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tunity of loading his gun, and firing a second time ; when he is gez nerally sare of hitting the mark : and the bear either falls upon the spot, or runs away.
Baron Grundell showed the author skins of blue and black foxes; and mentioned, that he had sent to the King of Sweden a live Jarf, or Glutton ; and that he once had another of the same species so much domesticated, that when he would have turned it into the water it would not leave him, nor would it feed on any kind of live fish. Linnæus asserts, without quoting his authority, that it never meddles with the reịn-deer ; by which he alludes, we presume, to the tame flocks near dwellings; for Thrascheninnikow, if we rightly recollect, in his description of Kamtschatka, positively states, that, to compensate for the slowness of its motions in the pursuit of prey, it lurks in the branches of trees, to surprise the horse, elk or rein-deer that may accidentally come within its reach; and that it darts on them from its hiding-place with unerring certainty, fixing itself between the shoulders with its teeth and claws, maintaining its position, and sucking the blood of its enraged victim, till the latter falls down, exhausted with pain and fatigue. The same author, we believe, alludes to the stratagem to which it has been known to have recourse, in order to allure the rein-deer, namely, by throwing down some of that animal's beloved moss, so as to di vert its attention. But the accounts of the Glutton's eating tin its skin is ready to give way, and of its being obliged to unload itself, by squeezing its body between two trees, are quite fabulous, and might with more plausibility be referred to some Roman emperor, or city corporation. Though the Glutton has his name from his voracity, his appetite, it should seem, is not always of that insatiable nature which has been ascribed to him.
The individual, indeed, which was kept at Dresden, would easily despatch thirteen pounds of flesh in a day ; but that which Buffon possessed, though it fed with great greediness, consumed only four pounds; and another, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, was usually satisfied with the ordinary allowance of a mastiff dog. In fact, the more closely that we investigate the history of any species of animal, the greater diversities, both of physical and intellectual temperament, we shall probably find to obtain among the individuals of which that species is composerl. Gmelin, we believe, is solitary in the opinion that this animal inhabits the warmer regions of the globe, equally with the latitudes of the North. But, even the weight of his name is insuficient to establish such a curious fact, unless it can be proved by the distinct and respectable testimony of some ocular Witness.
We could have wished to have offered some remarks on the Lemming, and other native quadrupeds of Lapland, which the author sometimes deigns to describe by characteristic definitions; but few of which he recommends to our attention, by noting their peculiarities of physiology or disposition. His observations on the common seal, appended to the Journal, are less exceptionable in this point of view; but they are not free from inaccuracy; and the subject readily admits of more varied and entertaining illustration. We have searched in vain for any specific account of the breed of Lapland dogs; of which, Regnard informs us, that they are trained to rock the children in the cradle ; an office which they are said to perform with great gentleness and attention.
As our limits, however, unavoidably compel us to quicken our critical pace, we hasten to observe, that the list of the feathered tribe which the most diligent scrutiny could extract from these pages, is far from numerous, especially when we reflect on the multitudes which resort to the lakes and marshy grounds of the northern latitudes, for the important purpose of breeding. Frequent mention is made of the cock of the wood and the ptarmigan ; and we meet with the names of black-grous, snipe, swan, crane, ruff and reeve, sandpiper, ringed plover, wild and tufted duck, black-throated diver, gull, goosander, razorbill, little-eared grebe, common and eagle owl, crow, sprike, cuckoc, thrush, water-wagtail, cross-bill, yellow and snow bunting, mountain finch, thrush, &c. The wheat-car and orlolan started on us rather by surprize. Some swallows were observed in a fen, on the 24th of May; but the species is not particularized ; nor do we find the most distant allusion to the very pointed assertion of Regnard, that swallows are often taken by the fishermen from beneath the ice of the lakes and rivers, and completely revived by the application of a due degree of heat.
The catalogue of fishes is still less copious than that of birds. Pike, perch, salmon and charr, appear to be very abundant; but the sey, swordfish, grayling, lamprey, gwiniad, and some of the smaller Cyprini, are also incidentally noticed.
The insects and more imperfect animals need not for a noment detain us; for such of them as were deemed rare or curious by the Journalist, are now much better known, and have been more skilfully delineated by our recent entomologists.
From the very loose and ambiguous manner in which the author's observations on the Laplanders are scattered over his pages, we cannot always determine whether they were meant to apply to the whole population of Swedish Lapland, or only to the inhabitants of particular districts or provinces. Of seventy
thousand individuals, however, dispersed over a wide extent of dlesolate surface, we need not very anxiously investigate the diversities of condition ; nor need we seek to apportion among them, with scrupulous precision, the hurried comments of a passing visitor.
Much has been said of their dwarfish stature; and Linnæus, who never met with any of them taller than himself, ascribes their diminutive size to the scantiness of their diet, and the severity of their climate. At the same time, we must not absolutely depress them to the pigmy standard; for, of the many natives of both sexes whom Maupertuis had occasion to observe, one of the smallest was a well-proportioned woman, who measured four fect two inches and five lines. He likewise remarks, that the boys have often the semblance of mature years, and are frequently eruployed in driving the pilkas, or sledges, so as to be mistaken for men. Högström frequently met with natives of the different provinces, whose height was between five and six feet; but still they appeared low, from the want of artificial hects, and their slouching gait. Their dark complexion is probably only the effect of the smoke in which they are doomed to pass such a considerable portion of their existence; for we are told in the 2d vol. (p. 18.), that the fairness of the bodies of
these dark-faced people, rivalled that of any lady whatever.' Högström will not allow that they are at all deformed; and even admires their female figures, notwithstanding the broad face and pointed chin. Were we to judge of the attractions of these Arctic damsels, from two specimens exhibited by the exploring naturalist, we might readily excuse his silence on their beauty and accomplishments.
