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the florets awnless or nearly so; the culm flattened, assassinate the king on his return from Newmarket. from one foot to three feet high'; the root producing The deed was to be perpetrated at a farm belonging leafy barren shoots, which add much to the agricul- to Rumboldt, one of the conspirators, called the tural value of the grass. This grass is highly Ryehouse Farm, whence the plot got its name. valued for forage and hay, and is more extensively The R. P. is supposed to have been kept concealed sown for these uses than any other grass, not only in from Monmouth, Russell, Shaftesbury, and the rest Britain, but on the continent of Europe and in North of those who took the lead in the greater conspiracy. America. It grows well even on very poor soils. It owed its defeat to the circumstance, that the The Common Perennial R. is the kind most generally house which the king occupied at Newmarket took cultivated. A kind called Annual R.-not really fire accidentally, and Charles was thus obliged to an anộual plant, although useful only for one year—| leave that place eight days sooner than was is sometimes cultivated, but is, in almost every expected. Both the greater and lesser conspiracy respect, inferior. --ITALIAN R. (L. Italicum, or . were discovered before long, and from the connecmultiflorum, or L. Bouchianum), a native of the tion subsisting between the two, it was difficult
altogether to dissever them. The indignation excited by the R. P. was extended to the whole Whig party; Lord Russell, Algernon Sidney, and Lieutenant-colonel Walcot were brought to the block for treason; John Hampden, grandson of his inore noted namesake, was fined £40,000; and scarcely one escaped who had been concerned in either plot.
RY'OT (from the Arabic raaya, to pasture, to protect, to govern; hence, literally, the governed, à subject) is the vernacular term for a Hindu cul. tivator or peasante
RYOTWAR (literally, according to or with ryots) is the term applied to the revenue settlement which is made by the government officers in India with each actual cultivator of the soil for a given term-usually a twelvemonth-at a stipulated money-rent, without the intervention of a third party. This mode of assessment prevails chiefly, though not exclusively, in the Madras presidency, See H. H. Wilson, Glossary of Judicial and Revenuo Terms (Lond. 1855), under RÂIYATWÂR.
RYSBRACH, MICHAEL, a sculptor of considerable talent, born at Antwerp in 1693. He settled in London in 1720, and executed numerous works there, in particular the monuments to Sir
Isaac Newton in Westminster Abbey, and to 1, Common Rye-grass; 2, Italian Rye-grass. the Duke of Marlborough at Blenheim, a bronze
equestrian statue of William III. for the city of south of Europe, is much esteemed as a forage and Bristol, a colossal statue of George II. for the parade hay grass. In many soils and situations in Britain at Greenwich Hospital; a Hercules, and busts of it succeeds extremely well, and is remarkable for its many of the eminent poets, wits, and politicians of verdure and luxuriance in early spring. It is pre. his time. Scheemakers, also a native of Antwerp, ferred by cattle to the Common Rye-grass. The and Roubilliac, a Frenchman, were contemporaries young leaves are folded up, whilst those of the and rivals of his, and shared with him most of the Common R. are rolled together. There are many commissions for works of sculpture in England at varieties of Rye-grass. It is nowhere so much the period. With Scheemakers was placed as a valued or cultivated as in Britain. It was culti-pupil Nollekens, who became 80 distinguished vated in England before the end of the 17th for his busts, and as one of the founders of the century. Italian R. was introduced into Britain in English school of sculpture. R. died 8th January 1831 by Mr Thomson of Banchory and Messrs / 1770. Lawson and Son of Edinburgh. R. is generally RY'SWICK, PEACE OF, a treaty concluded in 1697 down along with some kind of corn, and vegetating at Ryswick, a Dutch village between Delft and the for the first year amongst the corn, appears in the Hague, which was signed by France, England, and second year as the proper crop of the field.
