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1 - 2 ***
+ Stas IX
and some longer, the number of shorter characters in each group denoting the class to which the letter intended to be indicated belonged ; the number of longer ones, its position in the class. 2. Hahal-runa, where the letters are indicated by characters with branching stems, the branches to the left denoting the class, and those to the right the position in that class. There is an inscription in secret runes of this description at Hackness in Yorkshire. 3. Stof. runa, in which the class is indicated by points placed above, and the position in the class by points below, or the reverse.
The best known inscriptions in the AngloSaxon character are those on two gravestones at Hartlepool in Northumberland, on a cross at Bewcastle in Cumberland, and on another cross at Ruthwell in Dumfriesshire. The inscription on the west side of Bewcastle cross, which we give as a specimen of Anglo-Saxon runes, is a memorial of Alcfrid, son of Oswiu, who was associated with his father in the government of the kingdom of Northumbria, in the 7th century.
1 tip R beorc b
IB borg e (short) M eh man m
Aliman lagu I
lago 88 ing ng
* inc W dæg d 88 @thelo (long) & odil Praca (long) fac A Pesca (short) NA yr y ņ ear au * iorio
queorna 小米 calc N stan st
madr I laugr
It has been thus deciphered into the Anglo-Saxon dialect of the period :
+ THIS SIGBECUN The Anglo-Saxon runes, as here given, are derived
SETTÆ HWÆTRED from a variety of MS. authorities, the most com.
EM GÆRFÆ BOLDU plete containing forty characters, while some only
ÆFTÆR BARÆ extend as far as the twenty-fifth or twenty-eighth
YMB CYNING ALCFRIDA letter. Neither the name nor the power of some of the later letters is thoroughly known, and they are
GICEGÆD HEOSUM SAWLUM. without any equivalents in the Norse runic system. Or in modern English: The German runes are given from a MS. in the
This memorial conventual library of St Gall in Switzerland.
Hwætred set Though the various runic alphabets are not alike
and carved this monument copious, the same order of succession among the
after the prince letters is preserved, excepting that, in the Norse
after the king Alcfrid, alphabet, laugr precedes madr, although we have
pray for their souls. placed them otherwise, with the view of exhibiting che correspondence of the three systems. The The inscription on the Ruthwell cross, after number of characters in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet is being long a puzzle to antiquaries, was first deci. a multiple of the sacred number eight; and we have phered in 1838 by Mr John M. Kemble, an eminent the evidence both of a Swedish bracteate contain- Anglo-Saxon scholar. It is written alternately ing twenty-four characters, and of the above-men-down one side of the stone and up another, and tioned St Gall MS., that there was a recognised contains a portion of a poem on the subject of the division of the alphabet into classes of eight letters Crucifixion. Mr Kemble's interpretation received -a classification which forms the basis of a system a very satisfactory confirmation by the discovery of of secret runes noticed in that MS. Of these secret a more complete copy of the same poem in a MS. runes, there are several varieties specified; in par-/ volume of Anglo-Saxon homilies at Vercelli. ticular 1. Tis-runa and Lago-runa (of which speci- Mr D. H. Haigh, whose researches have added mens exist in Scandinavia), consisting of groups of much to our knowledge of Anglo-Saxon runes, has repetitions of the character iis or lago, some shorter endeavoured to set up for them a claim of priority 388
over the Norse characters. Instead of considering by force. In 1799, having rendered important the additional Anglo-Saxon letters as a develop- service as an ally to Zeman Shah of Afghanistan, ment of the Norse system, he looks on the Norse who had invaded the Punjab, he received from that alphabet of sixteen letters as an abridgment of an monarch liberty to take possession of Lahore, which earlier system, and finds occasional traces of the he accordingly did, and held it, despite the utmost existence of the discarded characters in the earliest efforts of his brother sirdars. To these quarrelsome Norse inscriptions, and in the Scandinavian Iis-runa neighbours he next turned his attention, and sucand Hahalruna, where the letters are classified in ceeded in subduing some and rendering others accordance with the Anglo-Saxon groups of eight. tributary, so that by 1809 he had greatly reduced
