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Crude Pyro. ligneous Acid.

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coruparative softness, yielding readily to the knife, sufficiently. One of these retorts will yield about and by the green colour of its solution in nitric acid. 200 gallons per day of pyroligneous acid., This acid Before the blowpipe, with borax and soda, it yields is of great use in the arts, especially in making a bead of copper. --COBALT P., or Cobaltine, à sul. phuret and arseniuret of copper, is a principal ore of cobalt. It is generally of a silver-white colour, and occurs massive, disseminated, or crystallised in cubes, octahedrons, dodecahedrons, and polyhedrons, in primitive rocks.-NICKEL P., also called CopperNickel and Nickeline, used as an ore of nickel, is a compound of nickel and arsenic. It is generally found massive, and is of a copper-red colour.



PYROLI'GNEOUS ACID, or WOOD VINE. GAR, a crude commercial form of Acetic Acid

the acetates used by dyers and calico printers ; and (q. v.). It is made by the destructive distillation of it is also, when very carefully purified and properly wood, and contains, besides acetic acid, tar and diluted with water, used extensively as a substitute other products, which have to be removed if it is

for common vinegar in pickling, and even for table required in a very pure state. "Generally, it is

use. obtained in Britain from oak branches, which, PY'ROMANCY. See DIVINATION. after being stripped of their bárk, are too small for

PYROMANIA is an involuntary, motiveless timber purposes. These are cut into short billets, which are placed in cast-iron retorts, and a sufficient

| tendency to destroy by means of fire. The blind heat applied to drive off the volatile constituents

instinct to burn is often manifested in children and carbonise the wood. The best woods for the

before reason or a knowledge of property can actuate distiller are 'hard' woods, although all will yield it.

them, and with no other object than mischievous This will be seen from the following table, which

destructiveness, or to enjoy the blaze of a conflagrapartly summarises the experiments of Stolze :

tion. In a large pumber of the cases, where legal

| investigation has disclosed the mental condition of 100 Parts of Dried Wood give the incendiary, and where the motive could not

be determined, or was obscure or inadequate, the Acetic Acid. perpetrators were youthful, of the female sex, and 4.47

about the period of puberty. It is to be observed Berch (Fagus sylvatica),


4.29 Oak (Quercus robur), .



that the most remarkable example in modern Arh (Fraxinus excelsior),



times of this morbid tendency appearing epidemiWhite Poplar (Populus alba).

3.23 cally, was presented in Normandy in 1830, where Bird Cherry (Prunus padus),

2.92 Juniper (Juniperus communis) 45.8


barns, granges, and vineyards over a large tract of Spruce Fir (Pinus abies),


2.16 country were consumed, and where the actors were Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris), . 424

2.14 exclusively girls. When apprehended in numbers, Quick distillation is always found to be much more

they confessed that, though prompted by internal productive than slow, and the acid is also frear sensations, they had no other explicable purpose from impurities ; for the slower the process, the

than to see the light. But this is the pure and thicker and darker is the tarry matter. Hence

typical form of the propensity. In general, insane two separate plans have been invented, one by Mr|

incendiarism is the result of, or is complicated with, Halliday, and the other by Mr W. H. Bowers,

la very obvious incentive. Jonathan Martin, being both of Manchester, in which sawdust, chips,

insane, but impelled by superstition, set fire to York shavings, and spent dye-woods are used. In Mr

| Minster (1829); and passions and delusions of every Halliday's plan, the returt is a long tube, with the

character, personal and political antipathies, and the fire acting along its entire length; inside is an in

spirit of agrarian outrage, may seek gratification in Archimedean screw, worked by machinery, which

in this kind of desolation. Like other outbursts of passes the sawdust or other material slowly from the

frenzy, it has been observed to accompany famines, commencement to the end, where, by a particular

pestilences, and great social convulsions.-Feuchtercontrivance, it falls out in the state of thoroughly

