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called melhorf time many of its per

country. Copenhagen has, however, in recent times, the beginning of time and united with the All. been the principal seat of these inquiries, the father, fell from his high estate, and, like some successful prosecution of which has been materially fallen angel, became crafty, evil, and destructive as facilitated by the large number of importanta desolating flame. Halgoland appears from remains Icelandic MSS. contained in its libraries, and by the discovered there to have been a special seat of fire foundation of the Arne-Magnussen collection in or sun worship, which seems to have been nearly 1772; and the different societies especially designed universal at one period of the world's history. to promote the study of Icelandic and of northern Leaving for the present the discussion of the antiquarian monuments. Among the Icelandic and sources from whence the northern mythology Danish scholars who have gained pre-eminent dis- derived some of the numerous complex elements tinction in these departments of research, we may which entered into its composition, we proceed instance Arne-Magnussen, Torfæus, Olavsen, Finn to give a short summary of its cosmogony :--In the Magnussen, Worm, Resenius, Bartholin, Thorlacius, beginning of time a world existed in the north Müller, Rask, Rafn, Keyser, Munch, Unger, Lange, called Nifheim, in the middle of which was a well, &c. In the study of the grammar and comparative Hvergelmeer, from which sprang twelve rivers. In structure of the language, which excited an interest the south was another world, Muspelheim, a as early as the 13th c., as is proved by the gram- light, warm, radiant world, the boundary of which matical treatises and rules of prosody incorporated was guarded by Surt with a flaming sword. Cold in the younger Edda, no one has evinced a higher and heat contended together. From Niflheim order of scientific acumen and critical learning than flowed venomous, cold streams called Elivaager, Rask (q. v.), who in his erudite work Om det gamle which, hardening into ice, formed one icy layer upon Nordiske Sprogs Oprindelse (Kjopenh. 1818) threw the other within the abyss of abysses that faced a flood of new and important light on the subject; the north, and was known as the Ginnunga-gap. while the labours of Jakob Grimm, Munch, and From the south streamed forth the sparkling others, have tended materially to exhibit the affin- heat of Muspelheim ; and as heat met cold, the ities between the Old Northern and the Teutonic melting ice-drops became instinct with life, and languages, and to assign to it its right position produced, through the power of him who had sent among the kindred Indo-Germanic tongues.

forth heat, a human being, Ymir, the progenitor of SCANDINAVIAN MYTHOLOGY. Our know the frost-giants, by whom he was called Ergeliner, or ledge of Scandinavian mythology is mainly derived Chaos. He was not a god, but evil, both he and from the collections of ancient Northern sagas

all his race. As yet there was neither heaven nor known as the Eddas (q. v.), which constitute the earth, neither land nor sea, but only the abyss Odinic Bible, as it were, of heathen Scandinavia. Ginnunga-gap. Ymir drew his nourishment from The value and interest attaching to these records the four milky streams which flowed from the of the ancient faith of the Northmen are enhanced udders of the cow Aedhumla, a creature formed by the fact that there are strong grounds for assum- from the melting frost. From Ymir there came ing that the closest affinity, if not identity, of forth offspring while he slept-a man and woman character existed between their religious doctrines growing from under his left arm, and sons from his and practices and those of the Germanic nations feet; and thus was generated the race of the frostgenerally. Hence, in the absence of anything be. giants, or Hrimthursar, among whom the All-father yond the incidental notices of the Pagan religion of dwelt in the beginning of time before the heavens Germany, which are contained in the classic writers, and the earth were created.