The Scandinavian kingdoms contain numerous their number. His successes having alarmed the runic monuments, some of them written bou 8- Sikh chiefs, situated between the Sutlej and the trophedon, or with the lines beginning alter Jumna, they besought the governor-general's ir ter. nately from the right and left; and there are ference, and this was the only occasion on which he many interesting inscriptions on Swedish gold ever came into collision with the British. Arrangebracteates, generally having reference to some ments were amicably made, and Britain gave up all design which they accompany. The Celtic races, pretension to interference north of the Sutlej, on from their connection with the Scandinavians, condition that that boundary should be carefully became acquainted with their alphabet, and made respected. R., thus freed from the only danger he use of it in writing their own language; and hence feared, pursued his schemes of aggrandisement; we have in the Western Islands of Scotland, and in and in 1812, having compelled all but three of the the Isle of Man, runic inscriptions, not in the Punjab sirdars to resign their authority, he organAnglo-Saxon, but in the Norse character, with, ised the whole under one sovereignty, and prohowever, a few peculiarities of their own. Some of claimed himself rajah. His army had for several the most perfect runic inscriptions are in Man; years previously been organised and disciplined others of a similar description exist at Holy Island, according to the European fashion by English in Lamlash Bay, Arran, and there is an inscription officers who had entered his service, so that the in the same character on a remarkable brooch dug wild and undisciplined troops of the neighbouring up at Hunterston in Ayrshire. Dr D. Wilson con states had not a chance of successfully opposing him. siders that the Celtic population of Scotland were About this time his capital was resorted to by two as familiar with Norse, as the Northumbrians with of the dispossessed rulers of Afghanistan, one of Saxon runes.
| whom, Shah-Sujah, was the possessor of the celeWe sometimes find the Norse runes used to de- brated Koh-i-nůr (q. v.), which prize R. eagerly note numerals, in which case the sixteen characters coveted, and at last obtained as the price of his stand for the nunibers from 1 to 16; ar combined assistance in recovering the throne of Cabul. In with langr stands for 17, double madr for 18, and 1813, R. obtained possession of Attock, took Maldouble tyr for 19. Two or more letters are used to tan by storm in 1817, and in 1819 annexed Cashexpress higher numbers, as ur ur, 20; thurs thurs mere, assuming after these exploits the title of 0x, 34.
maharajah. In 1822, he took into his service "See Planta's essay, On the Runic or Scandinavian Allard and Ventura, two French officers who forLanguage; W. C. Grimm, Ueber Deutsche Runen; merly served under Napoleon, and by their aid he Archeologia, vol. 28; Haigh's Anglo-Saxon Conquest finished the reconstruction of his army, with the of Britain ; Dr D. Wilson's Prehistoric Annals of| view of extending his dominion to the west of the Scotland.
Indus. In pursuance of this scheme, he wrested The term RUNIC KNOTWORK is often applied (1829) from the Afghans the province of Peshawur. loosely and innccurately to a kind of interlaced He had now an extensive territory, peopled by ornamentation to be seen in MSS. and on monu- more than 20,000,000, and a well-trained arny ments of Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Scandinavian, Scoto- of 70,000 men, of whom 36,000 were infantry, Irish, and Pictish origin, from the 6th to the 12th thoroughly disciplined, and this numerous host century.
was employed for several years in desultory wars
with the Afghans. Between him and the British RUNGPU'R, a British district of India, in the the
be there was always a mutual distrust, dissembled by presidency of Bengal, bounded on the E. by the the
e bi by the the show of extreme cordiality ; but as both parBrahmaputra, and on the N. by the protected state tie
ties scrupulously abstained from any cause of of Cush Behar. Area, 4130 sq. m. ; pop. 1,200,000. The surface is so low, that a large proportion of In 1836.* his army was totally defeated by the
o offence, pacific relations were never interrupted. it is inundated during the rains. Indigo, for the
Afghans, but this reverse seems not in the slightest manufacture of which there are numerous large 3.
