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PUE'RTO BE'LLO, a sinall decayed seaport | -18° 30' N., long. 65° 39'-67° 11' W. It is in size town of the United States of Colombia, on the somewhat less than Jamaica, being fully 100 miles northern shore of the Isthmus of Panama, and 40 from east to west, 40 miles from north to south, and miles north of the town of that name. It is sur- closely resembling a rectangle in shape. Area, 3897 rounded by mountains, has an excellent harbour, is square miles; pop. in 1864, 615,574, of whom 323,032 very unhealthy, and has fallen into decay since the were pure whites, and 292,542 coloured. Of the latyear 1739, when it was stormed by Admiral Vernon, ter, 249,900 were free, and the remaining 42,642 were during the war between England and Spain. slaves.

| The island is traversed from PUERTO DE SANTA MARI'A (usually called |

east to west by a

range of mountains, 1500 feet in average height, EL PUERTO, the Port), a seaport of Spain, in the

though rising in one peak to 3678 feet above the sea. modern province of Cadiz, stands at the mouth of

From the base of the mountains, rich alluvial tracts the Guadalete, in a most fertile district, on the Bay

extend to the sea, and there are numerous wellof Cadiz, 6 miles north-east of the city of that

| wooded and abundantly watered valleys. The cliname, and 9 miles by railway south-west of Xeres.

mate is warm, but is considered more healthy than Suspension-bridges cross the Guadalete and the Rio de Š. Pedro. The mouth of the Guadalete forms

soil is remarkably fertile. The principal crops are the harbour; but the bar is dan erous and much

sugar, coffee, and tobacco of the finest quality, and neglected. P., a pleasant and well-built town,

; cotton remarkable for its length of fibre, tenacity, resembling Cadiz in its houses, and containing only

and whiteness. Cattle and sheep are extensively one long and handsome street, while the others are narrow and ill paved, is the port for the shipment

West Indies. The value of the imports for the year of Xeres wines. The wines are lodged in numerous

| 1867 was $7,767,415, and that of the exports, bodegas, or wine-stores, lofty buildings built with

| $5,761,720. The imports consist of cotton, woollen, thick walls and narrow windows, in order to secure

| linen, silk, and embroidered goods, metals, hardware, an even temperature inside. From this port about

and provisions, as ale, porter, fruits, wines, &c. The 1,530,000 gallons of Xeres wines are exported to

| exports are sugar, tobacco, coffee, cotton, molasses, foreign lands, and about 26,000 gallons are trans

| rum, hides, and cattle. ported inland. The bull-fights which take place

| The exports in each of the years 1866 and 1867 here in May are among the most famous in the

comprised the following articles : country. Steamers ply three times a day between

Articles.

1866. this town and Cadiz, and P. supplies that city with Brandy, hhds., . .

255

219 drinking-water at a cost of £10,000 a year. Pop. Cotton, pounds, ,

1,301,390

1,085,998 21,714.

Sugar,

111,358,765 120,257,796

14,924,810 19,220,194 PUE'RTO PRI'NCIPÉ, SANTA MARIA DE, an Hides "

775,012 Important inland town, in the east of the island of

Sheep, head, , ,

8,161

8,640 Molasses, hho

43,134

43,998 Cuba, about 325 miles east-south-east of Havana,

Tobacco, pounds, L 3,379,966 1,747,879 and 45 miles south-west of its port, Las Nuevitas, The chief ports are San Juan, commonly calle ! with which it is connected by railway. Pop. 30,000. Puerto Rico (pop. stated at 10,000), in the nortis

PUERTO RICO, an island in the West Indies, east, Ponce in the south-west, and Mayaguez in the belonging to Spain, is one of the Greater Antilles, west. At the close of 1863 surveys had been comand lies west of Hayti or St Domingo, lat. 17° 55' pleted for a railway running along the north coast

365

1867.

Coffee,

PUFF-ADDER-PUFFIN.

