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we find their most remarkable dif. When we recollect (what I have ference of character is, that Eurus above attempted to prove) that de and Notus are more mild and gen- Zephyr of Homer's country, upon tle, Zephyrus and Boreas more which he must have forised his fastormy and boisterous. The tro miliar ideas of that wind, blev first are introduced less frequently from the mountains of Thrace ; than the last; for, as allusions of and that the two instances which I this kind generally serve to illustrate have given, are the only ones in animated pictures, the characters of which he describes the qualities of Zepliyrus and Boreas best suit the that wind in a distant western cliPoet's purpose upon such occasions. mate, instead of contradiction and Accordingly we find them employed inconsistence, we discover an exoftener in the Iliad than in the tensive knowledge of nature. For, Odyssey. Eurus. is never distin- while he is accurate in his accounts guished by an epithet: and Notus of the known appearances of his only by that of swift. They are own country, he accommodates his never represented as persons, except description to what he had either in one instance; they are described heard or seen in distant parts. To by qualities, the reverse of those of have used the gentle Zephyr, in a their antagonist winds; for Eurus simile addressed to Ionian readers, is employed in melting the snow, or to have given the character of which Zephyrus brings down; and severity to that of western climates, Notus covers the mountain-tops would have been equally incorrect. with clouds which it is the business Both Zephyrus and Boreas make of Boreas to dispel.

their appearance as persons; they Zephyrus is called hard blowing, are equally concerned in kindling rapid, the swiftest of all the winds, the funeral pile of Patroclus, at the noisy, whistling or rattling, moist, prayer of Achilles. Xanthus and and is represented as bringing rain Balius, the immortal horses of that or snow.

hero, are the offspring of Podarge I find two passages in the Odyssey, and Zephyrus; a pedigree worthy which seem to give an idea of Ze- of Homer's imagination, but, perphyrus, different from this general haps, like, many of his fictions, encharacter, and more like the Zephyr grafted upon some tradition, which of modern poetry. One is in the had popular prejudice on it's side. Poet's description of the Elysian For a strange notion prevailed, plain), “ where neither winter's that upon the coast of the Atlantic

snow jor rain are seen, but a ocean mares were impregnated by “ continual refreshing Zephyr the west wind; and however ridi“ blows from the ocean;" the culous this opinion may appear, other is the description of Alci- has been seriously supported by grave nous's gardens, where the rich ve and respectable writers of a more getation is ascribed to a constant enlightened age. As to the amours Zephyr.

of Zephyrus and Flora, they are the It is extraordinary that Hesiod should omit Eurus, Theog. v. 379, 869. See Strabo, 1. 1. p. 28, where the ancient writers upon winds are mentioned, Trasyalcis, Aristotle, Timosthenes, Bion.


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natural mythology of later poets certain ideas by the intended use of and of a more western climate, and this tower, which was particularly unknown to lonia and Homer. adapted to the meridian of Attica;

* Boreas is rapid and violent, but or that his invention was inferior serene and drying; dispels clouds, to his execution, I shall not ven brings hoar-frost and snow, is clear, ture to judge; but there is a same. pure, wholesome, and reviving. ness of attitude, drapery, and cha

This account of Boreas coincides racter, in those winds, that would much more with that of modern make it very difficult to distinguisha poetry, and is in general more their names, were they not inscribed agreeable to the experience and ob- over each figure. servation of western climates, than I cannot finish this article with that of Eurus and Zephyrus. out comparing Homer and Virgil

It has probably been owing to as navigators, in order to shew the Homer's example, that succecuing superior accuracy of the former poets and artists, through in other with regard to those minute cirrespects departing from his descrip- cumstances of nature and truth. tion of those subjects, often repre- The winds which Homer employs sent Boreas and Zephyrus as per- in his poem, are adapted to the ship's sons. Their air and figure are fa- sailing, to which Virgil does not miliar to us in the machinery of pay the same attention. I shall modern poetry, as well as in the confine myself to one instance, works of painters and sculptors, The description of the departure of who give the character of harsh and Aneas from Carthage is not only aged severity to one, and that of inconsistent with truth and possibi, youth!ul beauty and gentleness to lity, in this respect, but contrathe other ; while Eurus and Notus, dictory to itselt." He sails in the especially the latter, appear so sel. morning with a west wind, which doin in a human shape, and are sọ is very improperly called favourimperfectly described, that we have able; but before he is out of sight no determinate idea of their dress or of Carthage, we find him pursuing persons.