large degree to have affected the stability of his rule, factories in the district, is the great article of
even in the most recently-acquired districts ; export.
and, strange to say, his long reign was not disRUNJEET-SINGH, maharajah of the Punjab | turbed by a single revolt. He died 27th June 1839. (generally described by English writers as the king R. is one of the most remarkable men in eastern of Lahore), was born at Gugaranwalla, 20 Novem- history; in person he was short and slight; his ber 1780. His father, Maha-Singh, was sirdar of countenance, deeply marked with small-pox (which Sukur-Chukeah, one of the twelve missouls or mili. had deprived him of the sight of one eye), was, how. tary organisations of the Sikhs, and died when R. ever, expressive of strong determination, to which was about 12 years old, leaving a full treasury and the calm of his brilliant dark eye lent additional a well-regulated government. His widow took effect. He was totally uneducated; could neither charge of the administration, and attempted by read nor write; yet the indefatigable energy of his every means in her power to render her son effemi- administration, and his clemency and moderation nate, but R.'s character was not capable of being (rare qualities in an Asiatic despot), are without a weloped by such treatment. When about 17 vera parallel in the East. See H. T. Prinsep, Origin Of weakened by such treatment. When about 17 years para old, his mother died suddenly (poisoned, as it is the Sikh Power in the Punjaub, and Political Life of reported, by her son), and he immediately assumed | Runjeet-Singh, 1839; W. L. Macgregor, Runjector the government. R. now shewed himself to be al Singh ; History of the Sikhs. prince of overwhelming ambition, and capable of RUNNER (flagellum, a whip), in Botany, is a attaining his object either by policy and address, or long slender branch proceeding from a lateral bud RUNNERS-RUPERT.
of a herba:eous plant with very short axis, or to the practice which money-changers had intro: in popular language, without stem. It extends duced, of levying an arbitrary rate of discount on along the ground, and produces buds as it proceeds, rupees of different places of coinage and of previous which often take root and form new plants. Straw dates, without reference to any actual diminution berries afford a familiar example. Another is found of weight by wear. Although the Dacca rupee was in Potentilla anserina. Runners are common in the thus the actual medium of exchange, the Company's genus Ranunculus.
accounts were for a long time kept in a different RUNNERS. See KIDNEY BEAN.
valuation, or that of the Chalani, or current RU'NNIMEDE, a long stretch of green meadow,
rupee, 100 Sicca rupees being reckoned as equivalying along the right bank of the Thames, from
lent to 116 Chalani rupees. The Sicca rupee which it is partly concealed by plantations of
served also as a unit of weight-80 Sicca weight willows. 20 miles west-south-west of London. It is being equal to one ser, and 40 sers to one man proposed to derive the name from the Sax. rhynes,
or maund = 82 lbs. Beside the Sicca rupee, two water-brooks, which abound in these meadows;
other rupees were current in the Bengal presidency
-the Benares rupee, which ceased to be struck in others suppose the word to be Runningmead, referring to the horse-races which appear to have been held
1819, and the Farakhabad rupee. At Madras, the here from time immemorial, and which still take
rupee of the Nawabs of the Carnatic, originally place in the month of August. R. is of great his
struck at Arcot, and at Bombay that of the Nawabs torical interest, from the fact that Magna Charta
of Surat, became the currency of the Company. In was signed by King John, June 19, 1215, either on
1818, the standard of the Sicca and Farakhabad
rupees was altered, but their intrinsic value was this distance off the shore. The Great Charter itself
unaffected, as they continued to have the same professes to have been signed per manum nostram
amount of fine silver. Other changes of these coins in prato quod vocatur Runnimede. See MAGNA
took place--of the latter in 1824, of the former in
1833 ; but in 1835, the coinage of the Company was CHARTA. RU'NRIG LANDS, a peculiar species of property
entirely remodelled, and a coin, thenceforth termed
the Company's rupee, with its proportionate subknown in Scotland, by which alternate ridges of
divisions, was struck to replace all the former land belong to two individuals respectively. The
currencies, being of the same weight and fineness origin of holding lands in this way is said to have
throughout, and bearing inscriptions in English, arisen out of the practice of common defence and
or on one face the head and name of the reigning watching, and the common ploughing and labouring
sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and on the necessary or natural in the occupation of burgh
reverse the designation of the coin in English and acres and lands near towns. Each party is absolute
Persian, with the words “The East India Company' proprietor of his own ridge; but owing to the ob
in English. The latter, of course, have disappeared struction often caused to agricultural improvement,
since India has been placed under the direct govern. a mode of compulsory division or allotment of the ment of the English crown. The weight, intrinsic lands was introduced by. statute in 1695. This
purity, and value of the British currency of these remedy, however, does not apply to burgh acres,
several coins are as follows :
Troy Grains. corruption of the Sanscrit rûpya, from rûpa, shape,
Sicca Rupee, .