sleben, p. 293; Marc, De la Folie, t. ii. p. 305. carbonised wood. It is supplied by means of a PYRO'METER (Gr. pyr, fire, and mặtron, a Juopper. The volatile matters pass up an outlet-pipe measure) is a term originally applied by Muschen. i's the upper part of the tubular retort. In Mr | broek in 1731, to an instrument which he in. 'Bowers's plan, the principle is similar, though vented for measuring the changes produced in the differently carried out, as seen in the wood-cut. a dimensions of solid bodies by the application of is the hopper through which the sawdust is fed; and heat. It is, however, now applied to any instruit is always kept well supplied, so that, by the ment the object of which is to measure all gradapressure of the supply, the escape of vapour may tions of temperature above those that can be be prevented ; 99g is an endless chain worked over indicated by the Mercurial Thermometer (q. v.). the four rollers by a small steam-engine, and Desaguliers gives a description of Muschenbroek's carrying the materials from the hopper by means instrument, as improved by himself, in his Experiof projections on the chain along the lower side of mental Philosophy. Numerous pyrometers have the retort. 80 as to bring them in contact with the since been invented, amongst which may be furnace d, which, after passing along in the direction noticed those of Ellicott (described in The Philoof the arrow, has its flue at e. By the time the sophical Transactions for 1736 and 1751), Graham material reaches the bottom, all the volatile matters (in Do. for 1754), Wedgwood (in Do. for 1782, 1784, have been vaporised, and have passed up into and 1786), and "Guyton (in the Annales de Chimie, the condenser at fit, and the carbonised material tome 46). None of these instruments, however, falls into a cistern of water at c, into which the gave accurate results for very high temperatures; oper end of the retort dips, the water closing it and it was not till the year 1821 that Professor

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Daniell announced the invention of his pyrometer, the scale, and the new position of the index read which has supplanted all others, and for which, in off; the difference of the two readings determining an improved form, he received the Rumford Medal the expansion of the metallic bar above that of the from the Royal Society. It consists of two distinct black-lead. In order to employ the instrument as parts, the register (1) and the scale (2). The regis. a measure of temperature as well as of expansion, ter is a solid bar of black-lead earthenware, A, Professor Daniell adopted the doubtful assumption eight inches long, cut out of a common black-lead that equal increments of length are the effects of crucible. In the axis of this, a hole is drilled, equal increments of temperature. For further inforreaching from one end of the bar to within half an mation on this instrument and its uses, we must inch of the other extremity; and in this cylindrical refer to the original memoir in the Philosophical cavity a bar, aa, of metal (as platinum or iron, for Transactions for 1830-1831. example) is placed. A cylindrical piece of porce- In the Great Exhibition of 1851, Mr Ericsson lain, cc, sufficiently long to project a short distance exhibited in the United States' department a pyrobeyond the extremity of the black-lead bar, is meter in which temperatures were indicated by the placed on the top of the metallic bar. This is tension of a permanent volume of air or of nitrogen termed the index, and it is kept firmly in its position gas, which was measured by the reading of a column by a ring or strap of platinum, d, which is tightened of mercury under a vacuum. M. Edmund Becquerel,

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exposed to a high temperature, the expansion of eter, which, constructed by Ruhmkorff, has proved the metallic rod, aa, forces the index forward ; and very reliable. C. W. Siemen's Electrical Resistance when the register has afterwards cooled, the tension Pyrometer will measure the heat of the hottest furnace. of the strap will retain the index at the furthest. PY'ROPE, a beautiful and much-prized gem, point to which it has been protruded. The scale often called Carbuncle and Hyacinth by lapidaries. (2) consists of a frame composed of two rectangular It is nearly allied to garnet. It is composed of plates of brass, f, g, joined together by their edges silica, alumina, magnesia, lime, and the protoxides at a right angle, and fitting square upon two sides of iron, chrome, and manganese. It is always of a of the register. Near the end of this frame is a deep red colour, and is transparent, or at least small brass plate, h, which projects at a right angle. translucent. It generally occurs in roundish grains,

but rarely in imperfectly cubical crystals. " It is found chiefly in Saxony and Bohemia; also at Elie, in Fife, Scotland. The specimens found at Elie are popularly called Elie Rubies.

