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REDAN--REDEMPTIONISTS.

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REDA'N is the simplest work in field-fortification. weak, not much noticed amidst the many voices of It consists of two parapets whose faces join in summer, but often heard in the quietness of autumn, forming a salient angle towards the enemy, like and even of winter, throughout which it is continued a letter V, in which the apex is to the front. whenever the weather is good. Regarded by itself, the redan is a work of very In America, the name R. is often given to the little strength, since there is no flanking fire to Blue Bird (q. v.). protect its faces, and nothing to prevent an enemy RED COLOURS. Those used by me from forcing an entrance at the correo but redans) . RED COLOURS. Those used by painters con

sist of certain chemical compounds, natural or re useful in many positions, and the rapidity with

artificial. Thus, the red pigment called Armenian which they may be constructed, renders them Bole is

m Bole, is either the ochreous earth known by that favourites with engineers and generals. A row of na

Orname, imported from Armenia, Tuscany, and other redans along an exposed front of an army adds na

as places, or else, as is most frequently the case, it is a much to its strength, the troops behind protecting

composition of whiting, red oxide of iron, and red the gorge, and the redans flanking each other. It

ochre. Vermilion is a sulphuret of mercury produced forms an excellent defence for a bridge-head, the

either naturally or artificially. Chrome-red is gorge being covered by the river. Redans figured

made by boiling carbonate of lead with chromate of largely in Wellington's works for defending Lisbon

potash in excess, until it assumes a red colour, after in 1810. The redan of Sebastopol in 1855 was the

which it is washed in pure water, and dried in the principal point of the English attack, and the scene

shade. Indian-red is a native product of Persia, of two bloody repulses by the Russians in June being found in the neighbourhood of Ormuz It is and September.

imitated by calcining colcothar with red ochre. REDBREAST (Erythaca rubecula, or Sylvia Light-red is made by calcining yellow ochre, and rubecula), a bird of the family Sylviado, familiar this can be converted into flesh-colour by a due to every one in the British Islands and throughout admixture of white. A bright orange-red, somemost parts of Europe-a universal favourite, from times called Sandix, is madě by calcining whitethe readiness with which it approaches or enters lead. Minium, or Red Lead, is a very distinct red human habitations, its lively manners, its aspect colour, requiring but little preparation; it is much of pert curiosity, the frequency with which its used. Red Ochre is extensively found in the song is heard in autumn and winter, and the strange Mendip Hills, and is an oxide of iron ; with clay, it mixture of shyness and audacity which its beha- forms a brownish-red paint. There are several viour displays. It is generally known throughout other red colours, but these are the principal ones Britain by the endearing name of Robin Redbreast, l emploved by painters. or more briefly Robin, and has many similar appellations in continental Europe, significant of the

RED CRAG, a deposit of quartzose sand interkindly regard entertained for it, which is every. mixed with rolled and comminuted shells, of a deep where such that children early begin to distinguish ferruginous orochreous colour, which occurs in it from all other birds as their peculiar favourite. Suffolk, and belongs to the Pleiocene strata (q. v.). Its utmost length is about 5 inches, but it is of RED DEER. See STAG. a rounder and fuller forin than many of the Sylviadce, the slenderness of its legs rather strikingly.

RE'DDITCH, a large manufacturing town of contrasting with the form of the body. The wings | Worcestershire, stands on an acclivity 12 miles are rather short, the fifth quill the longest. The south-south-west of Birmingham, with which it is tail is scarcely forked. The bill is rather broad connected by railway. Needles, pins, fish-hooks and and depressed at the base, narrower and slightly fishing-tackle, are made extensively. Pop. (1561) compressed at the point, the upper mandible bent | 5571. down and notched. The general colour is olive- REDDLE, RADDLE, or RED-CHALK, an brown, and the reddish-orange breast is a con- ochrey red-clay iron ore, which is chiefly imported spicuous characteristic, particularly of the male. from the continent, where it is found in Hessia, - The R. is a native not only of Europe, but of Thuringia, Upper Lusatia, Silesia, and Salzburg. It the western temperate parts of Asia and of the is found in small quantities in England, in the north of Africa. In the most northern parts of neighbourhood of Rotherham, and at Wastwater, Europe it does not appear; and in many northern Cumberland. The English differs somewhat in regions it may be regarded as a bird of passage ; quality from the foreign, and is chiefly used in but, contrary to the ordinary rule as to birds polishing spectacle glasses. Of that from abroad, of passage, it never congregates in flocks;_ it the finest quality is used for drawing on paper; the is always seen either solitary or in pairs. The inferior sorts are used by carpenters and others for attachment of pairs seems to extend beyond the marking with; and the commonest is used for mere breeding season, and, indeed, throughout their marking sheep. It occurs generally in thin beds, in lives, and to be stronger than in most birds. The clay-slate. . breeding season is early in spring. The nest is made of moss, dead leaves, and dried grass, lined...