1773 17.9.666 | 175.923 form, meaning, according to Pân'ini, a coin-not
1818 191.916 175.923 necessarily of silver-on which the shape of a man, Do., ..
1823 192.000 176.000
1806 174.760 167.000 according to the Kâs'ikâ commentary on this gram- | Benares, ..
173.000 165.215 marian, is struck; and if this ellipsis of the word
Do., . .
1819 180.234 115215 man is correct, as it very probably is, the word
1824 180.000 165.000 rupee would be of great numismatic interest, Madras, . . .
176.400 166.480 Do., . . .
180.000 inasmuch as it would prove that even as early as
165.000 Bombay, ..
1800 179.000 164-680 at the time of the grammarian Pân'ini (q. v.) coins / Do...
1829 180.000 165.000 12 oi existed with a human figure impressed on them. East India Company's, 1835 180 000 165.000 2 03 The coin bearing the name of rupee was first struck by Shir Shah, and was adopted by Akbar and his
But as silver is subject, in the London mint, to a successors; it was of the weight of 175 grains troy, / but and was considered to be pure: but in the decline seigniorage of nearly 6 per cent., the London mint of the Mohammedan empire every petty chief coined | produce of the rupee, if of full weight and standard
honch value (11 dwts. fine) should be ls. 11d. For further his own rupee, varying in weight and value, though a usually bearing the naine and titles of the reigning
detail, see H. H. Wilson, Glossary of Judicial and emperor. In the reign of Shah Aalam, a great / Revenue Terms (Lond. 1005), under RUPEE. variety of coins bore his name and the years of his RUPERT, PRINCE, the son of the ElectorBuccession, until 1773, when they were suppressed Palatine Frederick V., and Elizabeth, daughter in the territories subject to the East India Com- of James I. of England, was born in 1619. In pany, and a rupee was struck, called the Sicca 1642, he received from his uncle, Charles I. of rupee, with an inscription on it, which, translated, England, a commission to command a regiment of runs: "The king, Shah Aalam, the defender of the horse at Worcester against the Parliamentarians. faith of Mohammed, the shadow of the grace of God, The impetuosity with which he charged the enemy has struck this coin, to be current through the seven there, and in the battle of Edgehill, would have climes ;' and on the reverse : 'Struck at Murshida- proved of greater use to the Royalists had not his bad, in the 19th year of the auspicious accession.' rashness in pursuing the wavering foe nearly coun. Though rupees were coined also at Dacca, and teracted the advantages which he had already gained. finally only at Calcutta, and also at various dates, Subsequently, at Chalgrove, Newark, and Newbury, the place of coinage (the mint of Murshidabad) and he was more successful; but his petulant dis. the date just named (the 19th of Shah Aalam's regard of orders, and his hasty retreat from the ceigu) remained unaltered, in order to put a stop field of battle at Marston Moor, resulted in a signal
defeat, the consequences of which had a most dis- commercial product of the country. There are also astrous effect upon the fortunes of the Royalist abundance of foxes of various colours, bears, wolves, party. His conduct at Naseby, and his hasty Canadian lynxes, &c. Among the animals used for surrender of the city of Bristol, irritated the king, food are the wapiti, reindeer, moose, and other spe. who forthwith deprived him of his command, and cies of deer; the musk-ox, hares, and an immense requested him to leave England without delay. variety of wood-fowl and other