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resinous exudation. Various methods are employed different species. All the species are American, for collecting it.
and are much dreaded for their deadly venom, The canes of commerce are usually imported in bun- although they seldom assail man, unless molested, dles of 100 canes, each cane from 15 to 20 feet in and the rattle often gives timely warning of danger. length. Rattans and reeds were imported into the The R. is often found at rest in a coiled form, with United States, in 1870, to the value of $3793. the rattle somewhat erected from the centre of the
RATTANY, or RHATANY (Krameria trian-coil; and when it begins to be irritated, the rattle dra), a half-shrubby plant, of the natural order
shakes. Rattlesnakes are generally rather sluggish Polygalece, a native of the cold sterile table-lands of
in their movements, but they are most active and the Andes in Peru and Bolivia. It is called Ratanhia
most dangerous in the warmest weather, their bite in Peru. It is valued for the medicinal properties
being more formidable at such a time, as well as of the root, which are shared more or less by
more readily inflicted. The effects of the bite are other species of the same genus, also natives of
various, according not only to the condition of the South America. The dried root is a powerful
serpent, but also according to the constitution of astringent, and a useful tonic; and is employed in
the person bitten, and the place into which the mucous discharges, passive hæmorrhages, and cases
fangs have been inserted, the worst case being of relaxation and debility. It is also used as a
when the poison immediately enters a large vein, tooth-powder, often mixed with orris. root and
d and so is carried at once to the most vital parts. charcoal. R. root is imported from different parts
Death to human beings has been known to ensue of South America, but chiefly from Lima. It is
It is in a few minutes, whilst in other cases, hours or extensively imported into Portugal in order to
in order to days have elapsed, and sometimes the sufferer communicate å rich red colour to wines.
The recovers. Almost all animals shew what may be
The peculiar properties of R. root are supposed to be
deemed an instinctive dread of the R., and a great chiefly owing to an acid called Krameric Acid.
unwillingness to approach it. Hogs and peccaries,
however, are so far from regarding it with dread, RATTAZZI, URBANO, an Italian statesman, was that they kill and eat it, finding safety from its born in the middle ranks of life, at Alessandria venom probably not in any peculiarity of consti(Piedmont), in 1810. He was an advocate at Casale, tution, but in their thickness of skin, and the where, in 1847, he was President of the Agricultural thickness of the layer of fat under the skin. Committee. After the proclamation of the consti- | Rattlesnakes are viviparous, and exhibit attachtution in 1848, he was elected member for ment to their young. Seventeen species of the reAlessandria, and began his political career as a stricted genus are known, of which 3 are from Brazil. democrat. His knowledge, eloquence, and liberal 4 from Mexico, and the remainder from North Amerprinciples raised him to the ministry, and his first lica, Ten of the latter are found in the Sonoran and act was to write to the bishops, threatening to have Arizonian regions, 1 in California, 3 in the plains, and them arrested, if they should preach against liberty. 2 in the Atlantic States. One of the Arizonian speHe resisted his chief, Gioberti, who wished to send cies (C. cerastes) lives in the desert, and, like the horned Piedmontese soldiers into Tuscany and Rome, to viper of the Sahara, has horns above the eyes. prevent the occupation of these places by the The rattle is a very peculiar appendage. It conAustrians and French; urged Charles Albert into sists of a number of thin horny cells, jointed a new war with Austria, and after the defeat of together; each, except the terminal one, of a Novara, was obliged to retire from the ministry. conical form. and in great part covered by that After Napoleon's coup d'état, the liberty of Pied- next to it. against the sides of which its apex mont was threatened, and Cavour, R., and their strikes when the rattle is shaken. So as to proparties joined together to defend it. This union due
on duce a rustling or rattling noise. It is known was called connubio. R. took the portfolio of Minister of Justice in the Cavour Ministry in 1854, and presented the bill for the abolition of convents. The priests were up in arms against him, and he was strenuously opposed by the Catholic party. After the Mazzinian movement in 1857, being accused of weakness in suppressing it, he retired. After the peace of Villafranca, he returned to the ministry. He did not wish to accept definitively the annexation of the Duchies, because he knew that the price of it was Savoy and Nice, which he was unwisling to give up; and being, as is alleged, secretly undermined by Cavour and Sir James Hudson, he fell. He returned to the ministry in 1862, after having made an agreement with Garibaldi to give the assistance and support of the government for an expedition into Turkey. It is alleged that Sir J. Hudson knew it, and in order to dissuade Garibaldi from the enterprise, instigated | him to go to Rome. The result was Aspromonte. After that tragedy, R. retired from the ministry, but
Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus). was again in office from April to October, 1867. He was an able administrator, an eloquent orator, and that the number of joints in the rattle increases much liked by the king.