1 REDE‘MPTION, in Law, the right of redeeming with hair, often placed a little above the ground / property which has been pledged to secure a debt. in a bush or among ivy on a wall; the eggs five to

The equity of redemption is the name given to this seven in number. white. spotted with pale reddish right, and is commonly used in reference to mort. brown; but many are the stories of the curious gages

gages of real estate, the mortgagor, after executing situations in which the R has built its nest in a deed of mortgage, having a right at any time to close proximity to houses and workshops, regard- pay on

da pay off the debt, and redeem or get back his proless of the presence of hunian beings, and of the perty, unless he has been foreclosed by the creditor noise of hammers and wheels. In winter, the R. I by a legal proceeding, the object of which is to sell seeks the neighbourhood of human habitations the property to pay the debt. In Scotland, the more than in summer. and becomes more bold equity of redemption is more usually called a and familiar. Its food ordinarily consists of worms, reversion. insects, and berries; and when it becomes a REDE’MPTIONISTS, one of the names of an pensioner at any door or window, which it very order of monks devoted to the redemption of Christian readily does, it shews a particular relish for small captives from slavery. They are more frequently scraps of meat. Its song is sweet and plaintive, but called TRINITARIANS (q. v.).

REDEMPTORISTS REDOUBT.

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REDE'MPTORISTS, called also LIGUORIANS, a RED-HOT SHOT are cannon-balls heated to congregation of priests founded by St Alfonzo Liguori redness, and fired from cannon at shipping, (q. v.).

magazines, wooden buildings, &c., to combine RED-EYE, the Ambloplites rupestris. Raf.. a fish destruction by fire with battering by concussion. of the Perch family, related to the sun-fish ( Pomo-¡In modern warfare, shells containing molten iron tis). It is found in all the tributaries of the Mis- are intended to be used in lieu of red-hot shot; but sissippi, and is an excellent table-fish: it reaches a they have not yet been tested in actual practice, weight of 2 pounds. Also (Leuciscus erythrophthal- although a similar device was attempted unsuccess

fully in 1863 by the United States forces when besieging Charleston.

REDING, ALOYS VON, the famous champion of Swiss independence, was born in 1755, in the canton of Schwyz. After serving in Spain, he returned to Switzerland in 1788. As captain. general of the canton of Schwyz, he repulsed the French Republicans, May 2, 1798, at Morgarten. After the formation of the Helvetic Republic, R. | was one of those who eagerly worked for the restitution of the old federal constitution. In 1802, he founded in the eastern parts of Switzerland a league, with the intention of overthrowing the central government. When, after the departure of

the French, almost all the cantons declared themRed-eye, or Rudd (Leuciscus erythrophthalmus).

selves against the Helvetic government, R. called a general diet at Schwyz, which assembled Sep

tember 27, 1802, and occupied itself with the mus, see LEUCISCUS), a fish of the family Cyprinidre, formation of a new independent constitution. R. common in lakes, slow rivers, fens, &c., in many parts went to Paris, in order to win over the First Consul of Europe and in England. It much resembles its con- to the proposed change. In spite of all his endeagener, the Roach (q. v.), but is shorter and deeper. It vours, however, he failed to succeed. The disis a richly-coloured fish.

armament of the Swiss by a French army, and the RED GUM is the popular name for the papulous

acceptance of the act of mediation, put an end to disease of the skin known to the physician as stro

his hopes and to his political activity. In 1803, he phulus. It is a florid eruption, iisually occurring in

