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by the comparison. Would it have been better if he had pretended that the distracted state of a neighbouring country had imperiously prescribed it to him as a duty to humanity, to put a stop to intestine commotion, by taking military possession ? Should we have thought more favourably of him, if he had announced that Nature had marked out the limits of empires by distinct boundaries, the courses of deep rivers, and the ridges of lofty mountains; and that in extending his authority over all the countries south of the Godāveri, which was unquestionably the particular river Nature intended, he was only the instrument of fulfilling the divine intentions ? Would it even have been much better, if he had given out that the legal authority of the Peshwa having been unduly weakened by the insubordination of his feudatory chiefs, it became necessary

for him to place matters on their former footing, by establishing a vigorous government in the person of his own brother?-though the case, to be sure, would have been different, if, taking it for granted that the Mahrattas were on the point of seizing on the defenceless country of the Nizam, and thereby increasing their power, already too formidable, he had only stepped in, notwithstanding his unalterable affection for his august and venerable ally, to avert the blow, by seizing on as much of it as he could for himself.

On the whole, however, it must be confessed, that Tipu was not altogether successful in imparting a tinge of plausibility to his ambitious projects. Yet, his objects were precisely the same with those of many mighty monarchs and illustrious statesmen, his contemporaries; and though he was probably somewhat less scrupulous as to means, we rather think, that, in the hands of a judicious statesman of the modern school, the substance of his measures might have assumed a less revolting appear

Let us try whether tire Sultan's homely style may not be translated into very courtly and fashionable language.

Camreddin Khan, one of Tipu's generals, was employed in the siege of a fortress, subject to the Mahrattas. The following are his master's instructions. • Agreeably to our former • directions, let a capitulation be granted to the besieged, al• lowing them to depart with their arms and accoutrements. • Cali Pandit, with his family and kindred, and the principa! • bankers, must also be induced, by engagements, to descend • from the fort ; upon doing which, they are to be placed under ! a guard, and sten lacs of pagodas to be demanded of them, for • the ravages committed in our territories. If they pay this

sum, it will be well. Otherwise they must be kept in confinement. ! In short, you are, by finesse, to get the aforesaid Pandit, to



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gether with his kindred, and the bankers, out of the fort, and then to secure their persons.' The intentions of Tipu would have been equally well understood, if the Minister for the war department had expressed himself thus to M. le General. • I have his Majesty's commands to inform you, that * in order to put a speedy stop to the effusion of human blood, " and for the sake of suffering humanity, you are hereby au* thorised to grant to the garrison of Nirguna whatever terms

are most likely to induce them to an immediate surrender of s that fortress. These terms, M. le General, you will doubt« less observe with that rigid punctuality which has always dis

tinguished the Sovereign whom we have the honour and hap• piness to serve. Besides the commandant, Cali Pandit, there

are a number of opulent bankers in the fort, whose property * and persons might be exposed to much risk in the present • unsettled state of that country: His Majesty expects, there• fore, that you will pay particular attention to the safety of * these interesting individuals ; that you will appoint a guard 6 of honour to attend their persons, and adopt every precau* tion for their entire security. As a mark of his gracious in* dulgence, his Majesty is willing to reduce to ten lacs of pa

godas the damages sustained by his territories, which, at their

perfect convenience, they will no doubt cheerfully reimburse • before their departure.

Again, in the year 1785, the city of Puna had been thrown into disorder by disputes between the Hindu and Mohamedan inhabitants, originating apparently in some female intrigue. Tipu's ambassadors appear successfully to have executed their influence for the restoration of order in the Mahratta capital; a conduct which procured for them the following very gracious letter from their master.

• To Nûr Mohamed Khân and Mohamed Ghias, dated from Bangalor, 5th Wāsai, or 14th September.

• We have, of late, repeatedly heard, that Row Rāstā' (a Mahratta chief in Tipu's interest) having sent for you, you declined waiting upon him, on account of a dispute that had arisen respecting a woman belonging to some musulman ; returning for answer to his message, that if they would let the woman in question go, you would attend him. This account has occasioned us the utmost surprise and astoniskment. This is a domestic disturbance among the inhabitants of their own country. Where was the necessity of your interfering in this matter, or of refusing to wait upon Row Rasta, when he sent for you? thereby throwing our affairs iặto confusion. It seems to us that great years and old heads must have produced this change in your conduct, and rendered you thus unmindful of your lives and honour. It would have been most consonant to the state


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of the times, and to the regard you owed to our interests, if, considering their dissensions as beneficial to Islam, you had secretly encouraged the musulmans in their proceedings, whilst, to all appearance, you were unconcerned spectators ; instead of interponing with such an extraordinary recommendation as you did ; and which was, indeed, altogether unworthy of your understandings. When the Nazarenes (the English) seized upon hundreds of musulman women, where was the real for the honour of Islamism, which you are now so desirous of manifesting there? For the future, it will be proper that you should never take any share in their domestic concerns, but attend exclusively to whatever may proinote the success of our, affairs. Let the fire of discord, therefore, be again kindled amongst them, to the end that they may, in this manner, waste their strength upon each other.'

This letter seems to demonstrate, that the Sultan's fanaticism was very much under the direction of his policy. A more skilful writer might have conveyed the same instructions, in the language of European diplomacy, in a more agreeable form.

