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duals have advanced during that period, is more easily estimated; but the whole amount of it does not appear in any part of the Report now before us. We only learn that, besides other sums, exclusive of their several contributions to the 40001. loan, and exclusive also of their annual subscriptions, these six gentlemen have already advanced nearly six thousand pounds, in very unequal proportions.

As soon as these extraordinary efforts had removed the obstructions to Mr Lancaster's exertions, he resumed his unwearied course of labour, and, if possible, redoubled his activity and zeal. The advantages of his journies and lectures in the provinces, had been found to warrant an extension of this plan; and it was facilitated by the supply which the Borough school now afforded, both of young persons, who could fill his place during his absence, and of tenchers for such seminaries as might be established in consequence of his provincial tours. During the last four years, accordingly, a considerable portion of his time has been devoted to those circuits; and with what effect, the papers before us abundantly prove. They contain the returns for the years 1807, 1808, is09 and 1810,including the year before the trustees began to manage his concerns,—but stopping short at the commencement of the present year, when a further change, as we shall immediately see, took place in the establishment. In the three years ending 1809, Mr Lancaster performed twelve journies, travelling 3062 miles. In the course of these, he delivered seventy-four lectures, which were attended by 25,650 persons. No regular account of the sums collected at the close of the lectures appears to have been kept, except for the last of these years; and it amounted to 6001. The subscriptions afterwards raised for promoting the plan in each place where he had then preached the doctrine of light to the poor, amounted to 11,8501. No less than forty-five schools, for the instruction of 11,300 children, were established in different parts of the kingdom, in consequence of these journies and lectures. In each case, Mr Lancaster arranged the plan, both of the mectings for forming the school, and of the school itself-entered into the details of the establishment--and furnishing both the general scheme and the instruction necessary to conduct it. Indeed, the master appointed to carry on each school was previously trained by him, and made acquainted with his inethod at the Borough seminary. Important as these labours had been, his exertions in 1810 far exceeded them. In that one year, he travelled 3775 miles-delivered sixty-seven lectures to 23,480 persons--raised at the time 16601. ud afterwards 5250!.--and established no less than fylly new



schools, at which 14,200 poor children are now receiving the blessings of education. If we suppose that his progress during the present year is only equal to that of the last, we shall have, for the whole individual exertions of Mr Lancaster during the Jast five years, in this one department of travelling only, 208 lectives delivered to 72,610 persons ;-about 27,000l. raised in consequence, 145 schools established, and about 40,000 poor children constantly taught ;--so that the numbers of those already educated may amount to above eighty thousand, and this independent of the schools taught by Nir Lancaster himself, where above 6000 have been educated under his own eye, independent too of the numerous schools which have been formed in different places where he has never been able to go, upon the model which he has furnished, and with such instructions as he has communicated by his publications and correspondence. If we state the whole number of children who owe to this distinguished person one of the first of blessings, at a humndred thousand, we certainly do not exaggerate the effects of his system, cramped as its operation has been by many untoward circumstances, and short as is the period during which it has been in action.

What we have now said refers almost exclusively to England, to which country, indeed, the practical knowledge of the system was, till very lately, confined. In this end of the island, our excellent establishment of parish schools rendered it less necessary-except, perhaps, in the case of large towns, which are almost inevitably deprived of the benefit of that institution. It is little more than two years, we believe, since the first attempt was made to establish a school on Mr Lancaster's plan in Scot-' land; and there are already at least fifteen in operation, at which nearly five thousand children, of all sects and communions, receive the elements of literature. The most extensive establishments are in Glasgow, where there are already three schools, each containing from 300 to 800 children ; and one is now building at the Lanark cotton mills, to contain no less than 1000. In this city there are three, the largest and most perfect of which is attended by 400 children, and we have learned, with great pleasure, that the clergymen and heritors of several populous parishes have already agreed to organize the established parochial schools upon this admirable system.

With regard to Ireland, our information is less precise and positive,—though it is with the most sincere pleasure that we announce, that Mr Lancaster himself is now employed in that country, by the chief secretary Mr W. W. Pole, and that very extensive and liberal establishments are understood to be in contemplation. We have hcard, however, of at least nine or


ten large schools that have been already opened in that kingtlom; and the most remarkable thing is, that, though all taught by Protestant masters, they are resorted to indiscriminately by Catholics and Protestants, except in those few cases where some overzealous persons have insisted upon the introduction of the Church Catechism. The testimony which is borne, by some of the Protestant teachers of these seminaries, as to the good disposition of the Catholies, and the obstructions which poverty and bigotry have thrown in the way of this great work of beneficence, appears to us to be extremely touching and important. • The Roman Catholics,' says one of them, in a letter whicle we have seen from Omagh, * are as desirous of a Testament

or a Bible as the Protestants ; indeed, in many cases more

so; so that the number of books I require is considerable.• If I am not to look to London,' he adds, for such books, • I fear I must give up my present exertions. I have no pecu

niary aid to buy books; and I cannot afford to do so in addi« tion to my other exertions. Did I belong to a party, I might have aid :--but I do not. I take part with the poor insulted · Roman Catholics, who possess, in this country, a feeling and • affection for any kindness shown them, beyond what the his• tory of any other people can furnish. These are the people who we are told it is impossible to conciliate, and these are the means of conciliation that have been tried !

We cannot better close this period of our history, than by extracting from the Report a few instances, in Mr Lancaster's own words, of the facility with which his system may be spread, and of the primary necessity of providing a due supply of schoolmasters, that is, of boys sufficiently educated to superintend schools; for it is a distinguishing excellence of this plan, that a lad of ordinary talents cannot become a tolerable proficient in his own learning, without acquiring the skill and habits requisite in a schoolmaster.