Spain on September 20, and by Germany on October RYE’HOUSE PLOT. In 1683, at the same time 30. It put an end to the sanguinary contest in which that a scheme was formed in England among the England had been engaged with France. It has been leading Whigs to raise the nation in arms against often said that the only equivalent then received Charles II., a subordinate scheme was planned by by England for all the treasure she had transmitted ai few fiercer spirits of the party, including Colonel to the continent, and all the blood which had been Rumsey and Lieutenant-colonel Walcot, two mili- shed there, was an acknowledgment of William's tary adventurers ; Goodenough, under-sheriff of title by the king of France; but it must not be London ; Ferguson, an Independent minister; and forgotten how much the allies were benefited by the several attorneys, merchants, and tradesmen of check given to the gigantic power and overweening London-the object of which was to waylay and lambition of France.
THE 19th letter in the English and of the Fichtelgebirge (Bavaria), and flowing north-
in the Latin), belongs to the dental | the Prussian province of Saxony, falls into the Elbe, O
series, and marks the fundamental about 25 miles above Magdeburg, after a course of V sound of the hissing or sibilant 200 miles. It is navigable only within the Prussian 3 group, 8, 7, 8h, zh. The Sanscrit dominions.
has characters for three hissing or 801 SAA'RBRÜCK, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the A sounds; the Semitic languages had four Saar, 40 miles south-south-east of Treves. It is the
(see ALPHABET). The Hebrew or Phænician seat of an active industry, of which coal-mining, spincharacter, from which the modern 8 is derived, ning, and the manufacture of woollen and linen fabrics. was called shin-i. e., tooth, and in its original and of pottery and tobacco, are among the principal form probably represented two or three teeth. The branches. Pop. (1868) 7193. The Franco-Prussian same character, with the presence or absence of a war of 1870_-71 commenced on August 2, 1870, by diacritic point, marked either g or sh. In Eng., an attack
ngus an attack upon the town of Saarbrück. 8 is used both for the sharp and flat sounds, as this, those = thoze. The nearness of the s-sound to th
mal SAA'RDAM. See ZAANDAM. is seen in the Eng. loves = loveth, and in the SAAZ, a town of Bohemia, on the Eger, 45 miles phenomenon of lisping-yeth = yes. This seems west-north-west of Prague. Hops are largely cultito furnish the transition to the so frequent inter. vated in the vicinity, and important corn-markets are change of the High-Ger. 8 for the Low-Ĝer. t, as in held. Pop. 8870. Ger. wasser = water; Ger. fuss = foot. Comp. Gr. SABADE'LL, a rising manufacturing town of thalassa = thalatta. The substitution of r for 8 is Spain, in Catalonia, 14 miles by railway north-west noticed under R. In such cases as melt, com- of Barcelona. It has risen into importance only pared with smelt; pike, with spike ; lick, with within recent years, and it is now the Manchester sleek ; Ger. niesen, with Eng. sneeze ; Eng. snow, of Catalonia. Woollen and cotton fabrics are the Goth. snaivs, with Lat. nix (gen. niv-is); Gr. mikros, staple manufactures, and of the 100 factories in the with smikros; short, A.-S. sceort, with curt-it is town, by far the greater number are engaged in difficult to say whether the form with, or that with these manufactures. Pop. about 16,000.out the s is the older. Grimm considers & as the SABADI'LLA, CEBADILLA, or CEVADILLA remnant of an old prefixed particle (as, is, us), having, (Asagroa officinalis, formerly Helonias officinalis), a perhaps, the force of ex in Lat. exopto, I wish Mexican piant of the natural order Melanthacece, greatly ; or ur in Ger. urklein, very small. An initial
the seeds of which are employed in medicine, 8 before a vowel in Lat. corresponds to Gr. h; comp. because of properties analogous to those of White Lat. sub, sex, sal (salt), with Gr. hypo, hex, hals. In Hellebore Veratrum album). The plant has a Greek and Latin, 8 was pronounced feebly at the bulbous root, and grows in tufts: the leaves are end of words, and still more so between two vowels. linear and grassy, about four feet long, and not It thus frequently disappeared in these positions, above a quarter of an inch broad; among them and this was one of the chief sources of the irregu- rises a round scape (leafless flower-stem), about six larities in the declensions and conjugations, which feet high, bearing a very dense raceme, a foot and a had originally been formed on a uniform system half long, of small white flowers. The seed-vessels (see INFLECTIONS). The dropping of s is one of the are papery follicles, three together; the seeds one, ways in which the forms of modern French words | two or three in each follicle, two or three lines have become so degraded ; compare Lat. magister, long, winged, and wrinkled. The powdered seeds old Fr. maistre, modern Fr. maître ; presbyter, have been known in medicine since the end of the prestre, prêtre. Even where still written, final s in
| 16th century. On submitting them to chemical French is mostly silent-e. g., vos, les