birds. Rupert's In 1648, however, he was recalled and appointed Land was surrendered by the Hudson's Bay Company to the command of the royal fleet. In this new in 1870, and a portion of it admitted into the Dominion vocation he acquitted himself with much daring of Canada, under the name of Manitoba. and somewhat more caution, and for three years RU'PIA is a somewhat severe form of skin-disease. he kept his ships afloat, after escaping the block. It is characterised by flattish, distinct bullo or blebs, ade in which he had been held for a twelvemonth containing a serous, purulent, or sanious fluid, which off the Irish coast by the great parliamentarian become changed into thick scabs. Several varieties Admiral Blake; but in 1651, the latter attacked of this disease have been established by dermatolothe prince's squadron, and burned or sunk most gists. In its simplest form, the blebs are not preof bis ships. With the few vessels still remain- ceded by any inflammatory symptoms, are about ing to him, R. escaped to the West Indies, where, an inch in diameter, and contain a fluid which is in concert with his brother Maurice, he led originally thin and transparent, but soon thickens. à bucaneering life, maintaining himself and his becomes purulent, and dries into brown ragged men by seizing upon English and other merchant- scabs, which are elevated in the centre. The scabs men. After a few years spent in this manner, R. are easily separated, and leave ulcerated surfaces. managed to elude the vigilance of Cromwell's cap- on which several successive scabs usually form tains, and made good his way to France, where he before healing ensues. In a more severe form, known remained till the restoration of his cousin, Charles II. as Rupia prominens. the scab projects so much R. served with distinction under the Duke of York, in the centre as to resemble a limpet-shell in and in concert with the Earl of Albemarle, against form. the Dutch, and died in 1682 in the enjoyment of Rupia is a chronic disease, and is usually limited various offices and dignities, being a privy coun- to the limbs, the loins, and the nates. It is not cillor, a member of the Admiralty, governor of contagious, and generally attacks persons debilitated Windsor Castle, &c. The last ten years of his life by old age, intemperance, bait living, or previous were sent in retirement in the pursuit of chemical, I diseases, especially small-pox, scarlatina, and mechanical, and physical researches, for which he syphilis. The general treatment consists mainly in evinced considerable aptitude. Although it is cer- the administration of tonics, such as quinia, the tain that he did not discover the art of engraving mineral acids, ale, wine, animal food, &c. Some in mezzotinto - the real inventor of which appears writers stronòly recommend the tincture of serpento have been a German, Von Tregen, whose early / taria; and there is no doubt that certain cases works bear the date of 1642—R. no doubt improved which will not yield to tonics, rapidly improve when the mechanical mode of the art, which he described treated with iodide of potassium. Ýhe local treatand illustrated for the Royal Society of London in ment consists in puncturing the blebs as soon as 1662, after he liad completedo several interesting they arise, in removing the scabs by poulticing, and engravings on the new principle. The glass bead in applying a slightly stimulating applicationknown as Prince Rupert's Drop (q. v.) derives its such as a solution of nitrate of silver---to the subname from the prince.