"in officiated still as Landamman, or chief magistrate, infants before or during their first dentition, and

i lof Schwyz; but after that retired into private life appearing on the most exposed parts, as the face,

till 1809, when he was invested once more with the neck, arms, and hands, from whence it sometimes

same dignity. In 1813, R. conducted the negotiaextends to other portions of the body. It occurs

tions with the allies in regard to the neutrality of in minute red pimples, irregularly arranged, with

Switzerland. He died in February 1818, leaving occasional red patches, and sometimes a few inter

the character of an honest man, whose political spersed vesicles. White pimples, popularly known

career might have been more successful, had he not as white qum, are also sometimes intermingled with been wanting in firmness of mind and of character. the red papillæ. Strophulus is almost always an RED-LIQUOR, a chemical compound much used acute disease, seldon lasting more than a month. by dyers. It is a crude acetate of alumina, and is It is almost always an innocent complaint, and often commonly prepared in dyeing establishments by occurs without any marked disturbance of the dissolving a quantity of alum in boiling water, general health. In severe cases, the pimples cause and separately dissolving, also in hot water, threeă sensation of heat and itchiness, especially if the fourths as much acetate of lead. The two solutions child is kept too warm, and slight febrile symptoms are next mingled together; and after settling, the manifest themselves. Amongst the probable causes clear fluid, which is the red-liquor, is poured off. of this disease are the irritation caused by rough The sediment is sulphate of lead. flannel next the skin, want of cleanliness of the REDOU'BT is a small fort of varying shape. skin-especially in relation to the child's excre

constructed for a temporary purpose, and usually tions-the general disturbance of the system excited

without flanking defences. The term is vague in by teething, &c. Very little is required in the way

its acceptation, being applied equally to detached of treatment further than to remove any obvious

posts and to a strong position within another cause of the affection. Cold applications should be

fortress. Redoubts as a general rule do not carefully avoided, lest they should translate the

exceed 40 yards square, with 4 guns and a cutaneous irritation to some important internal

garrison of 320 men. Redoubts are made square, organ. In the event of such a translation, the

pentagonal, and even circular. Each redoubt child should be placed in a hot bath, and mustard

has parapet, ditch, scarps, banquette, &c., as in poultices, or hot moist cloths sprinkled with tur

regular fortification; but it is commonly rather pentine, should be appred over the arms and chest. roughly constructed, haste and unprofessional

RED HAND, in Heraldry. A sinister hand labour precluding mathematical accuracy. The erect, open, and couped or, the wrist gules, being entrance may be by a cutting through the parapet, the arms of the province of Ulster, was granted to as at a, in fig. 1, the cutting being covered within the baronets of England and of Ireland as their by a traverse; or, preferably, by an excavated distinguishing badge, on the institution of that gallery leading into the ditch, and thence by a order in 1611, and is borne by the baronets of Great ramp through the counterscarp. For the sake of Britain and of the United Kingdom. It is assumed flanking the ditch, and preventing an assaulting into the armorial coat, and may be borne upon a party from forming in it, caponnières of timber, canton, or on an escutcheon, which may be placed | loopholed, are sometimes formed, as at b; or, if either in the middle chief or in the fess point, so as the soil be stiff or chalky, a gallery may be cut least to interfere with the charges composing the behind the counterscarp, and loopholed towards family arms.

| the ditch. In some modern redoubts, the line of

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REDOUT KALE-RED RIVER SETTLEMENT.

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each side is broken to afford flanking defence, branch runs for 60 miles between perpendicular As in fig. 2. Redoubts have the weak feature of banks, 600 to 800 feet high. It is navigable for 8

| months of the year to Shreveport. Thirty miles

above this place is the Great Red River raft, formed COUNTERSCAR

of drift-wood, which blocks up the river for 60 or DITCH

70 miles. Its other important towns are Alexandria ESCARP

and Natchitoches. OUTER SLOPE

RED RIVER OF THE NORTH rises in a CREST

cluster of lakes in Western Minnesota, U.S., near BANQUETTE

the sources of the Mississippi, and runs north,

separating Minnesota from Dacotah, into the RAMP

British possessions, and empties into Lake Winnipeg, about 500 miles from its source, watering a beautiful country, and receiving numerous branches, the chief of which are the Shyenne, the Pembina, and the Assiniboine,