analysis, they are found to consist of fatty matter, SAAD-ED-DIN, a Turkish historian, was born
two special organic acids, to which the names in 1536, and died at Constantinople in 1599. His
Cevadic and Veratric acids have been given ; of history, entitled the Taj-al- Tuarikh (the Crown of
varieties of resin, yellow colouring matter, gum, and Histories), & work held in high estimation by
a highly poisonous alkaloid named Veratria in scholars, gives a general account of the Ottoman
combination with gallic acid ; and to these con. empire from its commencement in 1299 till 1520 ; it
stituents, a French chemist, Couerbe, has added a has never been printed, but MS. copies of it are
crystalline body named Sabadilline. found in most of the great libraries of Europe, and
Notwithstanding its highly poisonous properties, an inaccurate translation into Italian was published
S. is prescribed on many parts of the continent as a in 1646-1652. S. also wrote the Selim-Nameh, or
vermifuge in cases of tape-worm and ascarides, and History of Selim I., which is chiefly a collection of
it may be administered to an adult in 8 or 10 grain anecdotes regarding that prince.
doses, mixed with a little sugar, and a few drops of
oil of fennel. In the form of powder, it is some SAA'LÉ, a river of Germany, distinguished from times applied to the head to destroy lice, but if other and smaller rivers of the same name as the the skin be broken, some other remedy should be Saxon or Thuringian S., rises on the western slope selected, as absorption to a dangerous extent might SABÆANS-SABBATH.
ensue. From its stimulating properties, it is usefully doubtless exaggerated. The country itself, according einployed in the form of tincture (which, however, to the reports of Greek writers, grew spice-wood to is not an officinal preparation) as an external" such an extent that its odour caused apoplexy application in chronic rheuinatism and paralysis, among the inhabitants, and bad smells had to be
used to counteract these over-potent influences. The The active principle of S., the Veratria, in doses meanest utensils in the houses of these merchant of rath of a grain, gradually increased, and taken princes were-if we were to credit those writersthrice a day, has been found very efficacious in wrought in the most cunning fashion, and were of acute rheumatism; and applied in the form of gold and silver ; their vases were incrusted with ointment. it has been highly recommended in gems, their firewood was cinnamon. Their colonies scrofulous diseases of the joints. When prescribed must, in the nature of things, have extended over internally, its use should be at once suspended if the immense tracts of Asia the Ethiopian S. probably patient complain of pain in the throat or stomach, being one of the first foreign settlements; yet nothing vomiting or diarrhea -Similar qualities are said to beyond the vaguest conjectures can be given about exist in the seeds of Veratrum Sabadilla, a native them. Regarding their government, Dio Cassius of Mexico and the West Indies, and in some of the informs us that they had a king, who never was species of Helonias, natives of the southern parts of allowed to leave his palace, and that the first child North American
born, after the accession of a new king, into one of SABÆANS, the supposed descendants of one. | a certain number of noble families, was considered two, or three Shebas mentioned in the Bible. His- the heir-presumptive for the time being. Commerce torically, the S. appear chiefly as the inhabitants of had also done for them what it did for the Phæni. Arabia Felix or Yemen (to the north of the present cians-it civilised them, and caused them to carry Yemen), the principal city of which was called Saba, civilisation further; and they stand out among the and the queen of which is said to have visited ancient semi-barbarous Arabs as a commonwealth Solomon, attracted by the fame of his wisdom. of high culture. Respecting their religion, see Josephus, however (Ant. viii. 6, 5), makes her the ZABISM. Their language is supposed to have queen of Ethiopia (Meröe), and the modern Abys. a Semitic (Arabic) dialect, which, however, is ing to their tradition, was Makeda; and her visit Himyaritic inscriptions have been found, but their to Jerusalem made her not only a proselyte to the readings are not quite satisfactorily fixed as yet. religion of Solomon, but she became one of his See SHEMITIC LANGUAGES, ARABIA. wives, and had by him a son, Menilek, who after SA'BBATH (Heb. Shabbath, Sabbathon, &c., from wards ruled Ethiopia (q. v.). The Arabs, on the shabath, to rest; not from shub, to return, or shebah, other hand, call her Balkis, the earliest name that seven) designates the seventh day of the week, set occurs of a Himyaritic queen; but there is no more aside, in the Old Testament, as a period of cessation historical value to be attached to this tradition from work. Without entering into the question of than to the innumerable legends that have clustered its origin, i. e., whether it be an institution of preround her name in connection with the great king. Mosaic times-either of paradise' or of hea.