jacent ulcers. The disease is frequently tedious RU'PERT'S LAND, so called from Prince Ru- and obstinate, but the patient almost always pert (q. v.), who was one of the founders of the ultimately recovers. Hudson's Bay Company, the official designation of RUPPI'N, Neu, a town of Prussia, in the pro. that extensive tract in North America which forms vince of Brandenburg, on a small lake of the same the basin of Hudson's Bay and Strait, and is bounded name, which communicates by water with the Elbe. on the west, south, and north by the water-sheds | 38 miles north of Potsdam. It contains a castle, a of the Arctic, St Lawrence, and Atlantic rivers. lunatic asylum, and 12.000 inhabitants, who are The western boundary is a little indefinite, but it engaged in brewing, spinning, and the manufacture may without much risk of error be assumed to l of linen and woollen cloths. run from Deer Lake in a south by east direction,
RU'PTURE. See HERNIA. enclosing a portion of the territory west of Lake Winipeg (q. v.) and the Red River Settlement (q. v.). / RURAL DEAN, an official, ordinarily a bene. The whole of this vast territory slopes inwards ficed clergyman, appointed in a diocese to maintowards Hudson's Bay, and is well supplied with tain in a certain district, called a deanery, a superrivers of sufficient magnitude to serve for commercial vision over the condition of churches, church highways. The mountains of this region, which are furniture, glebe houses, schools, the appliances of chiefly on the boundaries, are of primitive rock, and public worship, and all other things appertaining to a great portion of the country is densely wooded. the service, and to report on all to the bishop as The soil is rich, but on account of the severity of occasion may arise. ¿he climatn—which is not only of a generally low RURIK, who is considered to have been the temperature, but exceedingly variable in summer founder of the Russian monarchy, was, according and autumn - the cereals and other alimentary to most authors, a 'Varangian' of Scandinavian plants are not cultivated to any extent; in fact, origin, who was invited by the Slaves of Novgorod to they are only planted in the neighbourhood of the come and rule over them; according to others, he trading posts of the Hudson's Bay Company (q. v.) was the chief of a tribe of Norse colonists which and in the agricultural settlement on Red River, in was located near the Gulf of Finland, and after a the south-west. In the north, the vegetation and long contest, succeeded in subduing the northern climate are those of the polar regions. The chief Slaves and some neighbouring tribes of Finns; while dependence of the inhabitants of R. L. for food Kostomarof attempts to prove that he was a Lithuand clothing is on the animal kingdom, which is anian. That he was either a Scandinavian or of here most abundantly represented Beavers are Scandinavian origin, there seems to be very little still found, and bears, otters, martens, and musk- doubt, and it is as generally maintained that, rats are abundant, their skins forming the chief accompanied by his brothers, Sindf (Sineous) and
Truvor, he, at the head of a small army, took pos- perianth, smooth filaments, and a many-seelled session of the country to the south of the Gulf of generally 3-celled capsule. The species are numerFinland, Lakes Ladoga, Onega, and Beloe in 861 or ous, mostly natives of wet or marshy places in the 862, and laid the foundation of a monarchy. His colder parts of the world; some are found in brothers afterwards settled, the one at Bielo-ozero, tropical regions. Some are absolutely destitute of and the other at Izborsk ; but dying without issue, leaves, but have barren scapes (flower-stems) re. their principalities were united to Novgorod by Rurik. sembling leaves ; some have leafy stems, the leaves Novgorod was made the seat of government in 864 rounded or somewhat compressed, and usually or 865, and the various insurrections of his Slavic jointed internally ; some have plane or grooved subjects were quenched in blood, Vadim, their leaves on the stems; some have very narrow leaves, leader, whose valour is celebrated by the ancient all from the root. The name R. perhaps properly chroniclers, perishing by R.'s own hand. To secure belongs to those species which have no proper leaves; himself and his descendants in their newly-acquired the round stems of which, bearing or not bear. territory, R. invited various colonies of Varan ing small lateral heads of flowers, and popularly gians to settle in the country, and after reigning known as Rvshes, are used for plaiting into mats, peaceably from this time, he died in 879. During chair-bottoms, toy-baskets, &c. - The SOFT R. (J. his reign, some of the Varangians attempted a land effusus) is a native of Japan as well as of Britain, expedition against Constantinople, but renouncing and is cultivated in Japan for making mats. In the scheme, settled on the banks of the Dnieper, ruder times, when carpets were little known, rushes and founded the little state of Kiev. The family of were much used for covering the floors of rooms; R. reigned in Russia till the death, in 1598, of to which many allusions will be found in early Feodor, son of Ivan the Terrible, when, after a brief English writers. The stems of the true rushes intestine contest, it was succeeded by the nearly contain a large pith or soft central substance, which allied House of Romanoff (q. v.). Many noble is sometimes used for wicks of candles. There are families of Russia, such as Odojefski, Obolenski, 20 or 22 British species of R., some of which are Dolgorouki, Lfot, Belosselski-Beloserski, and Gaga- very rare, some found only on the highest mounrin, are legitimately descended in the male line tains, but some are among the most common of from R.; and the princes of Romodanofski-Lady- plants. They are often very troublesome weeds shenski are legitimate descendants in the female to the farmer. Thorough drainage is the best means line.