RED RIVER SETTLEMENT, now known as the province of Manitoba, is intersected by the Red River of the North and the Assiniboine, and lies between lat. 49° and 53° 30' N., and long. 96° and 99° W. It fornis a small part of the territories formerly governed by the Huilson's Bay Company, and was purchased from them by the Earl of Selkirk in 1811, for the purpose of planting a colony. In the deed of transfer, its boundary-line is defined to “begin at a point on the

western shore of Lake Winnipeg in 52° 30' N. lat.; Fig. 1

thence running due west to Lake Winnipegoos;

thence in a southerly direction, so as to strike its not defending their own ditches, and of being western shore in lat. 52° N.; thence due west to the approached at their salient angles with comparative intersection of the parallel of 52° N. lat. and the Asimpunity. They are therefore not adapted to a siniboine River; then due south to the height which

protracted defence, but separates the waters of Hudson's Bay from those of as temporary field works, the Missonri and Mississippi; thence east along that or in a war of posts, they height to the source of the Winnipeg, or the principal are often of incalculable branch of the waters which flow to the mouth of the importance. Troops whose Winnipeg River; thence in a northerly direction to stability in the open field the middle of Lake Winnipeg, and thence west to the is doubtful, are especially place of beginning. This boundary was, however, strengthened by redoubts curtailed some time afterwards, by the claim of in their line. Redoubts the United States to all the land south of lat. 490 are particularly useful in N. The western portion of the original tract is fortifying the tops of hills, one bleak plain, with a few shrubs scattered

or commanding passes, or here and there, and devoid to a great extent of Fig. 2. where the object is to irrigating streams; while the eastern side presents

occupy a hostile territory, a varied landscape of hill and dale, the latter low, or to feel the way gradually through a wooded level, and marshy, and both well wooded. The country.

winters are long, dreary, and excessively cold, the REDOUT KÁLÉ, a flourishing, fortified seaport thermometer sometimes reaching - 45° F., rising in of Russia in Trans-Caucasia, stands on the eastern

summer to 95° or 105° in the shade. The climate shore of the Black Sea, 10 miles north of Poti. It is nevertheless very healthy, the only prevalent is the port of Tiflis (q. v.), carries on a considerable

diseases being those which are induced by sudden trade, and has regular steam-boat communication

changes of temperature. The land under cultivation with Trebisond. "Smyrna, Constantinople, and is extremely productive, and the natural pasture in Marseille. Its chief articles of import are cotton,

summer affords splendid facilities for the breeding silk, and woollen stuffs ; sugar-cane, wine, spices,

of horses, sheep, and cattle. A number of the

raw colonists are buffalo hunters, and others resort silk, wax, wool, skins, caviare, and timber. The

to the lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba, where they quantity of silk exported is 10,000 puds (value gain a subsistence by fishing in these inexhaustible £68.000) a vear. All the other exports taken waters. The first settlers were emigrants from the together do not amount to more than £12.000 a north of Scotland, who spoke Gaelic, and professed vear. During the Crimean War,' the Russian (Presbyterianism. They were joined by 100 Canadian varrison at R K., finding the fort invested by Sir veterans and a fresh colony of Scotch in 1815; and Edmund Lvons with several men-of-war set fire subsequently by French Canadians, French-Indian to the town, 19th May 1854. It has since, how. and English-Indian hall-breeds from the territ ever. been rebuilt and strengthened. Population the North-west Company, and a few immigrants of inconsiderable, though increasing.

other nations. The colonists, after having been

brought almost to the verge of ruin from the attacks REDPOLE. See LINNET.

of the North-west Company, the extreme severity RED RIVER, the lowest western branch of the of winter, inundations by the swollen waters of the Mississippi, rises on the eastern border of New Red River, a visitation of grasshoppers, and intesMexico, flows eastward, separating Texas from tine trouble, are now enjoying a reasonable share of the Indian territory, thence south-east through prosperity. The population in 1857 was 6522, of Louisiana, and enters the Mississippi 341 miles whom the Canadians and Scotch are chiefly agrifrom its mouth. It is 2100 miles long, and receives culturists, and the half-breeds hunters, fishers, &c. numerous branches, the Washita, Negro, Big and Horse-breeding is extensively carried on, and the proLittle Wichita, &c. Near its source, the south duce are in considerable demand; but the settlement

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RED ROOT-RED SEA.