| with the age of the serpent, one being added at · RATTLESNAKE (Crotalus), a genus of serpents each casting of the skin. One species of R. of the family Crotalido, distinguished from the (Crotalus durissus), sometimes called the CASCArest of that family by the rattle at the end of the VELA, is found in the warm parts of South Amer. tail. They are also characterised by having only ica. Its muzzle is covered by three or four pairs one row of plates under the tail. The genus is of plates. Its scales have a sharp elevated keel. subdivided by many authors according to the scales It attains the length of eight feet, although it is and shields with which the head is covered in seldom found of so great a size. Its colour is yel.
lowish-brown above, with a broad dark streak on was designed by R. in conjunction with Professor each side of the neck, and a series of broad lozenge- Schinkel, the architect, in 1830; and after 20 years' shaped spots on the back. - Another species, Cro-labour, the statue was finished in 1850, and was talus horridus, extends further north ward, as far inaugurated with great pomp in May 1851. as the southern shores of the great lakes. It is of In his works, R. has the merit of having sura pale brown colour, with a dark streak across the mounted the difficulties which modern costume temples, and dark spots on the body, often assum- opposes to the ideal representation of personages ing the form of bands; the keel of the scales not of the present age ; and while he preserved the so strongly developed, and the muzzle with fewer salient points of his model, he possessed the art of shields than in the former species, which it sacrificing the less important details to the exigences resembles in size. A third species, Crotalus or of the beautiful. He died at Dresden on December Crotalophorus miliaris, having the head completely 3, 1857. covered with large shields, is also common in many
RAU'HÉS HAUS is the name of a great institu. parts of North America, and is as much dreaded as
tion founded and hitherto managed by Wichern at either of those already named, notwithstanding its
Horn, near Hamburg, in connection with the German much smaller size, because the sound of its rattle
Home Mission (Innere Mission). It is partly a refuge is so feeble as not readily to attract attention. It is of a brownish-olive colour, with brown spots on
for morally neglected children; partly a boardingthe back and sides, the belly black.-In the colder
school for the moral and intellectual education countries which they inhabit, rattlesnakes spend
of children of the higher classes; lastly, a trainthe winter in a torpid state, retiring for that pur.
ing-school for those who wish to become teachers
or officials in houses of correction, hospitals, &c., pose into holes, or hiding themselves among muss.
in promotion of the objects of the Home Mission. RATZ BOSZORMENY. See BÖSZORMENY. The first foundation of this model institution--for RAUCH, CHRISTIAN DANIEL, one of the most
such it has become for Germany as well as for
France—was laid by a wealthy citizen of Hamburg, distinguished German sculptors, was born at Arol.
who made over to it a piece of land. It was opened sen, the capital of the principality of Waldeck, in 1777.
