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many of whom had the impulse of a keen desire to discredit the divine record, they have discovered not a solitary reading which could cast a doubt on any passage, before considered certain.
Forty years ago, Claudius Buchanan, while in India, found in possession of the black Jews of Malabar, supposed to be a remnant of the dispersion by Nebuchadnezzar's first invasion, an immense roll 48 feet long and 22 inches wide, upon which a portion of the Scriptures bad been copied by different hands. He procured and deposited it in the Cambridge Library. This was compared letter for letter with a printed copy of the Hebrew Bible. And it was found, that between the IIebrew text now in use in the West, and that manuscript so long used in the East, there were only forty petty differences, not one of which made the slightest change in the meaning of the text.
This work of making a thorough search of manuscripts, was made necessary by Rationalists; but it has resulted in their unanimous confessiou that they can gain no advantage from that quarter. Let none, then, be disturbed in his reliance on tha infallible truth the written record, by the pretence that errors of its transcribers have corrupted it. Its wonderful preservation from error in these circumstances is a mark of its divinity. A divine hand must have guarded it in all the way of its conveyance to us.
WHY THE OCEAN IS SALT. The saltness of the ocean has usually been regarded as a special provision of Nature to guard against certain inconveniences which inight otherwise have resulted. The presence of so much saline matter ir. solution depresses the freezing point of the water many degrees, thereby diminishing the dangerous facility with which fields of ice are produced in the polar regions. It has been said that the salt is useful in checking evaporation, and also that it aids in preventing the corruption of the water by the accumulation of animal and vegetable remains. Without for a moment questioning the incidental benefits resulting from the circumstances under discussion, and which, in ore case at least, are quite obvious, it may be suggested that the saltness of the sea may be considered as more an inevitable result of the present disposition of things, than a special arrangement expressly intended to fulfill a certain object.
The rain that falls upon the earth is due to the condensation of aqueous vapor previously existing in the atmosphere, and which is supplied in a great part by evaporation from the surfacethe area of the latter, compared with that of the land, being very great, necessarily so, perhaps, to furnish this requisite extent of evaporating surface. This water, as is well known, is perfectly fresh and pure, the saline constituents of the ocean having no sensi. ble degree of volatility at that temperature at which the vapor had been raised. No sooner does it reach the earth than it becomes contaminated with soluble substances which it meets while floating on the surface of the ground or percolating beneath. It is thus that the waters of springs and rivers invariably contain a greater or less amount of alkaline and earthy saltë, which all eventually find their way into the sea, and there remain, since there is no channel for their return. The condition of sea water is but an exaggeration of
that of ordinary lakes, rivers, and springs: the materials are the same, and of necessity so: the ocean being in fact the great repository of soluble substances which during innumerable ages have been separated by a process of washing from the land. The case of the sea is but a magnified representation of what occurs in every lake into which rivers flow, but from which there is no outlet except by evaporation. Such a lake is invariably a salt lake. It is impossible that it can be otherwise; and it is curious to observe that this condition disappears when an artificial outlet is provided for the waters. It will be remembered that the saltness of the ocean is very far exceeded by that of inland lakes of the kind described. That of Aral, near the Caspian, and the Dead Sea in Judea, are remarkable exceptions.
DR. DIXON'S TOUR IN AMERICA.
AN ERROR CORRECTED.
In glancing over the pages of this well written and spirited volume, full of incident and interesting description of the country, I came to the following passage:
“The voyage down the Ohio was rather fortunate in bringing me into contact with several parties of some interest. Among others Bishop Campbell introduced himself. This gentleman was the husband of a Mrs. Campbell who, in Scotland, some years ago, produced much excitement by (if I recollect right) following in the train of poor Irving, and giving utterance to noises called the tongues." In doctrine and sentiment, they, the Cambells, adhered to the Rowite party and disseminated their sentiments. I could not understand exactly what church my friend wus bishop of, but suppose it must have been one founded on the principles above referred to."