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from San Juan to Arecibo, a distance of about 50 to the removal of the honey, but have been used as miles; while another railway along the south coast | an anæsthetic instead of chloroform. The same was about to be commenced. Owing to the great properties belong also to other species. Some of demand for cotton, consequent upon the American then, in a young state, are used in some countries war, the cultivators have turned their attention as food, and none of them is known to be poisonous. to rearing that crop; and in 1863, four times PUFT-BIRD. See BARBET. the quantity grown in the previous year was

2. PUFFENDORF, SAMUEL, son of a Lutheran produced.

clergyman, was born in 1632 at Chemnitz, in PUFF-ADDER (Clotho arietans), a serpent of Saxony. He received the early part of his educathe family Viperidce, having a short and broad flat tion at Grimma; whence he removed to the head, with scales so sharply keeled as to end in university of Leipzig. There he studied theology a kind of spine. It is one of the most venomous | for several years. In 1656 he went to the university and dangerous serpents of South Africa. It attains of Jena, where he seems to have devoted himself a length of four or almost five feet, and is thick in at first chiefly to mathematics, and subsequently to proportion to its length, often as thick as a man's the study of the Law of Nature, as he, and others arm. Its head is very broad; its tail suddenly who have treated on the same subject, have tapered; its colour brown, chequered with dark termed the law which regulates the duties of men

to one another, independent of the mutual obligation which is enforced by political government, or by revelation of divine will. After quitting Jena, he was appointed tutor to the son of the Swedish ambassador at Copenhagen. Soon after he had received this appointment, a rupture having taken place between Denmark and Sweden, P. was detained as a prisoner in the Danish capital. The power of his mind here shewed itself in a remarkable manner.

Deprived of books and of society, he threw himself | vigorously into meditating on what he had formerly read in the treatise of Grotius, De Jure Belli et Pacis, and in the writings of Hobbes on the principles of general law. The result was the production of the Elementa Jurisprudentice Universalis - a work which was the foundation of its author's fortune. It was dedicated to the Elector Palatine ;

and by this prince, P. was appointed to the ProPuff-adder (Clotho arietans).

fessorship of the Law of Nature and Nations at the university of Heidelberg. He now gave his atten

tion to the tissue of absurdities which existed in the brown and white; a reddish band between the constitution of the Germanic Empire. As was to eyes ; the under parts paler than the upper. Its have been expected, the work (De Statu Reipublicae movements are generally slow, but it turns very | Germanicae. 1607), in which he exposed the defects quickly if approached from behind. It usually of the system. raised a storm of controversy. creeps partially immersed in the sand of the South Austria was especially furious. P. had taken care African deserts, its head alone being completely to publish it under a pseudonym--that of Severinus raised above ground. When irritated, it puffs out a Mozambano, but still, to avoid the possible conthe upper part of its body, whence its name. The sequences. he accepted an invitation from Charles P. is easily killed by the oil, or even by the | XI. of Sweden, in 1670, to become Professor of the juice of tobacco. Its poison is used by the Bosjes- Law of Nations at Lund. During his residence mans for their arrows.--South Africa produces there, he published the work on which his fame several other species of Clotho, similar in their now principally rests, De Jure Naturve et Gentium. habits to the P., and almost equally dangerous. He then removed to Stockholm, where the king PUFFBALL (Lycoperdon), a Linnæan genus of

of Sweden made him his historiographer, with the

In his official Hringi. now divided into many genera, belonging dignity of a counsellor of state. to the section Gasteromycetes, and to the tribe

character, he published a very uninteresting history Trichospermi. They mostly grow on the ground,

of Sweden, from the expedition of Gustavus Adoland are roundish, generally without a stem, at first

phus into Germany to the death of Queen Christine. firm and fleshy, but afterwards powdery within ;

In 1688, the Elector of Brandenburg invited him to the powder consisting of the spores, among which