of getting quit of them. Lime, dry ashes, road RU'SA, a genus of Cervidae, or subgenus of Cervus
scrapings, &c., are also useful. Tufts of rushes in (see DEER), containing a number of species of deer,
pasture are a sure sign of insufficient drainage.
Many marshy and boggy places abound with rushes, natives of the forests of the East Indies, which may
dy of which there are 18 or 20 natives of the U. States; be described as stags with round antlers, a snagi
da | but the one most troublesome is J. cffusus, which forms projecting in front just above the base of each, and the top forked, but the antlers not otherwise
numerous unsiglıtly tussocks in wet grounds. It also
loccupies rice-fields as soon as they are thrown out of branched. They are generally of large size, and
cultivation. The black grass common in salt marshes among them are some of the finest kinds of Asiatic deer. The GREAT R. (R. Hippelaphus) is supposed |
along the coast is the J. bulbosus, and the common by some to be the Hippelaphus of Aristotle ; but
little species abounding in dry paths is the J. bufonius. his description is not complete enough to identify
RUSH, BENJAMIN, M.D., an American physi: the species. It is a native of Java, Sumatra, &c.,
cian, was born near Philadelphia, December 24, and is about the size of a large stag, with brown | :
1745, was educated at Princeton College, studied rough hair, the neck with a long mane.-The
The medicine in Philadelphia, London, Edinburgh, and SAMBUR Or SAMBOO (R. Aristotelis) of India, is a
Paris, and in 1769 was made Professor of Chemistry in the Philadelphia Medical College, and became a contributor to medical literature. Elected a member of the Continental Congress, he advocated and signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1777, he was appointed Surgeon-general and Physician-general of the continental army. His duties did not prevent him from writing a series of letters on the constitution of Pennsylvania, which was changed by his influence. He resigned his post in the army, because he could not prevent frauds upon soldiers in the hospital stores. In 1785, he planned the Philadelphia Dispensary, the first in the United States; and was a member of the convention which ratified the Federal constitution. Retiring from politics, he became Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Philadelphia Medical College; and was so successful in the treatment of yellow
fever in 1793, that he was believed to have saved Sambur (Rusa Aristotelis).
the lives of 6000 persons. His practice, in conse
quence, became so large that he prescribed for 100 similarly large and powerful animal, and no Indian patients a day, whom he saw even at his meals. deer is more sought after by European sportsmen. Virulently attacked by Cobbett, who published a It also is supposed by some to be the Hippelaphus newspaper in Philadelphia, he prosecuted him for of Aristotle. The colour is sooty brown, and the a libel, and recovered 5000 dollars damages. His male has a mane. It is solitary in its habits, and medical works produced honours from several Eurodelights in low forests where water abounds. --The pean sovereigns. The chief of them were Medical Axis (q. v.) is very nearly allied to this genus. Inquiries and Observations, Diseases of the Mind,
Medical Tracts, Health, Temperance, and Exercise. RU'SCUS. See BUTCHER'S BROOM.
In 1779, he was appointed Treasurer of the United RTSH (Juncus), a genus of plants of the natural States Mint, which post he held until his death in order Junced, having a glume-like (not coloured) Philadelphia, April 19, 1813.