Numerous passages in Greek and Roman writers, thenism'-or whether it be purely Mosaic, we shall as well as in the Bible, testify to the vast impor- merely state that, according to our only available tance of these dwellers in Yemen as a wealthy, source, the Pentateuch, the division of the Week widely-extended, and enterprising people, of fine (q.v.) into seven days appears at a very early period; stature and noble bearing. Their chief greatness but the celebration of the seventh day as a day lay in their traffic, the principal articles of which | consecrated to Jehovah, is first mentioned after consisted of gold and perfumes, spice, incense and the Exodus from Egypt, and seems to have preceded precious stones, a very small portion of which, how the Sinaitic legislation, which merely confirmed and ever, was of home production, Yemen being only invested it with the highest authority. On the productive in corn, wine, and the like matters of occasion of the manna (Ex. xvi. 23), the S. and its ordinary consumption. But the fact was, that the solemnity seem presupposed, and the “Remember S. held the key to India, and were the intermediate the Sabbath-day' of the Decalogue, further seems to factors between Egypt and Syria, which again indicate its previous institution. There is no trace of spread the imported wares over Europe ; and even its celebration in the patriarchal times, although the when Ptolemy Philadelphus (274 B. C.) had estab. Semitic traditions of the creation, and of the divine
remained the sole monopolists of the Indian trade, marked it early as a special day of sanctity among being the only navigators who braved the perilous the Abrahamites. The significance that was supervoyage. As in many other respects, they also added to it after the Exodus, i. e., that of being a resembled the Phænicians in this, that, instead of liemembrance of the freedom from bondage. Inakes informning other people of their sources and the lit appear likely enough that its first legal promultracks of their ships, they told them the most svation dates, as a Talmudical tradition has it. from preposterous tales about the countries they visited, Marah, where Moses get them laws and rights? and the tearful dangers they encountered; and in (Ex. xv. 25). While it thus on the one hand formed regard to most things, endeavoured to impress 1
mpress a sort of general human memento of the creation upon the minds of their customers that what they lond
they and the Creator of all things, as it is characterised sold them was, if artificial, their own manufac-line
acolin the first redaction of the commandments in ture---if natural products, home growth. Being 11
in Exodus, it became also, on the other hand, a national the principal merchants of those things which the over-refined luxury of late classical times consi. May
day of record of the bondage and the liberation from
in the dered as absolute necessities of life, they could not fit, & notion prominently brought forward fail to gather enormous riches : e. g., in the 3d c. second rescension of the Decalogue (q. V.) (Deut. V. of the Roman empire, every poünd of silk-a115), and the rest' that was inculcated for everyinaterial enormous quantities of which were used body — kindred, strangers, slaves, even animals that came from Arabia was paid by a liound of silver, received a double meaning. It is in the latter at times ereu of gold. As a natural consequence, sense also denominated a sign between Jehovah the S. became luxurious, effeminate, and idle. Thé and the generations of Israel (Ex. xxxi. 13): a kind pictures of them drawn by the classic writers are of badge of nationality, a token of the covenant 896
between Jehovah and Israel for ever (Ex. xxxi. 16, SABBATH.