has very little import and export trade, the latter con- Jublah forms the entrance; its length is about 180 sisting chiefly of flour, which is purchased at a fair rate miles; extreme breadth (about lat. 29°), upwards by the Hudson's Bay Company. While the proposed of 30. The eastern arm, called the Gulf of transfer to the crown (autumn and winter of 1869— Akabah (Bahr-el-'Akabah), is entered by the Strait 1870) of the rights of the Hudson's Bay Company was of Tirân, and runs north-north-east to lat. 29° 30' pending, the R. R. settlement was the scene of much N. Its length is upwards of 100 miles ; greatest contention and violence. The hasty action of the breadth, rather more than 15. The depth of the Canadian authorities incensed the French-speaking R. S. varies considerably, but is in many places population, who, led by Louis Riel, organised a force, very great; the deepest sounding is marked as imprisoned their opponents (English and Scotch), 1054 fathoms, in lat. 22° 30'. Southward of 16°, it seized on Fort Garry, established a provisional govern- ( is comparatively shallow; but the shallowest part ment, robbed the strong-box, and dictated terms to of the whole Sea is the Gulf of Suez, which the governor of the H. B. Conipany to which he was decreases in depth from 40 or 50 fathoms at the obliged to submit. In July, 1870, a military force entrance to 3 fathoms in Suez Harbour, at tho suddenly appeared in the province, and Riel, fearing northern end, where the Gulf, which is supposed capture, escaped, and thus closed the insurrection. in ancient times to have extended considerably RED ROOT (Ceanothus), a genus of plants of

further north, has apparently been filled up by the the natural order Rhamnacece, consisting of deci

sand washed up by the strong tides, or drifted in duous shrubs with simple alternate leaves arid large

by the winds. The Gulf of Akabah is much red roots, whence their common name. The com

deeper; it is, in fact, a narrow, deep ravine, with mon RED ROOT of North America (C. Americanus),

steep and rocky sides, forming the termination of which abounds from Canada to Florida, is a shrub

* the long valley of the Arabalı, running northward of 2-4 feet high, with beautiful thyrsi of nume

| to the Dead Sca. The basin of the R. S. itself is rous small white flowers. It is sometimes called

the lowest portion of a deep valley lying between New Jersey Tea, because an infusion of the dried

ed the highlands of Africa on the west, and the lofty leaves is occasionally uscd as tea, and was so

plateau of the Arabian hills on the east, which especially during the American War of Independ

latter, rising at some little distance inland, leave ence. The plant is also used for dyeing wool of a

for the most part a sandy and sterile tract along cinnamon colour. A strong infusion of the leaves

the sea. The navigation of the R. S. has always has been found useful in aphthous affections, in

been accounted difficult and dangerous, owing to the sore throat of scarlet fever, and in dysentery.

the prevalence of violent winds, anil the number of -A number of species are found in different parts

| islands, shoals, and coral reefs, which line the of North America. some of them very beautiful. shores. These coral reets extend generally in especially C. azureus, a Mexican shrub, with par

parallel lines along the coast; they abound in all elongated thyrsi of brilliant blue flowers. Some parts, but

parts, but arc especially frequent on the Arabian of the species grow very well in Britain; the ||

side, where the navigation is consequently very Mexican ones require protection from frost in

intricate. The coral is very beautiful, often red winter.

or reddish in colour, but more commonly white.

The islands generally occur singly, but between REDRUTH, a town of Cornwall, consists chiefly

chieny the parallels of lat. 15° and 17°, they are found of one long street, which stands on a hill, in the

massed in two groups.--the Farsan (q. v.) Islands on centre of a famous mining district, 9f miles north

the eastern, and the Dhalac (q. v.) Islands on the west of Falmouth. Iron foundries are in operation;

western side. In mid-channel, south of Râs Moham. but the principal product of this vast mining district

med, there is generally a width of 100 miles clear. is copper. In the vicinity are many mines, which

Along tiis channel, the winds are constant through. are worked by large steam-engines. By railway,

ilway; ont the year in one of two directions: from May there is casy communication to St Ives and Falmouth

to October, the north-west monsoon blows; for Bays. Pop. (1861) 7919.