Chich Berlin to write the history of his life and reign. P. are many fine filaments. loosely filling the interior of accepted the invitation, and executed the required the peridium, or external membrane. The peridium

work in 19 dreary volumes. His intention was to finally bursts at the top, to allow the escape of the

have returned to Stockholm, but death overtook spores, which issue from it as very fine dust. Some

him at Berlin in 1694. · P. lacked the genius to of the species are common everywhere. Most of

render the subjects on which he wrote generally them affect rather dry soils, and some are found

interesting, but his intellectual power was neveronly in heaths and sandy soils. The most common

theless very considerable, and it appears to have British species is L. gemmatum, generally from one

throughout been honestly exercised and with to two and a half inches in diameter, with a warty

unflagging industry.--See Jenisch's Vita Pufenand mealy surface. The largest British species, the

dorfii in the Memoirs of the Academy of Stockholm, GIANT P. (L. giganteum), is often many feet in

1802: circumference, and filled with a loathsome pulpy PUʼFFIN (Mormon), a genus of birds of the mass, when young; but in its mature state, its Auk (q. v.) family, Alcido, having the bill shorter contents are so dry and spongy that they have often than the head, very much compressed, its height at been used for stanching wounds. Their fumes, the base equal to its length, the ridge of the upper when burned, have not only the power of stupifying mandible as high as the top of the head, both bees, for which they are sometimes used in order mandibles arched, and transversely grooved. The

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2

PUG-PUGILISM.

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bill gives to the birds of this genus a very extra- and good-natured, bearing without resentment the ordinary appearance. They have short legs, very roughest handling to which children can subject short tail, and short wings; their legs are placed them. They are all of small size. The common Engfar back, and they sit very erect, like auks and lish Pug is usually yellowish with a black snout, the penguins, resting not merely on the foot, but on the tail firmly curled over the back. New breeds have Tarsus. Potwithstanding their shortness of wing, they fly rapidly, although they seem incapable of long-sustained flights. They swim and dive admirably. The best known and most widely distributed species is the COMMON P. (M. arcticus), a native of the arctic and northern temperate regions. breeding not only in high northern latitudes, but as far south as the coasts of England, and migrating from the colder regions in winter, when it is to be found even on the coasts of Spain and of Georgia. The P. is a little larger than a pigeon; the forehead, crown, back of the head, a collar round the neck, the back, wings, and tail are black, the other parts of the plumage white. The P. lays only a single egg, sometimes in a rabbit burrow, but more frequently in a burrow of its own, which often extends three feet, and is not unfrequently curved ;

Chinese Pug (Looty), found in the Summer Palace at

Pekin. Presented to Her Majesty. sometimes in deep fissures or crevices of cliffs. Great numbers congregate together, and their chosen breeding-places are crowded with them. l of late. been introduced from China and Japan, These are mostly on unfrequented islands and interesting from their peculiar appearance, gentleheadlands. where there is some depth of soil. |ness, and docility, with extremely short puglish In some of them, the ground is covered by muzzle ; the Chinese breed very small, with smooth puffins, old and young, in thousands. The eggs

hair; the Japanese rather larger, with an exuberance are sought after by fowlers, and also the young of long soft hair and a very bushy tail. birds, the flesh of which is used for food. The PU'GET SOUND, a collection of inlets on the Scilly Isles were held in the 14th c., under the north-western border of Washington Territory, king as Earl of Cornwall, by Ranulph de Blanc U.S., forming the southern termination of Admiminster, for an annual payment of 6s. 8d., or 300 ralty Inlet, which communicates with the Pacific puffins at Michaelmas. Puffins are not readily by the Strait of St Juan de Fuca, south-east of

Vancouver's Island. It forms a sheltered bay and harbour of about 15 square miles, surrounded by a fertile well-timbered country.

PU'GGING, a coarse kind of plaster laid on deafening-boards between the joists of floors, to prevent sound.