· I have his Majesty's commands to signify to your Excellency the concern which he has experienced at the measure you have recently adopted. In doing justice to the motives by which it was actuated, he conceives it incompatible with the dignity of his crown, to suffer it to pass without animadversion. If any one principle is more incontestably demonstrated than another, by the uniform tenor. of his Majesty's government, it is his unalterable resolution never to interfere in the domestic concerns of neighbouring and friendly states. Your Excellency will appreciate the strictness with which his Majesty has determined to adhere to this principle, when you shall learn, that even to preserve the unsullied purity of the daughters of Islam, will not, in his eyes, justify a deviation from it. Your Excellency will therefore adopt every practicable measure to restore affairs to the precise posture in which they were at the time of your unfortunate interference. In carrying into execution a measure so indispensable for the glory of our Sovereign, you will inform the musul. mans of the interest his Majesty takes in their concerns, and the shock his sensibility has experienced at the insults they have thus wantonly been exposed to. Your Excellency may also think it expedient to hint to them, that the station of the tenth military division is within fifteen days march of Puna.'

We have already stated, that of the acts and expressions supposed to arise from the personal character of the Sultan, many, we think, may be traced to the peculiar circumstances in which be found himself placed. To a man whose caprice is a law to thousands, it is a very natural, if not a logical conclusion, that he is as much their superior in wisdom as in authority. Tipu, consequently, was skilled in all sciences. His knowledge of medicine is proved by his condescending to prescribe for his offi.. cers when indisposed ;--and it would be a very pretty question to determine, whether it required most courage to swallow or to neglect the royal recipe. The following contains important instructions to physicians in a very alarming case.


• It has been reported to us, that the Mutusuddy of the Jaish, Crishna Row has been bitten by a mad dog : We therefore write to desire that you will give the aforesaid Mutusuddy in particular charge to the physician Mohamed Beg, who must adminiser to him the proper medicines in such cases, and restore him to health. He must also be told not to let the discharge from the wound stop, but to keep tt open for six months.'

The following contains still more particular directions.

• Your letter of the 14th Behari was received this day; and has informed us of Dowlet Khan's being ill of the stone in the bladder : We have, in consequence sent by the post an emetic to be taken the first day, together with other proper medicines for the seven subsequent days. These are all separately made up in cloth, and sealed.

• The way of taking an emetic is this,' &c. • The following morning a dose of the other medicine is to be taken in eight tolahs of syrup of abshakh and radich leaves. This course is to be pursued for seven days, during which the patient need not abstain from acids, but must avoid eating black and red pepper, and other heating and flatulent things. The dict should be curry of radishes with boiled rice; and his drink an intusion of musk melon seeds, cucumber seeds, and dog-thorn, of cach half a tolah weight.'

To enable our readers to appreciate more fully the justice of the Sultan's pretensions tv universal science, we subjoin his observations on that most important instrument, the barometer.

• The barometer which you sent us in charge of your Harcara, is in all respects very compleie, exepting in the article of the quicksilver, which, onung to its okiness, does not move up and down. It is therefore returned to you; and you must send another good one in its stead, that has beca rade in the present year.

To the effects of despotic authority on the mind, we are also inclined to attribute his extreme severity, on the slightest deviatiou from any of his regulations, however trivial, or however justitiable; and his aversion, on all occasions, to adopt the suggestions of others.

You sugest,' sans Tipu to one of his commercial agents, who had at the same time discided the future of a favourite pan of the Saltar, the establiment of banking houses on the part of govern. ment, and the appoinnit o: a lunier with a salary to superintend the... Yea aise popular, with a penisan, to open warchouses fo: the sale of Narni, Osein, and other pisces. It is cachexieri. Tris non masses not cost

in **r uddars. This Bing the cax, o muzx tannekatan haiseedet; neither exceedw domu se pusting & r shag ar or from you.'


The letter we have just cited illustrates a trait which undoubtedly is solely referable to personal character,—the Sultan's avarice. He had already established a monopoly of wholesale commerce in the most important articles; and the plan, of which the failure had just been communicated, was no less than an altempt to introduce a similar monopoly in the retail trade, by the establishment of shops in various places, on his private account. Proofs of the most sordid parsimony, indeed, occur throughout his correspondence. We find his brother-in-law actually commanding an army on service, obliged to make a formal application to him for money to purchase clothes, and a very scanty sum reluctantly issued for that purpose. The Sultan appointed ambassadors, in 1785, to proceed to Constantinople, and eventually to prosecute their journey to Paris and London. On their arrival at the place of embarkation, they found the supplies of necessaries for the voyage altogether inadequate ; and in Tipu's reply to their representation, they are informed that • they must compel' soine unhappy man on the spot to provide • what is absolutely necessary;-but that, even though there • should be some small deficiency, that should not be an excuse • for their delay in setting off.'

The coolness and activity of his mind are strongly evinced by the following letter. He was,' says General Kirkpatrick, at • the date of it, not only deliberating on the measures to be pur

sued with respect to Shanur; in planning the future operations • of the war in which he was engaged ; and in providing for the ' safety of Burhaneddin's army; but he was, in fact, on the eve • of a general engagement with the Mahrattas. Yet, all these • important and urgent considerations united, were not capable • of diverting his attention from any of the minor objects of his • interest. Thus, in the bustle of a camp, and in the face of an

enemy, he could find leisure, and was sufficiently composed, • to meditate on the rearing of silk worms!' The singularity of the circumstances induces us to insert the letter itself, as highly illustrative of the mind of the writer. It is addressed from his camp to the commandant of his capital.

• Behaeddin and Casturi Ranga, who were sent some time since to Bengal for the purpose of procuring silk worms, are now on their return. On their arrival, you must ascertain from them the proper sia tuation in which to keep the aforesaid worms, and provide accordingly. You must, moreover, supply for their food leaves of the wild mulberry trees, which were formerly ordered to be planted for this purpose. The number of silk worms brought from Bengal must likewise be distinctly reported to us. We desire, also, to know, in what. kind of place it is recommended to keep them, and what means are to be pursued for multiplying thou.

• There

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