PYROʻPHORUS (from the Gr. pyr, fire, and phèro, I bear) is a term applied to any substances which take fire from the rapidity with which they are oxidised. If iron, cobalt, or nickel be reduced by hydrogen from its oxide at a low red heat, it is obtained in a state of such extreme division as to become incandescent by the oxidising action of the atmosphere; and the tendency to rapid oxidation is much increased by the interposition of some infusible matter, as a little alumina or magnesia, between the particles of the oxide. This is pro. bably due to the cohesion of the minute particles of the reduced metal being thus mechanically prevented, and the access of air to the surface of each particle being thus facilitated. If tartrate of lead be heated in a tube till the organic portion becomes charred, the metallic lead is reduced to a state of extreme subdivision, and usually takes fire when poured into the air. If finely-powdered sulphate

of potash be mixed with half its weight of lampDaniell's Pyrometer.

black, and heated in a covered crucible, the sulphate

is reduced to sulphide of potassium, which remains To the extremity of the frame nearest the brass

in a finely-divided state, mixed with the excess of

pund carbon, and takes fire spontaneously in the air from à fixed centre, è, and at its free end carrying the

in the rapid absorption of oxygen. These are amongst arc of a circle, E, the radius of which is five inches,

the best examples of pyrophori. and which is accurately graduated into degrees and PYRO'SIS, or WATERBRASH, is a modificathirds of a degree. Upon this arm, at the centre, tion of dyspepsia, or indigestion, characterised by k, another lighter arm, C, is made to turn, carrying i a burning sensation at the pit of the stomach, at its longer part a Vernier (q. v.), H, which moves followed by the eructation of a considerable quan. on the face of the arc, and divides it into minutes, tity of a thin, watery fluid, which is generally together with an eye-glass, l, to assist the reading ; ; tasteless, but sometimes sour, and is often described while the shorter part terminates in a knife-edge by the patient as being cold. It occurs in paroxysms, m, turned inwards at a right angle.

which usually come on in the morning or forenoon, To use the instrument, the scale is carefully when the stomach is empty. The first symptom of applied, the brass plate, h, being pressed upon the it is a pain at the pit of the stomach, and a sense of shoulder of the register, and the lighter arm being constriction, as if the stomach were drawn towards 80 placed that the steel point, m, may rest on the the back. The pain is often very severe, and after top of the index in a notch cut for it which coincides continuing for some time it brings on the diswith the axis of the rod. The position of the index charge of fluid which has been already mentioned, being then read off on the scale, the register is after which it lessens, and gradually disappears. detached and exposed to the heat to be measured ; When the attack has once occurred, it is commonafter it is removed and cooled, it is again placed in /ly repeated at intervals for a considerable time.




It is usually accompanied with other symptoms of rammed down with a wooden ramrod ; the opening dyspepsia, and is sometimes associated with organic is afterwards covered with a piece of touch-paper, disease of the stomach, or of the liver. It seems to prevent the composition falling out, and to ignite to be due in a great measure to indigestible diet, it by (b, figs. 1, 2, and 3). The effects produced by and the too free use of spirits. When no organic fireworks are either streams of fire issuing straight disease is present, the affection usually disappears out of the cases, and much varied with sparks in under the use of a well-regulated diet, and the the form of stars, &c., and coloured with brilliant administration of opium, combined with astringents colours; or wheels of beautiful sparks produced hy (as in the Compound Kino Powder), care being making the cases revolve rapidly. Revolving pieces taken to guard against the constipating effect of are made by coiling the paper tube, when not too these drugs by the prescription of a mild aperient tightly filled, around a flat daily, as, for example, a little confection of senna, wooden centre (c, fig. 2); or three grains of the Compound Colocynth Pill, the force with which the ball combined with two grains of Extract of Hyoscyamus. combustion of the mateIf this treatment fail, nitrate of bismuth, or oxide rials is carried on, is suffi. of silver, in appropriate doses, may be tried. In cient to make the board some cases a cure has been effected by the use of revolve with great rapidity. lime-water and milk.

Small wheels of this kind PYROSO'MIDÆ, a family of tunicated molluscs

are called Catharine Wheels forming the order Dactylobranchiata of Owen.

(fig. 2). Squibs or serpents They are marine, and swim freely in the water,

are made by filling tubes, many individuals usually combined together, by

eight to ten inches in

Fig. 2. their elastic integument or tunic, into a mass of

length (fig. 1), with a definite form and arrangement, nearly cylindrical,

composition of 1 lb. of nitre, 2 oz. of charcoal hollow, closed at one end, and open at the other.

powder (rather coarse), 4 oz. of gunpowder, 4 oz. The individuals which form this group or mass

of sulphur, and 6 oz. of steel filings. The last is have each a gill-sac with two gills, and inhale

an important ingredient in many fireworks, prowater by an orifice on the outer surface of the

ducing brilliant, feather-like coruscations, which cylinder, expelling it by another orifice on the

are the more beautiful the larger and cleaner inner surface; and by the action of the stream of

the filings are. Rockets are tied to a wooden water which thus constantly flows from the open end of the cylinder, the whole mass is slowly propelled through the water with the closed end foremost. The P. are plentiful in warm seas. Pyrosoma Atlanticum is usually from three to seven inches long. The P. are brightly luminous.