PU'GILISM, or BOXING, is the art of defending one's self or attacking others with the weapons which nature has bestowed-viz., fists and arms. The origin of boxing, or the use of the fists, is likely as old as man himself. We find numerous allusions to it in the classic authors. Pollux, the twin-brother of Castor in the heathen mythology, was reckoned the first who obtained distinction by the use of his fists, conquering all who opposed him, and obtaining, with Hercules, a place among the gods for his sparring talents. The ancients were not, however, satisfied with the use of the weapons of nature, but increased their power by the addi. tion of the Cestus (q. v.). With the ancients, pugilism was considered an essential part in the

education of youth, and formed part of the course Common Puffin (Mormon arcticus).

of training practised in their gymnasia; it was

valued as a means of strengthening the body alarmed by the approach of man, and many are

and banishing fear; but it was practised in public taken by means of a noose at the end of a rod.

rather with a view to the exhibition of the power Their food consists of small crustaceans and fishes.

of endurance than for mere skilful self-defence. Other species are found in different parts of the

| The earliest account we have of systematic British world; one in Kamtchatka, the Kurile Islands, &c.,

boxing is in 1740, when public exhibitions of prowith two silky tufts of long feathers on its head.

fessors of the art attracted general attention. Uu --The name P. is given in France to the Shearwaters

to this period, the science of self-defence had made (q. v.), or Puffin Petrels, the genus Puffinus of some

but little progress, and strength and endurance ornithologists.

constituted the only recommendations of the prac. PUG, or PUG-DOG, a kind of dog much like titioners at Smithfield, Moorfield, and Southwark the bull-dog in form, and in particular, in its much fair, which had long had booths and rings for the abbreviated muzzle. The nose is often a little display of boxing. Broughton, who occupied the turned up. The disposition is, however, extremely position of 'chainpion of England,' built a theatre unlike that of the bull-dog, being characterised by in Hanway Street, Oxford Street, in 1740, for the great timidity and gentleness. Pug-dogs are only display of boxing; advertisements were issued an. kept as pets. They are often very affectionate nouncing a succession of battles between first-rate

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PUGILISM_PULCI.