on November 1, 1831, by Wichern with 12 morally He early began the study of sculpture ; but on the death of his father, in 1797, he was
neglected children. By the addition of new houses, obliged to go to Berlin, where he became valet
the whole has, however, been very much enlarged, to Frederick-William II., king of Prussia. On
and has of late almost grown into a colony. A the death of that prince, R. determined to follow
printing-office, a bookbinder's shop, and bookselling
form part of the institution. Recently, about 100 the bent of his inclination for the fine arts. In this he was assisted by the new king Frederick
neglected children (one-third are girls) receive their William III., who afforded him facilities for design
education in the establishment. They live in families
of twelve, each fam ly being under the paternal ing and modelling statues, and recommended him as & pupil in the Academy of the Fine Arts. A
superintendence of a young artisan, who employs statue of Endymion and å bust of Queen Luise
the children according to their capabilities, partly of Prussia executed at this time, convinced the king
in indoor, partly in outdoor, manual labour. The of R.'s abilities, and he gave him the means of
watching and care of these children devolve on proceeding to Rome for his further improvement. |
assistants, who also take part in the instruction of
: the institution, with a view to prepare themselves R. spent six years in that city, working at his profession with much assiduity, to render himself
for the work of the Home Mission in other instituworthy of the friendship of Thorwaldsen and
itions. These instructors receive board and clothing, Canova. At Rome, he also enjoyed the friend
but no salary. In connection with the R. H., there ship of William Humboldt, at that time Prussian
was founded in 1845 a kind of conventual institute
for the education of young men, with a view to minister there. Among his works at this time were bassi-rilievi |
become heads or superintendents of similar insti. of “Hippolytus and Phædra,' a 'Mars and Venus
tutions. Entrance into this institution is limited
to the age of 20--30. Besides religious belief wounded by Diomedes,' a colossal bust of the king of Prussia, and busts of Raphael Mengs and the
and good character, freedom from military duties, Count de Wengersky. In 1811, he was called by the
| bodily and mental health, some scholastic acquire. king of Prussia to Berlin to execute a monumental
ments, and a knowledge of some craft or of statue of Queen Luise. This great work obtained a
agriculture, are required. The boarding school was for R. a European reputation. It is placed in the
established in 1851, and at the same time a seminary mausoleum of the queen in the garden of Charlot
was founded, in which 12 brethren of the R. H.
this triumph of his art, but commenced a new statue RAUMER, FRIED. LUDW. GEORG VON, a noted of the queen, which he finished 11 years afterwards, German historical writer, was born on May 14, and which is allowed to be a masterpiece of sculp- 1781, in Wörlitz, near Dessau; studied law and ture. It is placed in the palace of Sans Souci, near political economy at Halle and Göttingen; filled Potsdam. R., after this, lived principally at Berlin, different law appointments (1806-1811); and in but occasionally visited Rome, Carrara, and Munich, the last-mentioned year was named Professor at He laboured indefatigably in his profession, and by Breslau. In 1819, he was called to Berlin as 1824, had executed 70 busts in marble, of which | Professor of History and Political Economy. 20 were of colossal size.
Among his writings may be mentioned - Sechs R.'s principal works, besides those above men. Dialoge über Krieg und Handel (1806); Das tioned, are-two colossal bronze statues of Field-Brittische Besteuerungssystem (Berl. 1810); The marshal Blücher, one of which was erected, with Orations of Æschines and Demosthenes de Corona great solemnity, at Breslau in 1827; a bronze (Berl. 1811); CCI Emendationes ad Tabulas Genea. statue of Maximilian of Bavaria, erected at Munich logicas Arabum et Turcarum (Heidelb. 1811); in 1835; and statues of Albert Dürer, Goethe, Handbuch merkwürdiger Stellen aus den lat. GeSchiller, and Schleiermacher, erected in various schichtschreibern des Mittelalters · (Handbook of places in Germany. His greatest work is the Remarkable Passages in the Latin Historians of magnificent monument of Frederick the Great, the Middle Ages, Bresl. 1813); Vorlesungen über which adorns Berlin. The model for this statue die alte Geschichte (Lectures on Ancient History