PY'ROTECHNY, the art of making fireworks, is of unknown antiquity. It was practised amongst the Chinese from the earliest times, and has at

Figs. 3 and 4. tained with them a perfection unknown in other countries. So much is this the case, that they stick (c, fig. 3). When they are about to be distreat as insignificant the most brilliant of our charged, this stick is stuck in the ground, and in Europeau displays. In their fireworks they intro- that position the igniting point of the rocket, b, is duce many surprises, such as figures of men and downward; when lighted, it rushes into the air animals darting out, but they are somewhat deficient with great velocity, and reaches a considerable in the mechanical arrangements. Fireworks, as height, discharging as it goes a brilliant stream of the name is now understood, were hardly known sparks. Rockets require a hollow centre all down in Europe until the discovery of the composition of the tube ; without this, they will not rise. At the gunpowder, and for a long time only very simple end of their course, they often discharge brilliant pyrotechnic contrivances were used. At present clusters of golden, ruby, emerald, sapphire-like they may be divided into two kinds—the simple stars, or showers of golden or coloured rain, or hand-pieces, such as squibs, crackers, rockets, &c.; of fiery serpents. This is produced by a suppleand the other, the fixed contrivances which have mentary part, called the garniture of the rocket, often very ingenious mechanical arrangements for consisting of a shorter and broader paper tube called making some of their parts revolve rapidly when the pot, attached to the end of the fusee part of being discharged. The materials used are gun the rocket (as in fig. 4, a), and filled with a com. powder, sulphur, charcoal, saltpetre, filings of steel, position made into a paste with pure alcohol, and cut iron, copper, &c., and several salts, such as nitrate into stars, or granulated into small round bodies for of strontian, acetate of copper, common salt, &c. drops. The serpents for rockets are small fusees, The ingredients of fireworks are usually filled into with the same composition as squibs; they are so paper cases, made by rolling pasted paper round a packed in as to ignite all at once. The white star's cylinder of wood of the proper diameter, until the are made of nitre, 16 parts; sulphur, 8 parts ; guncase is of sufficient thickness, and then cutting the powder, 3 or 4 parts ; nitrate of strontian added, paper tube so formed into the required lengths for makes them ruby red; sulphate or acetate of copper. squibs, Roman candles, small rockets, and similar and sulphate and carbonate of barytes, green ; zinc articles; they seldom exceed ten inches ; one end filings give a blue colour. Yellow stars and yellow of each is closed by drawing a piece of string showers are made of nitre, 16 parts, 10 of sulphur,

tightly round, so as 4 of charcoal, 16 of gunpowder, and 2 of lampb to pinch it in, or black. A deeper and richer golden colour is pro

choke it as it is duced by a very slight variation in the composition Fig. 1.

technically called, - viz., 2 parts less of sulphur and charcoal, and 4

and then dipping additional of gunpowder. Many other ingenious it into melted resin, which effectually seals it (ä. devices are used by masters in the art of pyro. figs. 1, 2, and 3). The combustible ingredients are techny, but they are too numerous and too techni. filled in at the open end, and, if necessary, are cal to come within the limits of this work. The



Roman candle is a favourite firework; it is a tube which it combines, and is no longer volatile, except which is held on the ground, and discharges at a greater temperature than 212° F. It is thereupwards a continuous stream of blue or white stars fore easily separated by means of a steam-bath from or balls. Bengal lights are cases of about an inch its more volatile associates, which are carried off or more in diameter, filled with a composition of at a temperature below boiling water. A higher 7 parts nitre, 2 of sulphur, and l of antimony. temperature is afterwards applied to the residue, These are much used as signals at sea ; they diffuse which is the compound of chloride of calcium and an immense glare of bluish-white light. Chinese pyroxylic spirit, and the spirit is thus distilled off. or jasmine fire, which is used by itself or in com- Commercially, the discovery of this substance was bination with other mixtures, consists of 16 parts of great importance, as inany of its properties are of gunpowder, 8 of nitre, 3 of finely-powdered the same as those of common alcohol ; and now, charcoal, 3 of sulphur, and 10 of small cast-iron notwithstanding a long opposition from the Revenue borings; the last must be finer or coarser in pro- Board, its manufacture and importation are regu. portion to the bore of the case to be filled. The larly allowed. It is of nearly equal value to alcohol compound devices in fixed fireworks, such as are in making varnishes, as it dissolves the resins, oils, seen at public entertainments, are very complicated and other similar substances. It has a peculiar in their structure, and are varied more or less by naphtha-like odour, which is inseparable from it, every artist. One nice point in the arrangement is and prevents its use as a potable spirit at present; to insure simultaneous ignition of all the various but it has been asserted lately that some makers parts.