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pugilists, who never quitted the stage till one or most influential backers. The more distinguished other was defeated, the reward of each man being patrons of the ring gradually seceded; the Pugi. dependent upon, and proportioned to, the receipts. listic Club,' which had been established in 1814, Broughton was for 18 years champion of England, and which included all the aristocratic patrons of and with him commences the first scientific era 'the ring, was broken up. The magistracy of the of pugilism. He propounded some rules for , country set their faces against the lawless assem. the regulation of the ring, and these remained in blies of roughs' and pick pockets who latterly authority till 1838, when they were materially formed the greater part of tlie spectators at prizealtered. Rule 1 is, That a square of a yard be fights. The electric telegraph, and the establishchalked in the middle of a stage, and that in every ment of an efficient rural police, have given the fresh set-to after a fall, the seconds are to bring finishing touches to an already-expiring profession. their men to the side of the square, and to place Matches can now only be got up by stealth, and them opposite each other, and until this is done, it the place of meeting is kept a profound secret to is not lawful for one to strike the other. Rule 2, the last moment, for fear of interruption. A few That if either of the combatants is unable to be years ago, however, the international combat brought up to the square within 30 seconds after a between Tom Sayers the Englishman, and John fall and the close of a round, he shall be deemed Heenan the American, revived for a moment public a beaten man. No man is permitted to hit his interest in the art ; but apart from exceptional adversary when he is down, or to seize him by the matches, the popular feeling is that prize-fighting breeches, or below the waist, and a man on his knees should not be countenanced, and we may look for is to be reckoned down. These rules laid the foun- its gradual extinction. The art of boxing, as an dation of fair play, and robbed boxing of half its' active and healthy exercise, is likely to be main. horrors. To Broughton also is due the introduction :tained ; and the display of science between two of gloves for sparring-matches,' where lessons accomplished boxers is very interesting, while it could be taken without injury. The greatest pro. is deprived of all the horrors of the prize-ring; fessor of the art was Jackson, who was champion in the rapidity of the blows, the facility with which 1795. He was not only the most scientific boxer of they are mostly guarded or avoided by moving his day, but he gave his art such a prestige and the head and arms; the trial of skill and manoeuvre popularity that half the men of rank and fashion of to gain a trifling adrantage in position, all give a the period were proud to call themselves his pupils. wonderful interest to the spectator, who can watch Ile opened rooms for the practice of boxing in Bond the perfection of the art devoid of the brutalities Street, and for years these were crowded by men of of the ring. The pugilists of the present day are note. His principles of pugilism' were, that con- mostly publicans ; their friends and the patrons tempt of danger and confidence in one's self were of the fancy' meet at their houses for convivial the first and best qualities of a pugilist; that in evenings, sparring-matches, ratting, and the like. hitting, you must judge well your distances, for a It has constantly been urged in defence of pugi. blow delivered at all out of range, was like a spent lism, that were it abolished, the use of the knife shot, and valueless ; that men should fight with their would increase, and Englishmen would lose their legs, using all possible agility, as well as with their present manly system of self-defence. This may be hands; and that all stiffness of style and position true, if the use of the fist in self-defence depended was wrong. Jackson is still regarded as the best on the mercenary exhibition of pugilistic encounters, theorist on the ó noble art, and since his time, it which, however, is mere assumption.—The best has received no essential improvement. Shaw, the authority on the subject of pugilism is Fistiana, Life Guardsman, who immortalised himself at 24th ed. 1863, office of Bell's Life. Waterloo, was a pupil of his, and the prowess which / PULCI, LUIGI, an Italian poet of distinguished le so brilliantly displayed on that occasion, was family, was born at Florence, 3d December 1431, owing as much to his scientific training as to his and devoted his life to study and to literary comgreat strength. At this period, pugilism was position. He was one of the most intimate friends actively supported by many persons of high rank of Lorenzo de' Medici and of Poliziano, from the -the Dukes of York and Clarence, the Earls of latter of whom he derived no little assistance in the Albernarle, Sefton, &c., Lords Byron, Craven, Pom composition of his poem Il Morgante Maggiore (Morfret. In 1814, when the allied sovereigns were in gante the Giant). This celebrated work, a burlesque England, among other entertainments, a “sparring' epic (in 28 cantos), of which Roland is the hero, is display was provided under Jackson's management; a vivacious parody of the romances of Carlovingian and the distinguished foreigners expressed the chivalry, which had become (as P. thought) unde. great gratification they had experienced from the servedly popular in Italy. His mocking imagination exhibition of so much science and fine physical took a pleasure in turning into ridicule the combats development. Besides Jackson, Belcher, Gulley, with giants, the feats of magicians, and all the and Cribb were noted champions at this period. incredible adventures that form the material basis George IV. was a staunch patron of boxing in of the medieval epic; and he manages to do it with his youth, and although he discontinued by his a wonderfully pleasant and original naïveté. But presence to give countenance to the sport, fre- although the poem is essentially heroico-comic, it quent indications were observable of his desire occasionally contains passages of the finest pathos. for its promotion. At the time of the coronation, in which P. fortunately seems to forget his design vihen the popular feelings were much enlisted on of travestying the inventions of the trouvères, and behalf of Queen Caroline, who was excluded from comes out undisguisedly as a real poet. Moreover, the throne, a body of pugilists were employed to in the midst of the most extravagant buffooneries, preserve order; and so well did these men perform we come upon the truest and most natural pictures their duties, that the king presented each man with of manners--the vanity and inconstancy of women, a gold medal, to commemorate the event, and to the avarice and ambition of men. p. died in 1437. shew his satisfaction. This period may be termed The Morgante Maggiore is one of the most valuable the 'palmy days of the ring;' and from various sources for acquiring a knowledge of the early causes, its decline has since then been uninterrupted. Tuscan dialect," the niceties and idioms of which Among other causes, several cases occurred of prize- have been employed by P. with great skill. The fighters who were tempted to lose fights on which first edition appeared at Florence in 1488, and has large sums had been staked, and to deceive their since been frequently reprinted. Other works of

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