cf. Ezek. xx. 12, Neh. ix. 13, &c.). It is constantly those who had fled into caves to escape the permentioned together with institutions of the same secntion of Antiochus Epiphanes, allowed thempeculiar nature ; such as reverencing the sanctuary selves to be butchered wholesale, nay, burned (Lev. xix. 30), celebrating the feasts of a national alive, without any attempt at Hight or resistance ; character (Hos. ii. 11), keeping the ordinances (Ezek. i because they made a conscience to help them. xlv. 17), &c. And in like manner it was made one'selves for the honour of the most sacred day' of the first obligations for proselytes, as one by (2. Macc. vi. 11). It was only in consequence which they were taking hold of the covenant' (Is. of these horrible catastrophes, and in consideration Ivi. 6). A few special cases only are furnished by of the probability of the enemy's always choosing the Pentateuch in explanation of the word 'work' the hallowed day for his attacks, and thus gradually used in the prohibition--lighting a fire, gathering rooting out the nation, that fighting in self-defence sticks, going out of the camp for the purpose was allowed ; although it appears the enemy was of gathering manna. The violation of this law of not to be disturbed in his siege works. Yet this rest was, as a crime of high treason against Jehovah, relaxation in favour of the defensive appears again punishable with death; yet cessation from labour to have been abrogated through the influence of the wis only the negative part of the celebration of the fanatical Chassidaic party. Both Pompey and Herod, diy, which is called, like the other festivals, a it would seem, took advantage of the $. for the
holy convocation. It is difficult to decide riow preparation of the storm on Jerusalem, relyingwhat precise meaning is to be attached to these and successfully-on the strict observance of that words, as referring to the early periods of Israelitish day by their antagonists. The incessant tribulahistory, particularly before the institution of the tions, however, that followed almost without inter. prophets or sacred orators had been fully devel. ruption till the final destruction of the Jewish oped. It may be conjectured that the convocation empire, together with the influence of new schools was a kind of general religious assembly, in which and views, wrought an immense change. Shammai readings and some kind of exposition of the law himself, the austere interpreter of the law, and formed the principal features ; and there is indeed the so-called antagonist of the milder Hillel, a tradition to that effect recorded in the Talmud. pronounced not only the defensive but the offenSome, however, suppose that it was a festive meet. sive legal and righteous (Sabb. xix. a): as, indeed, ing in honour of Jehovah, and refer to Neh. viii. in his days, human life was placed, under all 9-18 for proof that such a celebration was con circumstances whatsoever, higher than any divine sistent with Jewish notions of keeping days holy or human precept about the Sabbath. “The Law, to the Lord. As a further celebration of the day, it is said with regard to the S., was given, accord. a special burnt-offering, consisting of two lambs of ing to the Scriptures, like other laws, that man the first year, with the corresponding meat and should live by them,' 'not that he should die drink-offering, besides the ordinary daily sacrifice, through them' (Tos. Shab. xvi. 5). That Joshua was instituted, and the shew-bread was renewed in had never stopped in his sieges on the S., was not the sanctuary.