the rest of the year, the south-east is the prevailing RED SANDSTONE was the term formerly wind, and the water in the northern part of the applied to the combined Devonian and Permian Sea is then raiseil to a higher level than the Medi. rocks, when their relations to the Carboniferous terranean. It had been generally supposed that strata were unknown. The discovery that one set the level of the R. S. was more than 3) feet higher of the red sandstone was below the coal, while the than that of the Mediterranean, but it is now other was above it, caused their division into the known, from careful observations, that the levels Old Red (q. v.), or Devonian, and the New Red, or of the two seas are really the same. The principal Permian (q. v.). For some time after this division, ports are, on the Arabian side, Mocha, Jeddah (the the original term Red Sandstone was retained by a port of Mecca), and Yembo (the port of Medinah); few geologists to characterise the newer set of red on the west, Suez, Cosseir, Suakin, and Massowah. rocks, but it is now quite given up.

The origin of the name R. S. has given rise to a RED SEA, or ARABIAN GULF, an inlet of the variety of conjectures, and has never yet been Indian Ocean, in form a long and narrow gulf, satisfactorily settled. It is supposed to have been stretching north-west from the Strait of Bab-el- so called from the name Edom (Red), as the Mandeb (lat. 12° 40' N.), by which it communicates mountains of that country are washed by the with the Gulf of Aden, to the Isthmus of Suez (lat. waters of the Gulf of Akabah; from the red and 30° N.), which parts it from the Mediterranean Sea. purple colouring of the rocks which in some parts It separates Arabia on the east from Egypt, Nubia, border it; from the red colour sometimes given to and Abyssinia on the west. Its extreme length is the waters by animalcules and sea-weed; or from over 1400 English miles; it varies greatly in the reddish tinge imparted to them in some places

el-Mandeb, to upwards of 230 at about lat. 16° 30'. reefs. To the Hebrews, it was known as Yam At Râs (Cape) Mohammed (lat. 27° 40' N.), the Suph, the sea of weeds or sedge. By the Greeks, sea is parted into two arms or smaller gulfs, which in the earliest times, the name R. S. was given to enclose between them the peninsula of Mount the whole of the Indian Ocean, including both the Sinai; that on the west, continuing the direction R. S. and the Persian Gulf, and not distinctively of the main body of the sea, is the Gulf of Sucz to the former (which was then and afterwards (Bahr-es-Suweis), of which the Strait of Jubal or known as the Arabian Gulf), though the name, in REDSHANK - RED SNOW.

later times, gradually became restricted in its appli- resign office, and return to Paris and London to cation.

support the Turkish against the Egyptian interests. From the earliest times, the R. S. has been Recalled by the death of the sultan, and the disaster a great highway of commerce between India and of Nisib, to his old post, the foreign office, he sucthe Mediterranean lands, and traver-ed success-ceeded, after a debate in council of three days' ively by Egyptians, Phænicians, Hebrews, and duration, in obtaining the hattisherif of Gulhane Arabs. It is first mentioned in the Book of Exodus, (30 November 1839), a species of constitutional. on occasion of the passage of the Israelites, which charter, which, from the comparative weakness of is supposed to have taken place a little south its promoters, became a dead letter. The effects of the present town of Suez. The first recorded of his foreign diplomacy were soon apparent in the navigation of the Sea was in the time of Sesostris, humiliation of the Egyptians in Syria; but a seraglio in the 14th c. B.C. Three centuries later, Hebrew intrigue, which occasioned his dismissal, deprivedi and Phænician ships traversed the R. S. on the him of the honour of concluding peace. From 1841 voyage to Ophir, from the port of Eziongeber, at to 1845, he was the Turkish representative at the the head of the Gulf of Akabah. The Gulf of French court, and though recalled to fill the post of Suez was for many centuries apparently the seat grand-vizier (28th September 1846), he found his of the Egyptian trade in this sea and to India influence at court greatly diminished under the After the foundation of Alexandria, and during the new sultan. He was vigorously supported by Sir (lynasty of the Ptolemies and the Roman dominion, Stratford Canning, the English ambassador, who the trade with India was vigorously carried on, was of the opinion that all hopes of a bright though the chief seat of traffic was moved further future to Turkey depended solely upon Redshid southward, to the towns of Berenice and Myos Pasha. He was frequently deposed, and almost Hormos, which sent out annually large fleets to immediately recalled, according as the anti-reform India. After the establishment of the Moham- party gained or lost the ear of the sultan; but the medan empire in the 7th c., an important trade complications with Russia, which arose in 1853, with India and China seems to have been carried threw the anti-reformers (who had counselled on through the R. S.; and through it, in the period an obstinate disregard of all the Russian reprebetween the 12th and 15th centuries, the goods of sentations) into discredit, and R., more powerful the East passed to the Venetian factories in than ever, was again recalled to the direction of Alexandria, until the discovery of the route round foreign affairs. In 1854, he was again overcome by the Cape of Good Hope diverted the traffic with his political opponents, and retired from office, which India into a different channel, and put an end to he did not resume till after the peace of Paris. the commerce of the Red Sea. Since the establish-His reappointment as grand-vizier excited great ment of the so-called Overland Route to India, and hopes of further salutary reformations; but the opening of the Suez Canal, the R. S. has more than French influence at the Porte was pertinaciously regained its ancient importance as the highway of com- antagonistic, and he was twice forced to resign, and merce between Europe and the East. See SUEZ. as often recalled. At last, worn out with harassing