his course with a north wind, which We find the figures of the four is still more contrary to his intended principal with the four interme- course; when, in the evening, he has diate winds, in alto relievo, bigger gotten clear of the land, the wind than life, on the octagon tower of changes to the west with every progAndronicus Cyrrhestes it Athens. nostic of a stormy night; Palinurus, As this is the only monument of in this situation, orders his men to antiquity, that I have seen, where reef their sails and ply their oars ; they are so :vell executed and so hut, finding it vain to struggle well preserved, I examined them with this west wind, which was bewith a view to those conformities fore called favourable, he consults between the poet and the sculptor, the stars in a very dark night, and by which we sometimes trace the concluding that he is not far froin borrowed idea to its original source, the coast of Sicily, steers for that but with little success. Whether it island." was that the artist was confined to



those of Achilles, and other class Travels in Asia Minor: or, an Ac- sical heroes, is well founded or pot,

count of a Tour made at the Ex. we must suspend our judgment, till prence of the Society of Diletanti. Dr. Chandler favour's the world By Richard Chandler, D. D. with other essays; but we regret Fellow of Magdalen College, and of that they could not be made part of the Society of Antiquaries, i Vol. 410. this present work,

The utility of travels, on the HE author dedicates his work principle these were made, is 100

to his employers: and we apparent to need discussion. The altogether agree with him in the present manners which prevail in praise they deserve. He will forgive that country, so long the seat of as, that for a moment we defer the science, arts, commerce, and repraise that is due to his ingenious finement, and the contrast of its abours, while we do justice to the present state with its ancient his . liberal and enlightened principles tory, is a subject which gives a of his patrons, who engaged him peculiar and touching interest to in this work.

all relations of travels into the doThe Society of Diletanti, in a minions of the Grand Seignior. manner, exculpate our times from The author makes us feel this the imputation of sordid and selfish impression, in a very lively and enjoyments: they lo credit to their sensible manner, in many parts of tank and fortune, when their pa- his work. It were to be wished tronage and liberality are employed that the cuts of the several ruins in a noble attention to arts and had accompanied the narrative of Iciters.

the travels. As they were the great Dr. Chandler has executed his object of the journey, it seems in a work with care and diligence; and manner defective, as it is certainly it was a work not to be executed by less entertaining without them, any man, who was not furnished Our extract shall begin from his with a fund of knowledge and sight of mount Ida, coinprehending lcarning. We will not presume to the description of the Turks. pass a judgment either of dissent, “ The next morning we hail pasor agreement, on the justness of sed Psyra, corruptly called Ipsera; many conjectures of Dr. Chandier; Scio-was on our right hand; Lcsit was part of his duty to suggest bos or Mitylene on our left; and his opinions; and so far from cen- the mouth of the gulph of Smyrna suring his so doing, we rather not very remote before us. The segret that he has not even been plague, as we

were informed at more liberal in his conjectures, as Leghorn, having appeared at this the very offer of an opinion, tends place in the spring, our captain to the investigation of truth, tho' was unwilling to arrive there beit may not immediately hit upon fore it should have ceased, and it, as it creates that discussion and now resolved to proceed directly examination, without which the to Constantinople. The gale was justness of no proposition can be fair, and the opportunity too faascertained. Whether the opinion vourable to be neglected, it being of the Barrows, supposed to be common in summer to meet with a


contrary wind, and to be detained the river Scamander, which had on the sea or forced to anchor off a bank or bar of sand at the mouth, Tenedos. We were opposite cape The stream was then inconsiderBaba or Lectos, a promontory of able, but, we were told, is in mount Ida, in the evening; and winter frequently swollen to a great had in view Tenedos and Lemnos size, and discolours the sea far and the main land both of Europe without the promontories. The and Asia. We could discern fires shore of the Cherronese, as we adon · Lesbos, as before on several vanced, was steep, of a dry barislands and capes, made chiefly by ren aspect, and contrasted by the fishermen and shepherds, who live Asiatic coast, which rises gently, much abroad in the air; or to burn mount Ida terminating the view. the strong stalks of the Turkey The width of the Hellespont, the wheat and the dry herbage on the smoothness of the water, and the mountains. In the day-time a co- rippling of the current, reminded lumn of smoke often ascends, visi- us of the Thames. Xerxes but ble afar.