2 vols. Leip. 1847); Geschichte der Hohenstaufen may be mentioned-Critic und Anticritic, Die und ihrer Zeit (History of the Hohenstaufen dynasty Schleichhändler (The Smugglers); Der Zeitgeist (The and their Time, 6 vols. Leip. 1823-1825); Ueber Spirit of the Time); Das Sonnett ; and the farces, die geschichtliche Entwickelung der Begriffe von Recht, Denk an Cäsar (Remember Cæsar), and Schelle Staat und Politik (On the Historical Development im Monde. Of his posthumous works, the principal of the Ideas of Law, State, and Politics, 2d ed. / are-Jacobine von Holland (1852); Der Kegelspieler Leip. 1832); Prussian Municipal Law (Leip. 1828); (The Player at Nine-pins); The tragi-comedy, Briefe aus Paris und Frankreich, 1830 (2 vols. Leip. Mulier taceat in Ecclesia (1853); and Seed and 1831); Briefe aus Paris zur Erläuterung des Fruit (1854). R.'s writings display great know, Geschichte des 16th und 17th Jahrh. (2 vols. Leip. ledge of stage-effect, a happy talent for the invention 1831); Geschichte Europas seit dem Ende des 15 of new and interesting situations, a power of vivid Jahrh. (History of Europe from the End of the dramatic diction, and a fine play of verbal wit. 15th Century, vols. 1-8, Leip. 1832-1850); RAVAILLAC, FRANÇOIS, a native of the French England, 1835 (2 vols. Leip. 1836); England, 1841 province of Angoulême, where he was born in (3 vols. Leip. 1842); Beiträge zur Neuern 1578, has acquired an obnoxious reputation as the Geschichte aus dem Brit. Museum, &c. (5 vols. Leip. murderer of Henri IV. of France." In early life. 1836-1839); Italie : Beiträge zur Kenntniss dieses
R. was in turn clerk to a notary and master Lande S (2 vols. Leip. 1840); Die Vereinigten Staaten of a school; but having fallen into debt, he was von Nordamerika (2 vols. Leip. 1845); Anti-| thrown into prison, the confinement and restraint quarische Briefe (Leip. 1851). The unfavourable of which preyed upon his health, and produced reception of an oration of R. in honour of King | hallucinations of mind. Under the influence of Frederick II. compelled him, in 1847, to resign the this mental excitement, he renounced all secular pursecretaryship and membership of the Academy of suits; and on his release from prison, after having Sciences at Berlin, in consequence of which he was served for a time in the order of the Feuillants, he elected town-councillor of Berlin, and member of fell under the influence of the Jesuits, through the Frankfurt Parliament, where he belonged to whose instrumentality it is believed that his insane the right centre. From Frankfurt, he went as hatred of the Huguenots, as the enemies of tho ambassador to Paris. Subsequently, he became a church, was directed more especially against Henri member of the first chamber at Berlin. In 1853, of Navarre, their former leader. Having resolved he was nominated, at his own request, Professor / to assassinate the king, he eagerly watched his Emeritus at the university of Berlin.
opportunity, and on the 14th of May 1610, as the RAUMER. KARL GEORG VON, brother of the king was passing in his coach through the narrow preceding, was born April 9, 1783, in Wörlitz, street of Laferronnerie, got upon the right hinderstudied from 1801-1805 at Göttingen and Halle, wheel of the carriage at the moment that its then at the Mining Academy at Freiberg, and was
further advance was hindered by a heavy wagon appointed Professor of Mineralogy at Breslau |
in front of it, and leaning forward, he plunged a
knife into the breast of the king. The first blow in the War of Liberation (1813-1814), was
glanced aside, but at the second thrust, the knife translated in 1819 to the university of Halle: and entered the heart. R. escaped in the confusion, but finally, in 1827, was appointed Professor of Miner
being soon captured with the knife still in his hand, Natural History in the university of | he admitted his guilt; and having been formally Erlangen. R. has obtained a wide and well
tried and condemned, he was put to the torture; deserved reputation by his geographical and geo
and suffered death on May 27, in the Place de Grève, logical writings, among which are Geognostiche under circumstances of great cruelty, his body being Fragmente (Geognostic Fragments, Nürnb. 1811);
torn asunder by horses. R. refused to the last to Der Granit des Riesengebirges (The Granite of the
klacknowledge whether he had had instigators or Riesengebirge, Berl. 1813); Das Gebirge Nieder
abéttors, and hence the widest scope was given to schlesiens (The Mountains of Lower Silesia, Berl. |
conjecture, suspicion being in turn directed to the 1819); A B C Buch der Krystallkunde (The ABC
queen, Marie de' Medici, and her favourites, the of Crystallography, 2 vols. Berl. 1817; supplem.
