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Individuality, the more emphasized it is, the better it is for the social welfare; for individuality is the perfecting of a member of the whole body. Of course, if one be emphasized at the expense of others, there is wrong done to, and injury sustained by, the body; but the perfection of solidarity will consist in the simultaneous development to its highest pitch of the individuality of every member of society.

Individuality consists in the will acting with unrestrained energy in the prosecution of the determinations of the individual sense of the good, the true, and the beautiful; and as the good, the true, and the beautiful have as many aspects as there are men to observe them, and as the welfare of society consists in the accumulation and unification of all these aspects, it follows that the development of individuality and the perfection of solidarity are indissolubly united, and that the encouragement of individuality in no way derogates from the social weal. Consequently the prosecution of a selfish end, as men cail that held up to the Christian, is not detrimental to the general well-being; and, on the other hand, it has been made abundantly evident by experience that self-renunciation for the general welfare is calculated to bring individuality to a very exalted position of perfection and dignity.

Secondly, Catholicism is the harmonization of all ideas, of all the doctrines which form the different philosophic systems of antiquity and of modern times.

Christ, according to the Catholic hypothesis, is the Incarnate Reason, and all human reasons are radiations from Himself. “He is,” says Justin Martyr, “the Sovereign Reason of whom the whole human race participates. All those who have lived conformably to a right reason, have

1

been Christians."! Therefore, adds S. Augustine, Christ is present wherever there is truth, wisdom, and justice, in East as in the West, among the infidels as among the faithful.” “Do you not know," said Malebranche, “that reason itself is incarnate to be at the disposal of all men, to strike the eyes and ears of those who can neither see nor hear except through their senses ?- Reason, by becoming incarnate, has not changed its nature in any way, nor lost its power. It is immutable and necessary: it, alone, is the inviolable law of minds." 3

The Word made flesh, the Divine Reason incarnate, is then to be considered both as the exterior doctor, historical and visible, and also as the interior doctor, spiritual and invisible, “the light that lighteneth every man that cometh into the world;"* or to use the words of S. Bonaventura, “He is the interior teacher, and one can know no truth except by Him who speaks, not vocally as we do, but by an interior illumination. He is Himself in our souls, and He diffuses the light of true and living ideas over all the abstract and dark ideas of our intellect."

Such is the doctrine of all the Fathers;-Christ is at once an object of faith and of reason, of religion and of philosophy. He, as immutable and veritable Truth, concretes and synthesizes and vivifies every partial and contingent verity; and those who deny Him, separate truths, and fall in consequence into error. “ They have not one idea,” says Chateaubriand, “which we do not possess, but they cannot follow us into the regions of evangelical light. It is not that our sight is limited, it is that theirs is partial. We perceive all

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1 Apolog. 1 and 2.
2 In Joan. Evan. c. 8. tr. 35.
3 Vme. Entretien, 9, and Traité de Morale, ii. c. 4.
4 S. John i. 9.

5 Lumen Ecclesiæ, vol. i. p. 42.

that they perceive, but they do not see all that we see.” “ That is truly and properly Catholic, as the force and significance of the name declare, which truly comprehends all universally,” said S. Vincent of Lerins. That which is truly Catholic is not the profession of one doctrine to the exclusion of other doctrines, but is the co-ordination of all ideas, of all possible doctrines, maintained invariably undivided in the infinite conception of Christ, which includes all without excluding any, and adopts all into an unity which forms of them an homogeneous and complete whole. Outside Catholic unity there can be only negation and exclusion, which, breaking the bond of this spiritual community, particularizes that which Catholicism had universalized, decomposes that which it had combined, and reproduces thus the same ideas in broken particles, in torn shreds, but with all their relations displaced or suppressed, and becomes thereby no longer absolute verity, but a selection of relative ideas, incomplete because all ideas are not admitted, and false because all those which are excluded are denied.

S. Clement of Alexandria, starting from the principle that the Catholic Faith is the syncretism of all practical verities professed before and after Christ's advent, applied this principle to that which preceded His coming, and shewed that the Mosaic law and the Greek philosophy were to Christianity what partial verities are to the union of all verities. On this account he founded an exhortation to the Greeks to leave their doubt and to embrace a Gospel which contained all their philosophies and blended them into one with all the verities of Mosaism.

The same idea is thus expressed by Grotius in his book on the verity of the Christian Religion: “Among the heathen there were not wanting men, who taught singly those things which the Christian religion holds univer

been Christians."1

Therefore, adds S. Augustine, Christ is present wherever there is truth, wisdom, and justice, in East as in the West, among the infidels as among the faithful." “Do you not know," said Malebranche, “that reason itself is incarnate to be at the disposal of all men, to strike the eyes and ears of those who can neither see nor hear except through their senses?—Reason, by becoming incarnate, has not changed its nature in any way, nor lost its power. It is immutable and necessary: it, alone, is the inviolable law of minds." 3

The Word made flesh, the Divine Reason incarnate, is then to be considered both as the exterior doctor, historical and visible, and also as the interior doctor, spiritual and invisible, “the light that lighteneth every man that cometh into the world;" or to use the words of S. Bonaventura, “He is the interior teacher, and one can know no truth except by Him who speaks, not vocally as we do, but by an interior illumination. He is Himself in our souls, and He diffuses the light of true and living ideas over all the abstract and dark ideas of our intellect.”

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Such is the doctrine of all the Fathers ;-Christ is at once an object of faith and of reason, of religion and of philosophy. He, as immutable and veritable Truth, concretes and synthesizes and vivifies every partial and contingent verity; and those who deny Him, separate truths, and fall in consequence into error. “They have not one idea,” says teaubriand," which we do not possess, but they cannot follow us into the regions of evangelical light. It is not that our sight is limited, it is that theirs is partial. We perceive all

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says Cha

Apolog. 1 and 2. ? In Joan. Evan. c. 8. tr. 35. 3 Vme. Entretien, 9, and Traité de Morale, ii. c. 4. 4 S. John i. 9.

5 Lumen Ecclesiæ, vol. i. p. 42.

that they perceive, but they do not see all that we see.” “That is truly and properly Catholic, as the force and significance of the name declare, which truly comprehends all universally," said S. Vincent of Lerins. That which is truly Catholic is not the profession of one doctrine to the exclusion of other doctrines, but is the co-ordination of all ideas, of all possible doctrines, maintained invariably undivided in the infinite conception of Christ, which includes all without excluding any, and adopts all into an unity which forms of them an homogeneous and complete whole. Outside Catholic unity there can be only negation and exclusion, wliich, breaking the bond of this spiritual community, particularizes that which Catholicism had universalized, decomposes that which it had combined, and reproduces thus the same ideas in broken particles, in torn shreds, but with all their relations displaced or suppressed, and becomes thereby no longer absolute verity, but a selection of relative ideas, incomplete because all ideas are not admitted, and false because all those which are excluded are denied.

S. Clement of Alexandria, starting from the principle that the Catholic Faith is the syncretism of all practical verities professed before and after Christ's advent, applied this principle to that which preceded His coming, and shewed that the Mosaic law and the Greek philosophy were to Christianity what partial verities are to the union of all verities. On this account he founded an exhortation to the Greeks to leave their doubt and to embrace a Gospel which contained all their philosophies and blended them into one with all the verities of Mosaism.

The same idea is thus expressed by Grotius in his book on the verity of the Christian Religion: “Among the heathen there were not wanting men, who taught singly those things which the Christian religion holds univer

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