For the classical geography of the R. S., the Geo cares and toil, he was seized with an illness, to graphi Græci Minores of Müller (Paris, 1855), and which he specdily succumbed, at his palace of the Atlas appended to it may be consulted. Fuller Emmirgian, 7th January 1858. Though a Turk, he information on the subject of the R. S., its coasts, was one of the most enlightened men of his time, and adjacent lands, will be found in the elder Nie- and was well versed in foreign languages, general buhr's Travels, and Description of Arabia ; in the literature, and science. Travels of Salt, Burckhardt, Rüppell, and others; RED SNOW. The apparent redness of snow, as in Wellsted's Observations on the coast of Arabia, seen from a distance, is often an effect of light, doc. ; in Ehrenberg's work on the Coral Islands of which adds a peculiar charm to mountain and the R. S.; Ritter's Erdkunde, vol. ii. ; and the winter landscapes, particularly in the mornings Admiralty Chart, based on the surveys of Moresby, and evenings, when the rays of the sun fall most Carless, and others.

obliquely on the surface of the snow. But snow is REDSHANK. See SANDPIPER.

occasionally found both in polar and alpine regions

of a really red colour. This phenomenon seems to REDSHID PASHA, a celebrated Turkish have been observed by the ancients, as a passage in statesman, and long the chief of the party of Aristotle apparently refers to it; but it attracted progress in Turkey, was born at Constantinople no attention in modern times till 1760, when Sausabout 1800. He accompanied his brother-in-law, sure observed it in the Alps, and from chemical the governor of the Morea, into Greece, and after experiments concluded that the red colour was his death, obtained the post of chief secretary in owing to the presence of some vegetable substance, one of the government offices at Constantinople. which he supposed might be the pollen of a plante On the outbreak of the Russian war (1828–1829), The next observations on red snow were made in he was charged with a mission in Bulgaria, and the arctic expedition under Captain Ross, when it exerted himself effectually to protect the Christian was found extending over a range of clifis on the subjects of the Porte from the fanatic rage of their shore of Baffin's Bay for eight miles, and the red Moslem neighbours; and on his return obtained colour penetrating the snow in some places to a from Mahmoud, who fully appreciated his character, depth of 12 feet. On the return of the expedition a post in the foreign office. On the creation in 1819, the colouring matter, as then existing in the of resident representatives at foreign courts, R. melted red snow, was subjected to careful examinawas sent to the courts of France and Britain, and tion by Robert Brown and by Francis Bauer, the applied himself diligently to the study of the lan- former most eminent botanist pronouncing it to be guage, manners, and political constitution of these an unicellular plant of the order Algoe, whilst the countries; but was recalled in 1837, and nominated latter referred it to Uredo, a genus of Fungi, and grand.vizier. His persuasive eloquence and firmness called it U. nivalis. Baron Wrangel afterwards of character greatly aided the sultan in carrying declared it to be a Lichen, and called it Lepraria out his plans for the better centralisation of the Kermesina ; but Agardh and Dr Greville of Edinadministration, and for mercantile intercourse with burgh—the latter of whom obtained specimens from foreign nations; but the old Turkish party were the Scottish island of Lismore-on further examinastill too strong for him, and he was compelled to tion, returned to the opinion of Brown, an opinion

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