose
of establishing an independent em-
pire. I need not dwell upon the fatal
effects of the success of such a plan,
The object is too important, the spi-
rit of the British nation too high,
the resources with which God hath
blessed her too numerous, to give
up so many colonies which she has
planted with great industry, nursed
with great tenderness, encouraged
with many commercial advantages,
and protected and defended at much
expence of blood and treasure.

It is now become the part of wis-
dom, and (in its effects) of cle-
mency, to put a speedy end to these
disorders by the most decisive exer-
tions. For this purpose, I have
increased my naval establishment
and greatly augmented my land-
forces; but in such a manner
may be the least burthensome to
my kingdoms.


I have also the satisfaction to inform you, that I have received the most friendly offers of foreign assistance; and if I shall make any treaties in consequence thereof, they shall be laid before you. And I have, in testimony of my affection for my people, who can have no cause in which I am not equally interested, sent to the garrisons of Gibraltar and Port Mahon a part of my Electoral troops, in order that a larger number of the esta



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blished forces of this kingdom may be applied to the maintenance of its authority; and the national militia, planned and regulated with equal regard to the rights, safety and protection of my crown and people, may give a farther extent and activity to our military operations.

When the unhappy and deluded multitude, against whom this force will be directed, shall become sensible of their error, I shall be ready to receive the misled with tenderness and mercy; and, in order to prevent the inconveniences which may arise from the great distance of their situation, and to remove, as soon as possible, the calamities which they suffer, I shall give authority to certain persons upon the spot to grant general or particular pardons and indemnities, in such manner, and to such persons, as they shall think fit, and to receive the submission of any province or colony which shall be disposed to return to its allegiance. It may be also proper to authorise the persons so commissioned to restore such province or colony, so returning to its allegiance, to the free exercise of its trade and commerce, and to the same protection and security as if such province or colony had never

Gentlemen of the House of

I have ordered the proper estimates for the ensuing year to be laid before you; and I rely on your affection to me, and your resofution to maintain the just rights of this country, for such supplies as the present circumstances of our affairs require. Among the many unavoidable ill consequences of this rebellion, none affects me more

sensibly than the extraordinary burthen which it must create to my faithful subjects.

My Lords and Gentlemen,

I have fully opened to you my views and intentions. The constant employment of my thoughts and the most earnest wishes of my heart, tend wholly to the safety and happiness of all my people, and to the re-establish.nent of order and tranquillity through the several parts of my dominions, in a close connection and constitutional de-, pendance. You see the tendency of the present disorders, and I have stated to you the measures which I mean to pursue for suppressing them. Whatever remains to be done, that may farther contribute to this end, I commit to your wisdom. And I am happy to add, that, as well from the assurances I have received, as from the general appearance of affairs in Europe, I see no probability that the measures which you may adopt will be in terrupted by disputes with any fo reign power.

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To the King's most excellent

Most gracious Sovereign,

ROM the warmest sense of duty

In this great work, be assured, Sire, that under your Majesty's direction, we will, with the greatest chearfulness, exert ourselves to the utmost of our abilities, in support of those

love are our and

of our country, we, your Majesty's loyal subjects, liverymen of the city of London, whose names are hereunto subscribed, with the freedom we ever mean to assert as Englishmen, and with that deference which we owe as good subjects to your Majesty, presume to approach your royal presence, and to entreat your attention to the genuine sentiments of a loyal and dutiful people. It is with the deepest concern we observe, that our fellow subjects, in your Majesty's American colonies, are now in open rebellion. A malignant spirit of resistance to law and government has gone forth amongst them, which we firmly believe has been excited and encouraged by selfish men, who hope to derive private emolument from public calamities: from the counsels, the persuasions, the influence of such men, God protect your Majesty. The interest, the honour, the sovereignty of your kingdom of Great-Britain, are now at stake: as the guardian of those, we trust you will ever assert and preserve them,

of that government which is our blessing.

Whilst we presume to approach your Majesty, with hopes you exert the constitutional power you possess, to subdue such of your deluded people as are now acting in open defiance of the laws, permit us, gracions Sire, to implore your clemency towards those whose eyes may be opened to a full conviction of their offences; and who, hereafter, when reason and reflection shall prevail over passion and prejudice, may be restored to the allegiance which they owe to the mother country and their sovereign.

That your Majesty and your posterity may long reign over a people happy in enjoying those blessings which the accession of your ancestors to the throne of these kingdoms has hitherto insured to us, is the unfeigned and ardent wish of your Majesty's most dutiful, faithful, and devoted subjects.

[The above address was signed by 1029 liverymen.]


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