Presuming myself to be the person alluded to, I consider it due to myself and the public to correct an error into which James Dixon, D. D., has fallen. When introduced, I think by Dr. Pierce of Alabama, (not by myself,) on the steamboat to Dr. Dixon, as “bishop Campbell of Virginia." I entered into conversation with him on his tour-and learning from what part of England he came, I mentioned having been there the preceding year, and my tour thence to Scotland. From this conversation, I presume, he fell into the error that I was the Rev.James M. Campbell, of Row, Dumbartonshire, Scotland, who had married the lady to whom he alludes. Like most tourists my friend Dr. Dixon, Representative Messenger of the British Methodists to the General Conference held in May, 1848, at Pittsburgh, in his very graphic and glowing description of American men and manners has drawn too much on imagination and hypothesis, which may, in some other respects have, without at all intending it, betrayed him into some slight inaccuracies. I hope he will, in subsequent editions of this very popular work, both in England and America, have this mistake corrected. I commend to his special attention a work called “The Christian Baptist,” which he may obtain not far from his own home from Elder J. Wallis, Nottingham, England, or froin my office at Bethany, Virginia, from SERIES III-VOL. VI.
which he may learn more of my true history than he seems at present to have acquired.
STILL WRITING. Our quondam friend, Alexander Campbell, has been, for time, writing and publishing “Tracts for the People” on the mode and subjects of baptism. We observe, he has reached the thirty-seventh number! We have not observed whether all these numbers have been on the subject of baptism; but we think they have. He must be very much dissatisfied with the Lexington Debate! Although, on the mode of baptism, we waived the rule which limited the discussion on each question to three days, and gave him four days, and three hours in the evening of the fourth day, and discussed infant baptism three days; he is not satisfied-he still writes! Would he have deem. ed it necessary to do so, if he considered himself successful in the Debate?
Presbyterian of the West. The Rev. N. L. Rice, D. D., has more than once alluded to his "quondam friend” in terms indicative of his grateful recollections for the Doctorate he wears to cover his scars, so honorably won at the Lexington Debate. Had he as much ballast as sail he might have been a professor in the Princeton Theological School. We were sorry to hear, the other day, a rumor of his defeat in that direction, though honorably named to the Directory of that distin. guished School. We are always pleased and feel ourselves honored by the theological promotion of our opponents. The Rev. McCalla was dubbed D. D. after his debate with me, and even Dr. Purcell is a Bishop much nearer the Papal throne since than before his victory at Cincinnati!
I am “still writing,” however, without a D. D., and Tracts for the People, too. But not exclusively on “the mode and subject of baptism. True, I am now about finishing a series of Tracts, for a volume, on the action, subject and design of baptism. But it is not as an appendix to the voluminous Debate, the copy-right of which is now owned by a Presbyterian Divine. That work has done good service to the cause of truth, and made many an immersionist. I have never heard of its converting one Baptist into a Pedobaptist. But if Mr. Rice will still more attentively read my series of Tracts he may yet discover that they are intended for an answer to all future works on bis side of the question. I expect soon to have this volume stereotyped, and sent over the continent as an answer to all that has been, is now, and shall hereafter be written on the action, subject and design of Christian baptism. I am desirous to have a neat, small, cheap volume for universal consumption, and I will feel alto. gether willing, on my part, to present it to each and every man as a full answer to any work extant, or hereafter to appear on these premises. I do not intend, as, inderd, I do not expect, to have oc. casion to say one word more on the subject, Having given to my readers Mr. Rice's notice of my Tracts, may I not expect that he will give to his readers my notice of his notice, for which he will at least have still more of my respect. But whether or not, he has my kind wishes for his health and happiness.
NEWS FRO JI THE CHURCHES.
LAWRENCE COUNTY, Tenn., Aug. 14th, 1849. Brother Campicil- Previous to my removal to this county, in De. cember last, we had neither preacher nor church in it. True, there were a few disciples scattered through the county. On the second Lord's day in February last we organized (in my vicinity) a little body with fourteen members; it now numbers thirty-three. Eleven of these have been immersed since the 10th of last month. Prospects for doing gyod are exceedingly flattering; indeed, the word of the Lord is mightily prevailing in the bounds of my labors. I thank God and renew my courage! Your fellow co-laborer in the Truth,
JOSHUA K. SPEER.