Concini, to the Duc d'Epernon, and to the Spanish 1821). His interest in literary and scholastic
court and their Jesuit advisers, but there is no good education is evinced in his valuable Geschichte der
ground for such suspicions. M. Henri Martin Pädagogik (History of Pedagogy, 4 vols. Stuttg.
(Histoire de France) and M. Poirson (Histoire de 1846--1855). Other works of inore or less conse
Henri IV., tome II.) have examined the particulars quence are his Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Geographie
of the process instituted against R. with scrupulous (Manual of Universal Geography, Leip. 1878);
impartiality, and have come to the conclusion Palestine (Leip. 1850); Der Zug der Israeliten aus
that the real cause of the crime was fanaticism Aegypten nach Canaan (Leip. 1837); and Kreuzzüge
degenerated into monomania. (Stuttg. 1840).
RĀVAN'A (from the causal of the Sanscrit rus RAUPACH. ERNST BENJ. SAL, a German cry, alarm, hence literally he who causes alarm) is dramatist, born on May 21, 1784, in Straubitz
the name of the Rakshasă (q. v.) who, at the time of (Silesia), received his education in the Gymnasium
Râma, ruled over Lanka or Ceylon, and having at Liegnitz, studied theology at Halle, was for ten
carried off Sità, the wife of Râma, to his residence, years tutor in Russia, held lectures at St Peters
was ultimately conquered and slain by the latter. burg University, and was subsequently (1816)
Råvan'a is described as having been a giant with appointed there Professor of Philosophy, German
ten faces, and in consequence of austerities and Literature and History. R. left Russia in 1822,
devotion, as having obtained from S'iva a promise and died at Berlin, March 18, 1852. Among his
which bestowed upon him illimited power, even early plays, the following are noteworthy--The
over the gods. As the promise of S'iva could not be Princes Chawansky (1818); Die Gefesselten (The revoked, Vishn'u evaded its efficacy in becoming Enchained, 1821); Der Liebe Zauberkreis The incarnate as Râma, and hence killed the demonMagic Ring of Love, 1824); Die Freunde (The
giant. See under VISHN'U and RÂKSHASA. Friends, 1825); Isidor und Olga (1826); Rafaele RA’VELIN, in Fortification, is a triangular work (1928); Die Tochter der Luft (The Daughter of the of less elevation than the main defences, situated Air), after Calderon (1829). Among his comedies with its salient angle to the front before the curtain,
which with the shoulders of the adjoining bastions, their eyes as its first point of assault. It generally it serves to protect. It is open at the rear, so as to makes its nest of sticks, coarse weeds, wool, hair, be commanded by the curtain, if taken, and is sepa- &c., in rocky places, on a narrow ledge of a preci. rated from that work by the main ditch, while in pice, or in some similar situation. Ravens are occaits own front the ditch of the ravelin intervenes sionally captured when young, and become intereste between itself and the covert-way. The guns of ing pets, being remarkable for their impudence and the ravelin sweep the glacis, and perform a very cunning, their look of sage thoughtfulness, their important function in commanding the space imme- | inquisitiveness, their mischievous propensities, which diately before the salient angles of the two next prompt them to destroy everything that can be hastions, ground which the guns of the bastions destroyed, and always as if the fact of its destructhemselves cannot cover. The bastions, on the tion afforded them pleasure, their thievishness, other hand, flank the ravelin. In the fortifications their love of glittering things, and their power of of Alessandria, designed by Bousmard in 1803, the imitating human speech, which is almost equal to ravelins are placed in front of the glacis. See the that of parrots. The R. is celebrated for its longediagrams in art. FORTIFICATION.