slightly degraded it, when he stiled Saturday, August the 25th, the it a salt river. sun rising beautifully behind mount We now approached the inner Ida disclosed its numerous tops, castles, which were erected by and brightened the surface of the Mahoniet the second, and consea. We were now entering the mand a very narrow strait, dividHellespont, with the Troad on ing the two continents. By each our right hand, and on the left the is a town; and at that in Asia was Cherronese or peninsula of Thrace. hoisted a white flag near the seaAbout six in the morning we were side, and also a red one with the within Sigeum and the opposite cross. These belonged to the Engpromontory Mastusia. They are lish and French nations. divided by a very narrow strait. had agreed to land here, the capWe then passed between the two tain, when we were abreast with the castles erected by Mahomet the Asiatic castle, brought the ship too, Fourth in 1659. That on the and made a signal for a scheick or European side stands high, the other wherry to come along side. Our low: and by each is a town. These baggage was lowered into it with structures, with the houses, the great expedition, and we quitted graceful minarets and cypresses, die ship, which fired three guns, the mountains, and islands, and and sailed away. shining water, formed a view ex- After leaving the Anglicana, ceedingly delicious. The cocks we had scarcely time to contemcrowed ashore, and were answered. plate the savage figures of our boa:by those in our coops on board, men, who had their necks and the waves broke on the Asiatic arms bare, and their faces yellow beach with an amusing murmur, from the sun, before we reached and the soft air wafted fragrance. land. The current carried us be

saw a level and ex- low the castle, where we saw on tensive plain, the scene, we the shore two Turkish women. But conceived, of the battles of the what figures! each wrapped in a lind, with barrows of heroes, and white sheet, shapeless, and stalk,


As we

We now


ing in boots. A company of We found some dificulty in Turks assembled on the beech to complying with the orienial mode view the ship, seemed as it were of situing cross-legged, but åt a new species of human beings. dinner it was necí ary, the table They were in general large and being only a large low salves, tall; some with long, comely or placed on the carpet. A variety venerable beards, of a portly mein of dishes were served up in quick and noble presence, to which their succession, and we were supplie:l as high turbans and loose garments, rapidly with cups of wine. We of various lively colours, greatly had no plates, or knives and forks, contributed; adding, besides their but used our fingers. The whole majesty, to the apparent bulk of repast and the apparatus was arthe wearers.

tique. . It concluded with fruits of We were received on the shore wholesome quality and exquisite hy the English consul; a fat, well. flavour, figs and melons such as looking Jew, who, after bidding are peculiar to hot climates, and us welcome in broken Italian or grapes in large and rich clusters Lingua Franca, conducted us fresh from the vineyard. The con through the town to his house, in sul ate with us, while his brother the quarter assigned to that nation. waited, with another Jew. When We ascended some stairs into a we had finished, we washed, one room, which had a raised floor of our attendants bringing an covered with a carpet. Round over, a bason and a towel, and three sides was a low sopha with pouring water on our hands. We cushions for leaning. The cooling then received each a cup of coffee, breeze entered at the wooden lat- and our host, who was much fatitices of the windows. Their law gued with his sultry walk to the not permitting the Jews to touch beach and afterwards to the gover fire on their sabbath, our host was nor to inform him of our arrira', in distress about our entertainment. retired with the whole family to However we were soon presented sleep, as is the universal practice with the customary refreshments, toward noon, when the boat bea pipe of lighted tobacco; a comes exceedingly intense. spoonful of sweet-meat put into In the evening we went with the our mouths; and coffee in a china consul to view the town. We found cup, which was placed in one of the houses ‘numerous, mostly of filligree-work, to prevent it from wood and mean, and the streets burning our fingers. The coisul very narrow. We saw the manuthen introduced to us a young man factory of earthen ware, which is his brother, and his wife and considerable; and we supposed the daughter; the latter a girl in a long fashion had never altered, the jars white vest, with a zone about her and vessels in general retaining middle, her feet naked, her nails the old shapes, and seeming toʻmdyed red, her hair platted and ed by ancient models. The situahanging down her back. She came tion of the place is low and subject to us, and taking the right hand to epidemical disorders. Besides of each separately, kissed and these, the plague, which commouly gently moved it to her forehead. visits the inliabitants every year, is


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