considered so weighty an argument as the dire Thus far the Pentateuch on the Sabbath. Turning and imminent necessity that forced itself upon the to the later biblical books of the times before the military and spiritual leaders of the people, of Exile, we find casual references to it as a day of rest preserving at all hazards a remnant at least of the and joy, exalted over the other days of the week, fast perishing nation. and on which agricultural labours and all things It was probably after the Exile that the first connected with them, such as carrying loads, selling attempts at legally fixing, or rather .fencing about' and buying, &c., ceased. No deeper signification the divine ordinance in a minute and rigorous man. seems to have been attached to it yet. Although ner, were made. As we have seen before, no special both Jeremiah and Ezekiel, single it out espe- definition of the work' prohibited-save in a few cially, in common with monotheism and the laws of instances—is to be found in the Old Testament. morality, yet they both rest satisfied with the incul- | Whether it was the men of the great synagogue,' cation of its outward observance, which seems occa- or the later schools, that promulgated the special sionally to have fallen into entire disuse. With the precepts and prohibitions-part of which were traced return from the Exile, however, a new phase was to the legislation on Sinai itself (Oral Law)-is inaugurated. It is well known how energetically difficult to decide. The Mishna only enumerates Nehemiah carried out his reformation, or rather the thirty-nine principal (father-') works, each of which, restoration of the primitive laws, as in other respects again, carries a certain number of minor (begotten') 80 with regard to the S.; how hetestified' against works with it, which are strictly forbidden on those who were treading wine-presses on the S., and the Sabbath. A certain portion of these inhibi. bringing in sheaves, and lading asses, &c., and, tions and prohibitions refers to work connected further, against those men of Tyre' who brought with agriculture and the chase; another to
all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath unto domestic labours generally performed by women the children of Judah and in Jerusalem.' It is by (such as spinning, sewing, &c.); another again to profaning the S., he urges, that their fathers have trades (of builders, mechanics, labourers, &c.) and caused all the evil and wrath that befell the nation the like. One of the most harassing of precepts, and and the city. He had the gates shut from Friday one which had at last to be amended by a number evening to Saturday night, and drove away those of new enactments, was the prohibition of moving merchants who still kept lodging outside, by threats things from one place into another (from public to of laying hands on them.'
private localities, and vice versa). The minor prohibi. What Nehemiah had reinstituted, seems to have tions referred chiefly to things which might easily been most rigorously upheld, and in many cases lead' to the violation of the S., such as riding on made more binding even than he ever intended it, horseback, climbing trees, &c. The .Sabbath-day's or, at all events, than the originally promulgated journey,' or prohibition, based on Ex. xvi. 29, of form of his words would seem to imply at first sight. walking more than the supposed utmost space With respect to the S. in particular, we find it between the ark and the extreme end of the camp, not more than 100 years afterwards kept with seems to belong, in the Mishnaic form at least, to such severity that the people would not even stir the Roman times; the mil to which it was limited, in desence of the city of Jerusalem, stormed by and which contains the requisite 2000 yards, being the soldiers of Ptolemy I. on that day. Later still, a Roman measure.
However it is to be reconciled with the well study in the law, and to serenity and joyfulness. known narrative of Christ's healing on the S.-day, Respfecting this last point, it must be borne in mind contained in the New Testament, there is absolutely that the day is distinctly called a day of joy and no doubt about the fact that, according to the so- delight (e. g., cf. Ps. xcii., Is. lviii. 13, Hos. ii. 11, 13, called Pharisaical code-i. e., the Oral Law, the &c.—the words in Is. translated in the authorised highest and absolute authority of Judaism - the version by doing thy pleasure, in reality mean safety of life and limb utterly over-rules not only doing thy work;' the Hebrew word in this passage the S., but even the day of Atonement itself. It is exactly corresponding to our affairs," • business). only certain smaller alleviations of momentary pain, A variety of minor regulations referring to bodily such as could not by any chance place the patient indulgences on that day, abundantly prove if in the slightest danger, about which we find some further proof were needed-its recognised character kind of casuistical discussions. Practically--that is, as a 'feast-day'in the natural and general senso according to the final enactments (see Maimonides of the term, in Judaism. It was to be honoured Yad Chasaka)—it is not only the regard to life, but by the wearing of finer garments, by three special to the health and well-being of the patient, that sets meals of the best cheer the house could afford all Sabbatical prohibitions at nought. The law of (fish, meat, &c.); and it was considered. a par‘rest,' according to the Talmud, applies no more to ticularly meritorious thing on the part of the the case of the sick or those anyhow endangered, master of the house to busy himself personally