vity, and instances are on record of ravens which The original name of the ravelin was rivellino, have certainly lived for seventy or eighty years. which indicates a derivation from vegliare, to watch, The R. has been generally reckoned a bird of illthe ravelin having probably been at first a watch-omen, probably on account both of its colour and tower, answering to the still earlier barbacan. its extremely harsh croaking voice, which may · RAVEN (Corvus carnivorus), a species of crow,
sometimes be heard in fine weather as if coming remarkable for its large size. It is more than two
from the sky, the R. being a bird of powerful wing, feet in length from the tip of the bill to the extre- and often soaring very high in the air. mity of the tail. The bill is thick and strong, RAVE'NNA, an important city of Central Italy, compressed at the sides, the mandibles sharp at the 43 miles east-south-east from Bologna, and 44 miles edges; the upper mandible curved at the tip, and from the Adriatic; lat. 44° 24' N., long. 12° 12' E. exceeding the lower in length. The base of the Pop. (1862) of the commune, 57,303 ; of the town
proper, 19,118. It is situated in the midst of a well-watered, fertile, and finely-wooded plain. R. is surrounded by old bastions, and by walls where may still be seen the iron rings to which the cables of ships were formerly fastened ; the sea is now at the distance of about 4 miles from the city. The streets are wide; the squares are adorned with statues of the popes, and the houses have a gloomy appearance. R. is an ancient city, rich in monuments of art. The cathedral was built in the 4th c.; it has five naves, supported by 24 marble pillars, and in the sacristy there are preserved the ivory chair of St Massimino and the | Calendario Pasquale, both of the 4th century. San Francesco possesses the tomb of Dante, erected in the 15th century. The library of R. contains 50,000 volumes. It has an archæological museum, and many educational institutions. There are manufactures of silk, linen, paper, glass, and kitchen utensils.
R. was probably of Umbrian origin; it was at
| least an Umbrian city when it passed into the Raven (Corvus carnivorus).
| hands of the Romans. Augustus made it a first
class seaport and naval station ; 400 years later, bill is surrounded with feathers and bristles. The the Emperor Honorius took refuge there, and made tail is rounded, but the middle feathers are con
R. the capital of the empire. The city was taken siderably the longest. The wings are long -- extend-] by Odoacer, then by Theodoric and by Totila ; ing from tip to tip to 52 inches-the fourth quill- the latter was conquered by Narses, who made it feather being longest. The colour is a uniform black, the residence of the exarchs in 553. in 1218, it with more or less of metallic lustre, which is particu-/ became a republic. In 1275, Guido da Polenta con. larly conspicuous in the elongated throat-feathers of quered it, and there established his court, where the male, and is wanting in the whole plumage of the he received Dante. R. was afterwards taken by female and young.
the Venetians, who kept it till 1509. Under Charles The R. is a bird of wide geographic distribution. / V., it passed into the hands of the popes. It is found in almost all parts of North Amer-1 Under the walls of R., a great battle was fought ica, but most abundantly in the more northern in 1512 between the French and the Spaniards, in and the mountainous parts of it. In other parts whic
er parts which Gaston de Foix purchased victory with his of the world, and within the northern hemisphere life. itself, however, other closely allied species exist; | RAVENSCROFT, THOMAS, an eminent English C. corax is the European R. There are several musical composer. He was born in 1592, received his species of crow very similar to the R, in colour, size, musical education in St Paul's choir, and had the and habits.
degree of Bachelor of Music conferred on him when The R. is generally to be seen either solitary only 15 years of age. In 1611, appeared his Melisor in pairs. It is one of the most thoroughly mata, Musical Plansies, dic., a collection of 23 omnivorous of birds. It feeds on fruits and nuts part-songs, some of them of great beauty; and in forests; it picks up worms or molluscs; it sucks three years later, he brought out another collection eggs; it kills young hares, or even lambs; it of part-songs under the title of Brief Discourses, rejoices in carrion, and not unfrequently attacks with an essay on the old musical modes. Turning welk or sickly beasts, almost invariably choosing his attention to psalmody, he published, in 1621, o
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