GRIFFIN, Ga., Sept. 1849. Brother Campbell-Through the instrumentality chiefly of our much esteemed and most indefatigable brother N. W. Smith, we have held an annual co-operation meeting, which met at Griffin. On Saturday before the third Lord's day in this month we had messengers from four congregations and letters; one from brother D. Hook, who was prevented from ineeting with us by afiliction in his family. His letter assured us that the congregation in Augusta highly ap. proved of the co-operation; but we had no messenger nor letter from them. We had a letter also from brother H. S. Campbell, of Gainsville, who stands alone in this section. It I mistake not his and brother Hook's letters were read in our meeting, as the matter contained in them was of importance to us.
The kindest feelings prevailed during our deliberations, and it was agreed to hold another meeting at the same place next year, commencing on Saturday before the third Lord's day in September, if the Lord will. We fear the amount of money offered us, by the congregations and individuals, is insufficient to employ an Evangelist; but we still hope that we will get enough to employ one who would be willing to undertake, for a moderate compensation, if we knew where to get him. We want a man that can take things as he finds them, and turn every thing to the best advantage. The brethren belonging to the congregation at Griffin are authorized to employ an Evangelist if they can. Our religious exercises were interesting, though the congregations were small. Six joined us-three of them had been immersed: two of them had been members of the Christian church before; the other had recently put on the Lord Jesus. These were received into the number of the faithful before we broke the loaf in the morning. Three confessed--one of these was from the Methodists, a doctor. He has investigated the doctrines we hold, and, in the face of much opposition, decided in their favor. Two were from the quarry of nature. On Lord's day evening, in the pool of our Baptist brethren, in the presence of a large concourse of people, I had the pleasure of immersing these three young men into the Lord Jesus; and I humbly trust they have arisen to walk in newness of life. Brother Hook organized the congregation at Griffin, in April last, with only seven members. We have met regularly once a month to worship, and have been constantly increasing till now. We number nineteen, counting the last, who have been immersed, though they have not yet been formally received into the fellowship of the congregation. So you see we are prospering some, and our prospects are flattering. We hear of others intending to join us. An inquiry has gone forth that promises an abundant harvest. May the Lord help us to exhibit the truth, by precept and example. The citizens of Griffin are an intelligent and benevolent community. They have shown a liberality towards the disciples unprecedented, so far as my knowledge extends. They have given us a large subscription, so that by a little help from a few brethren in the county immediately adjacent, we have been enabled to employ workmen zo build us a brick house, 35 by 50, to worship in. Ve expect the work to be done with despatch, and when completed we can get a good hearing. I have not spoken of the prospects in other places. They are, for the most part, very flattering, and, I think, if we could gel one or more Evangelists to go into the harvest we should have ac essions to the good cause beyond any thing ever done in Georgia. Your brother in the hope of eternal life,
AUGUSTUS B. FEARS.
OAKLAND, Miss., Sept. 18, 1849. Brother Campbell-On Lord's day, the 16th inst., I immersed H. S. Garrett, one of the most eminent members of the Bar of Charleston, Miss. Within the bounds of my labors recently sixteen additions have been gained.
W. S. SPEER.
BELLEFONTAINE, Sept. 18, 1849. Brother Campbell—It is with pleasure that I now inform you, that the cause of the Reformation, in which you are engaged so ardently, is on the increase in this county. The church at Middleburg (of which I am a member,) has been for sometime in a languishing cond tion—its members greatly reduced in numbers by removals, and somewhat by deaths. But it is reviving, and gives encouragement to believe that it will again be prosperous and useful.
Since March last, through the labors of brothers Antrim and McCall, a church has been organized, commencing with eight or ten members, which now number from 75 to 80 members, and the interest still continues.
Brother Dowling, of Morrow county, has paid our county some two or three visits this spring and summer, remaining with us from four to six weeks. He has done much good, and has caused the hearts of many of the elder brethren to rejoice with the numbers that became obedient to the faith of the gospel. I am truly your brother,