have almost made it odourless, and that it is con. PY'ROXENE. See AUGITE.

sequently taking the place of common alcohol in

the manufacture of cheap perfumes. PYROXY'LIC SPIRIT, Hydrate of Methyl | (CH4O2), known as wood spirit, or methylic alcohol,

PYROʻXYLIN, a name for Gun Cotton (q. v.). an alcohol obtained by the dry distillation of wood in PYRRHIC DANCE, the most famous of all the the manufacture of Pyroligneous Acid (q. v.). It war-dances of antiquity, is said to have received its is one of numerous volatile products of that dis- name from one Pyrrichos, or, according to others, tillation, and has to be separated from the others from Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles. by saturating it with the chloride of calcium, with Critical scholars, however, content themselves with

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& general inference deduced from the substantial | avoiding missiles and blows, or assaulting the harmony of the various mythical or legendary enemy; and in the Doric states, it was as much a accounts given of its origin-viz., that it was a Doric piece of military training as an amusement. Elseinvention. It was danced to the flute, and its time where, in Greece, it was purely a mimetic dance, in was both quick and light, as may be seen from the which the parts were sometimes represented by Pyrrhic foot, composed of two shorts (-), and the women. It formed part of the public entertainProkeltusmatic, or challenging-foot, of two double ments at the Panathenaic festivals. Julius Cæsar shorts (uw v). According to Plato, it aimed to introduced it at Rome, where it became a great represent the nimble motions of a warrior either | favourite. The Romaika, still danced in Greece is


said to be a modern relic of the ancient Pyrrhic river Siris in Lucania. The contest was long, dance; but if Dr Corrigan's description of it (T'en obstinate, and bloody; and P. only succeeded by Days in Athens, 1861) is correct, it is not easy to bringing forward his elephants, whose strange see the resemblance.

appearance and gigantic size excited a sudden panic PYRRHON (Lat. Pyrrho), the founder of a

among the Romans. It was a hard-bought victory school of Greek scepticism, named after him, was

for P., who said, as he looked upon the field, thick. a native of Elis, and was born in the first half of

strewn with his numerous dead : •Another such the 4th C. B. C. In his youth he is said to have

victory, and I must return to Epeirus alone.' Many been a painter, but was subsequently attracted to

of the Italian nations now joined P. (for Rome was philosophy by the study of the writings of Demo

not liked by her neighbours and dependents), and critus. Diogenes Laertius tells us that, along with

he proceeded on his march towards Central Italy. Anaxarchus (one of his teachers, according to Aris

The Roman senate was thoroughly frightened, and tocles), he joined Alexander the Great's eastern expedition, and it has been conjectured that, at

stirring speech of old Ap. Claudius Cæcus, which this period, he obtained some knowledge of the

made them resolve to fight it out'with the foreigner. opinions and beliefs of the Persian Magi and the

P., after penetrating to within 20 miles of Rome, Indian (

Cymnosophists. He died about the age of found it impossible to proceed further with saiety. 90, after spending a great part of his life in retire

as one Roman army occupied the city, and another ment. P.'s scepticism was by no means of the

hung upon his flanks and rear. He therefore withthorough-going kind that is usually associated with

drew to Campania, and thence to Tarentum, where his name, which is synonymous with absolute and

he wintered. The campaign of 279 B. C. was carried unlimited infidelity. He certainly disbelieved in the 1

on in Apulia, and the principal engagement took

place near Asculum. The Romans were again possibility of acquiring a scientific knowledge of Things, but (like Kant) he appears to have tena- |

defeated ; but P. himself lost so heavily, that he

I felt it impossible to follow up his victory; and again ciously maintained the reality of virtue and the obligations of morality. So greatly was he rever

withdrew to Tarentum. Here a truce was entered enced by his townsmen, on account of his personal

into between the belligerents; and P. passed over excellences, and so little did they consider his

into Sicily to assist the Sicilian Greeks against the philosophical scepticism a barrier to his holding a