• He was accompanied by a person, whose appearance was such, that at first I did not know whether I beheld a man or a woman. I scarcely believe that any poetical description of a fury could come up to the idea which this Lapland fair one excited. It might well be imagined that she was truly of Stygian origin, Her stature was very diminutive ; her face of the darkest brown, from the effects of smoke; her eyes dark and sparkling ; her eye brows black; her pitchy-coJoured hair hung loose about her head ; and on it she wore a flat red cap. She had a grey petticoat; and from her neek, which resembled the skin of a frog, were suspended a pair of large loose breasts of the same brown complexion, but encompassed, by way of ornament, with brass rings. Round her waist she wore a girdle ; and on her feet a pair of half boots.
Opposite to me sat an old woman, with one leg bent, the other straight. Her dress came no lower than her kness; but she had a belt embroidered with silver. Her grey hair hung straight down, and she had a wrinkled face, with blear-eyes. Her countenance was
altogether of the Lapland cast. Her fingers were scraggy and withered. ****
Next to her sat her husband, a young man, six and thirty years of age, who, for the sake of her large herds of rein, deer, had already been married ten years to this old hag.'
In regard to the usual term of life to which the Laplanders attain, we are furnished with no precise data. Regnard, with all the ease of a Frenchman, asserts, that it is very considerable; and that some of them have even completed a century and a half
. The premature looks of old age which disfigure their youth ; the rigours of their protracted winter; and the wretched tenor of their
existence, forbid us to credit such unreasonable accounts of their longevity. Besides, they are very unskilful in the computation of time; and, as our honest Swede reminds us, have no almanacks ; so that they may be ignorant or careless of the chronology of their earthly pilgrimage. Linnæus, however, positively states, that they are a healthy race, a fact which we are not prepared to deny; although one or two of the nine reasons which he assigns for it will admit of dispute ; and one or two more are rather at variance with some of his own allegations in other parts of the work. Their nosology, if fully and faithfully recorded, is certainly far from complicated. The ullem is e violent cholic, induced by drinking the warm sea-water when they cannot procure fresh. When thus attacked, they have recourse to soot, smuff, salt, and other remedies. They are likewise afflict, ed with asthma, epilepsy, scurvy, swelling of the uvula, goitres, pleurisy, rheumatic pains, lumbago, headaches, St Anthony's fire, and disorders in the stomach and bowels. Owing to the thinness of the population, the variolous contagion is seldom propagated over any considerable tract of country: nor can we, by any means, vouch for the accuracy of the ensuing paragraph. I was informed, that in this neighbourhood (an alpine
district] the inoculated small-pox is remarkably fatal. If the
patients have but seventy or eighty pustules, they die of it as s of the plague: they fly to the mountains, when infected, and 6 die. The same is the case with the measles. It
that • both these diseases are aggravated by the violent cold, whence • the patients die in so miserable a manner. '- It is not ima • possible,' observes Dr Smith, that Linnæus might be mis! led here by the prejudices of his time, or by those of the
people from whom he obtained his account.' In the earlier period of his life, he was somewhat notorious for facility of belief ; but, in the present instance, we conceive it to be very probable, that he had misinterpreted the language of the natives, and that their report applied to natural small-pox; because, if the effects of inoculation had been found so baneful, they would
at once have desisted from it. At the same time, if they fly to the mountains when under the disorder, we need not wonder that they perish. Fevers and agues, it is alleged, are by no means common; and chilblains not more so than in other countries. Coughs and dropsies are very rare; and stone and gout quite unknown. A long endurance of intense cold, coarse and precarious fare, smoky and close air, and inattention to personal cleanliness, can certainly never conduce to a sound and vigorous state of the human constitution : but there are countervailing circumstances in the lot of the Laplander, which ought not to be overlooked, and which may in great measure compensate the privation of physicians and apothecaries ;-such are, their roaming dis; - sition, their addiction to hunting and fishing, and their tevdance of the rein-deer, which habituate them to air and exercise; the manual, yet not oppressive occupation, in which so many individuals in a rude state of society are unavoidably engaged; their partiality to various preparations of milk; their warın clothing; their provision of Lichen plicatus and Carex sylvatica against damp and cold feet; and their happy ignorance of the follies and dissipations of more refined states of society.
Of their few medical nostrums, most seem to be abundantly absurd, or fantastical; but the toule, which is the most popular, may, in various cases, be attended with beneficial results. • Their moxa, as the Japanese call it, but which they term toile, ' is made of a fine fungus found on the birch, and always cho• sen from the south side of the tree. Of this they apply a
piece as large as a pea, upon the afflicted part, setting fire to • it with a twig of birch, and letting it burn gradually away. * This is repeated two or three times. It produces a sore that • will ofien keep open for six months afterwards, nor must it be • closed till it heals spontaneously. This remedy is used for all • aches and pains; as the headache, toothache, pleurisy, pain • in the stomach, lumbago, &c. It is the universal medicine of • the Laplanders, and may be called their little physician.'
In some cases, it would seem, that infant children are fed with nnboiled milk, through a horn. In general, they pass much of their time in a cradle, lined with the hair of rein-deer and sphagmum palustre, being frequently either rocked or swung, and sometimes tied close down in a wooden or leathern case. In four months, they are able to stand on their feet ; but many of them, we presume, fall a sacrifice to improper management, especially to a very early exposure to cold. In this way only can Me explain the stationary, or rather retrogarde state of popula