• During a severe illness, which, in 1809, confined me to my bed some weeks at Bristol, the master of that school, who had been educated from an early age in my own, attended me in all my pain. fal illness with the most filial affection. A boy only thirteen years of age, kept school for him with so great success, that when my re. covery enabled me to return to town, being in a feeble state, I re. quired the master to accompany me, and, during a week's absence, this lad was sole governor of the school. This boy had obtained his knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic, in the Bristol school, in less than eighteen months. On coming in, he was one of the lowest classes; and at the end of twelve months, he excelled every Log in the school, and had become monitor-general. The commit.. tee visited the school in the master's absence, and found this ercel. lont lad, to use a schoolboy's expression, “ king of the castle.”

• It not being judged proper, at that time, to enlarge the family in Southwark, I boarded and clothed him in Bristol for twelve months; after which, I received him home to the Borough. In a short time he was placed as master at a school at Southgate, built and supported by my friend John Walker esq., to extend the bles. sing of education to the poor children in that neighbourhood. My worthy friend speaks in the most pleasing manner of the ability and good conduct of this amiable and excellent boy. In this statement is the pleasing history of a boy, whose talents would have most like. ly been buried under the rubbish of ignorance, had not the facilities of this system developed them. This, however, is but one proof of many which might be adduced of the good done by it. An igno. zant lad comes to school in 1807;-in about two years after, he is able to conduct the Institution in which he obtained his learning, In three years after a little instruction in the Borough Road, he proves himself qualified to conduct a large school, to the satisfaca tion of his immediate patron, and the delight of all that visit it.

• To bring ail the instances I might advance, would fill a volame, instead of a brief Report. I must not, however, omit one lad, James George Penney. About the year 1805, this boy attended the school in Southwark. He was fatherless, and his mother poor. At that time he would often come to school in the morning, and zemain there till night without any dinner. This was soon discovered by his feeling schoolfellows, some of whom dried up the tears which hunger occasioned, and supplied his wants by a contribution of bread and meat, which some of them were pleased to call “ a parish dinner. » This circumstance coming to my knowledge, and knowing him to be an excellent boy, I took him into my house. At first he appeared dull, from habitual depression. The close of the year before last, he was sent into Shropshire, and spent about six months there, in the house of a most liberal and excellent clergyman. The first village school that he organized was for 250 children; and stich was the progress made by the scholars, that, in one case, the clergyman was applied to by a man to inform him if such improvement could be made by any thing short of witchcraft. This worthy boy did not leave that part of the nation without organizing schools for near 1000 children, which nimber is likely to be doubled in the en. suing summer, many persons of influence in that part of the country having been convinced of the great good to be obtained by the uni. versal diffusion of knowledge among the lower orders of society. This lad is now setiled at Bath over a school of 300 children; and my accounts from Sir Horace Mann, Baronet, the President, speak Highly of the state of the school, and conduct of the master.

* An excellent lad, not fourteen, has just materially aided the or. ganization of the school at Coventry for 4.00 children. The committee, to express their sense of his services, have voluntarily allow. ed for his board, &c. at the rate of 601. per annum. This is not quoted as a precedent, but as a proof of the boy's activity and me. res. A boy of sevenicen keeps a schicol at Newbury for 200 chil.

dren; forward

dren; another at Chichester, about eighteen, will soon have 300. These facts prove, that this system possesses the power of accomplishing considerable good with small means.

A young man, just turned of twenty, and educated in the Bot rough Road, conducted a school at Bradley before he was sixteen, and had the thanks of the Duke of Somerset for his excellent con. duct and usefulness. After this, he organized schools in Liverpool and several other places, with repufation and credit. He some time ago settled in Birmingham with a school of 400 children, which it is hoped will soon be extended to a thousand. The instances of real and extensive usefulness among my young men and boys are so numerous and interesting, that I purpose to take the first leisure op? portunity to publish them as a sort of history of this system. ' Report, p. 9–11.

Such of our readers as have honoured the preceding pages with their attention, must have arrived at several conclusions upon which we must entreat them for a moment to rest. We have seen the amount of the debt which had been contracted, before the six gentlemen took Mr Lancaster's affairs into their hands. We have also seen, that those gentlemen took that debt upon themselves, and increased ii by a considerable sum, in carrying on the concern for three years ending 1810. It has appeared, that the supplies from all quarters, inclurling profita of printing, donations, and annual subscriptions, fell uniformly short of the regular demands of the establishment. In fact, tos carry it on upon the same scale, would have required double the income, without making any provision for the liquidation of the debt. But we have also seen, that the chief expense, the training of schoolmasters, is of all others the most essential to the progress of the systein; and that the Borough school is now so completely arraved, as to furnish the easy means of educating all the poor children in the United Kingdoms, rcquir. ing only such supplies of money as may suflice to maintain the proper number of youths, while they are learning to act as schoolmasiers wherever they may be wanted. Lastly, we have seen, that the six gentlemen so often mentioned, beside their unwearied and anxious labours, have advanced large sums of money, part of which indeed they always intended as a free gift; but the rest of the burden, it seems natural for the other friends of the cause to desire may be shared by them.

A knowledge of the facts already stated, had suggested these considerations to several wellwishers of Mr Lancaster's plan, about the beginning of last winter; and it appeared manifest to them, that steps should without delay be taken, for placing his affairs in a more regular train of management, and giving to his system all the ellicacy of which it was susceptible. "Motives of delicacy might proverit the six private friends froin coming

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