Carthaginians, 278 B.C. His first exploits in that

| island were both brilliant and successful ; but the religious office, that they chose him high-priest of

repulse which he sustained in his attack on Lilytheir sacred city, and for his sake declared all philosophers exempt from

bæum broke the spell which invested his name.

public taxes. Cicero (not so far wrongly either) ranks him among the

Soon afterwards he became involved in misunderSocratics; and, indeed, he was as much opposed to

standings with the Greeks; and in 276 B. C. he the pretensions of the Sophists as Socrates himself, |

quitted the island in disgust, to renew his war with though from a different point of view. P., so far

Rome. While crossing over to the mainland the

Carthaginians attacked him, and destroyed 70 of as we know, wrote nothing; and the works of his friend and follower, Timon, are lost.

his ships; and although he reached Tarentum in

safety, his prospects were now much more clouded PY'RRHUS, king of Epeirus, born about 318 than at first. In 274 B. C. he fought a great B. C., a Greek warrior, whose personal bravery and battle with the Romans, under the consul Curius passion for adventurous exploits equal anything Dentatus, near Beneventum, and was utterly recorded of the knights of chivalry, was the son of defeated, escaping to Tarentum with only a few Æacides, who succeeded to the throne of Epeirus personal attendants. He now saw himself forced by the death of his cousin, Alexander, 326 B. c. to abandon Italy and return to Epeirus, where he Alexander was the brother of Olympias, the mother | almost immediately engaged in war with Antigonus of Alexander the Great, and thus young P. was a Gonatas, son of Demetrius, and king of Macedonia. distant kinsman of the Macedonian hero, whose His success was complete, for the Macedonian career of far-stretching conquest he dared to dream troops deserted to him en masse, and he once more of imitating. After experiencing many vicissitudes obtained possession of the country; but nothing of fortune in his youth, he became sole king of could satisfy his love of fighting, and in less than Epeirus in 295 B.C. ; and, in the following year, a year he was induced to enter on a war with increased his territories by the addition of the the Spartans. He marched a large force into the western parts of Macedonia, which he obtained in Peloponnesus, and tried to take their city, but was reward for aiding Alexander, son of Cassander, repulsed in all his attempts. He then proceeded against his brother, Antipater, in their struggle against Argos, where he met his death, 272 B. C., in for the paternal inheritance. In 281 B. C., a glorious | the 46th year of his reign. prospect opened up before the eyes of the restless DVIPIT

PY'RUS, a genus of trees and shrubs of the

. warrior-nothing less than the conquest of Rome and the western world, which (if he should achieve

natural order Rosacece, suborder Pomece, having a

5-celled fruit, with a cartilaginous endocarp and it) would confer on him a renown equal to that of

two seeds in each cell. It includes species differing his Macedonian kinsman. The Tarentines, a Greek colony in Lower Italy, then at war with the Romans,

very much in appearance, in foliage, and in almost sent an embassy to P., in the name of all the Greek

everything except the characters of the flower and

fruit, and formerly constituting the genera Sorbus, colonies in Italy, offering him the command of all I" their troops against their enemies. The king was

Aria, Aronia, &c.; or included in Mespilus (see

MEDLAR) and Cratægus. Some botanists separate overjoyed at the proposal; instantly accepted it; and in the beginning of 280 B. C. sailed for Tarentum

the Apples (Malus) as a distinct genus. Amongst with 20,000 foot, 3000 horse, 2000 archers, 500

the species of P. are some of the most valuable slingers, and a number of elephants. The gay,

fruits of temperate climates, and some highly ornapleasure-loving Tarentines had no great relish for

mental trees and shrubs. See APPLE, PEAR, the rigorous service of war, and were far from

SERVICE, ROWAN, BEAM-TREE pleased at the strict measures taken by P. to inure PYTHAGORAS. The life of this celebrated them to its hardships. The first battle between, the founder of what is known as the Italic and the Romans (who were commanded by the School of Philosophy, has been so greatly obscured consul, M. Valerius Laevinus) took place at the by the mass of legends and incredible stories which

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