as than it did with regard to the temple, and all the much as possible with the furnishing of the viands, 'work' therein, which, indeed, was much heavier on nay, the fetching of the very wood for the cooking, so B. and feast days than at other times. Another as to do as much honour to the Iride Sabbath as difficulty is found in the words in which Christ in him lay. Wine, if the means of the individual refers to the beast that is to be taken out of would anyhow allow it, was to crown the repast, a pit on a S.; the Jewish law ordaining, in special blessings being duly pronounced over it with reality, that it should be aided in its own efforts, reference to the holy day, both at its coming in and if it endeavoured to get out by itself; if it did at its going out. From the circle of the family, this not succeed, it should be left there, food being let custom of welcoming, as it were, the S., and taking down to it, until the end of the S. (Luke xiv. ; leave of it, with the cup of blessing, with lights, Matt. xii. 11; Sabb. 128 b). Could it be that and with spice, found its way at an early period the common people (the Hediots or Idiots--i. e., the into the synagogue, on account of those strangers untutored in the law) were ignorant of the real who, having to stop on their journey during the scope and purport of the Pharisaical' code, and twenty-four hours, were often lodged and fed in or that the argument was directed against their crude near the synagogue, and on whose behalf the blessing notions, as directly opposed to the law as estab- had to be pronounced generally. Fasting, mourning, lished ?-But on this we must not enlarge here. mortification of all and every kind, even special It is also impossible to enter into any of the supplicatory prayers, are strictly prohibited; but, various ancient and modern ways of looking at on the contrary, the number of a hundred benedice the S. in an allegorical and symbolical light, e.g., its tions,' said at all varieties of enjoyments of the senses, being connected by Philo and his school with the are to be completed on the S., were it even by eating planets, the spheres, the number seven and the like different kinds of fruit, smelling different spices, &c. mystical notions. Nor can we follow here those Those who study hard during the week are to relax speculations which make out a close parallel between somewhat on that day, while those bent on business the divine work and rest and human work and rest; all week may indulge more freely in their readings; and shew how well-rounded and entire time itself even school children are to be released from hard appears when shaped into a week after the model of lessons on that day. Nay, the Friday itself partici. the six days of creation, and how man's life is, pated in a manner in the solemnity of the Sabbath. through it, conformed to that of his Creator. Its very name was sunk in 'Eve of Sabbath.'
There can be no doubt about its meaning in the At an early hour in the afternoon, trumpets were Old Testament. It is intended as a principal testi- blown from the steps of the temple in Jerusalem; mony of faith in the Creator of the universe. and certain shops, the stopping of whose business Hence its supreme importance. Though the required some time, began to close. Again and threatened punishments for S.-breakers never seem again the trumpets resounded at certain intervals, to have been carried out to the full during the times and other trades ceased, as, indeed, nothing might of the established commonwealth, in the scheme of even be begun on Friday which could not be Judaism it was placed on a par with the entire finished or stopped at the end of that day : walking body of the Law. He who transgresses the S. is also was restricted to a certain extent on Friday, considered legally, according to Maimonides, as one and judgment over life and death was entirely who has set the whole law at defiance, and is to be suspended. At last, when the sun disappeared looked upon in every respect as like a worshipper from the horizon-irrespective of the situation of of stars '-i. e., a heathen.
the place, whence a difference arose between the Regarding the development of the positive side of beginning of the S. among the dwellers in valleys the Sabbatical observance, we have to mention first, or on elevations--the hallowed period commenced, that in conformity with the precept making it a and lasted until three stars were visible in the day of holy assembly,' the synagogue (irrespective following evening. of the temple-service, its special sacrifices, prayers, The original formulas, much enlarged in later and psalms for the day), assembled the faithful times, as far is they are to be traced now, of the on that day within its precincts in every town and introductory benediction, as well as the valedictory hamlet in and out of Palestine before and after the prayer, both of which we subjoin, shew the charfinal Exile. A certain portion of the Pentateuch, acter and scope of the day in Judaism so fully, that to which afterwards was added a prophetical peri- they may stand instead of any further explanation cope, the Haftarah, was read, translated into the of our own. vernacular, and expounded homiletically. Special ) 1. (Kiddush.) 'Blessed art Thou, O Lord, our God, prayers and psalms, in addition to the ordinary King of the Universe, who hath sanctified us by slightly-modified service, with special reference to His Laws, and hath made us participate in His the sanctity of the S., were said and sung, and the Grace, and hath, in His Love and in His Mercy, rest of the day was devoted to pious meditation, given us the Sabbath, as a remembrance of the