Idaic exposition of northern mythology is of In the meanwhile, as the cow Aedhumla licked the highest importance to the student of the history the frost-covered stones, there came forth the first of every nation of Teutonic origin. Owing to the day a man's hair, the second day a head, and the remote situation of the Scandinavian lands, and the third day an entire man. This man, Buri, or the hold which the Odin religion had taken of the minds Producing, had a son Bör (the Produced), who of the Northmen-whose natural tendencies inclined married Beltsa, one of the giant race, by whom Le more to the Pagan merits of valour, courageous had three sons, Odin, Vili, and Ve. endurance of hardships, indomitable resolution, and These three brothers, who were gods, slew Ymir, unflinching fidelity in hate and love, than to the and carrying his body into the middle of GinnungaChristiau virtues of submission, meekness, and for gap, formed from it the earth and the heavens. Of giveness of injuries--Christianity took root slowly his blood they made all seas and waters, taking the and insecurely in those lands, and only long after gore that flowed from his body to form the impassa national literature, based upon the superstitions able ocean which encircles the earth; of his bones and memorials of the ancient faith, had been firmly they made the mountains, using the broken splinters established among the people. But although there and his teeth for the stones and pebbles; of his is every reason to believe that all branches of the skull they formed the heavens, at each of the four great Indo-Germanic family of nations had essen- corners of which stood a dwarf, viz., Austri at the tially the same system of belief and worship, and east, Vestri at the west, Northri at the north, and venerated the same deities, minor differences were Suthri at the south. Of his brains they formed numerous. Thus, for instance, while Danes, Saxons, the heavy clouds, of his hair plants and herbs of and Gothlanders worshipped Odin as their chief | every kind, and of his eyebrows they made a wall god, the Swedes generally paid supreme honours to of defence against the giants round Midgard, the Frey, the god of the year; some tribes of Northern central garden or dwelling-place for the sons of men. Germany regarded Hlodyn, or the Earth, as their Then the three brothers took the glowing sparks principal deity; and the Norwegians directed their that were thrown out of the world Muspelheim, worship to Odin's son, Thor; while in some parts and casting them over the face of heaven, raised up of Norway even, as in Halgoland, the people 'wor the sun, moon, stars, and fiery meteors, and appointed shipped deities not honoured elsewhere in Scandi. to each its place and allotted course ; and thus navia. Thus the chief objects of worship in the arose days, months, and years. latter district were Thorgerd, Horgabrud, and Irpa, Night was of the race of the giants, and in turn the daughters of Halogi, or high Xame, from whom married three husbands, by one of whom she had a the name of the country was verived, and who was daughter, Earth, and by another a son, Day, who probably identical with Loki (Fire), who, after was bright and beautiful like the gods, or (Esir, to having, according to the myth, been beneficent in whose race his father Delling belonged. To this


mother and son, who were akin to the opposite gnawing the roots, and striving with his numerous races of the frost-giants and the gods, Alifader brood of lesser serpents to undermine Yggdrasil, committed chariots and horses, and placed them in whose branches are as constantly refreshed by heaven, where Night rides first through her twenty. water from the well of Urd, which is poured over four hours' course round the earth with her horse them by the Norns. These are three maidens Hrimfaxi, from whose bit fall the rime-drops that known as Urd, Verdandi, and Skulld (or Past, Preeach morning bedew the face of the earth. Close sent, and Future), who dwell in a fair hall below the after her coines her fair son Day, with his horse ash-tree, where they grave on a shield the destiny Skinfaxi, from whose shining mane light beams over, which they determine for the children of men. heaven and earth. All the maidens of giant race Besides gods, frost-giants, dwarfs, and men, there were not dark like Night, for to Mundilfori were were other beings, as the Vanir, who dwelt in the born a son and daughter of such beauty that their world Vanaheim, lying between the abodes of the father gave to them the names of Mani or Moon, gods and of men, and the Light Elves and Dark and sol or Sun. The gods, incensed at this pre- Elves, the former of whom were friendly to manBumption, took them up to heaven, and ordained kind, and of great beauty, while the latter were of that they should direct the course of the sun and evil demoniacal natures, and blacker than pitch. moon, which had been made to give light to the Now, after the three giant maidens came to Asaworld, and thenceforth Sol drove the chariot of the borg, dissensions soon broke out among these difSun, which was drawn by two horses, Arvakur (the ferent races, and Odin, by casting a spear among Watchful) and Alsvith (the Rapid), under whose mankind, created war and discord in the world. shoulders the gods in pity placed an ice-cool breeze. Then his maidens, the Valkyriur (or choosers of the A shield named Svalin (the Cooling) was also by doomed), surrounded by lightnings, rode forth with their care attached to the front of the car, to save bloody corselets and radiant spears, to choose on sea and land from being set on fire. Mani directs every battle-field those who should fall, and to lead the course of the moon, and he, like his sister, is them into Valhal, where the chosen heroes, known followed by a wolf that seems about to devour him; as Einheriar, daily go forth to fight and slay one and in the end of time this animal, which is of another, but returning at early morn sound and giant race, will with his kindred swallow up the fresh, recruit themselves for the next night's moon, darken the brightness of the sun, let loose combats by drinking beer with the gods and eating the howling winds, and sate himself with the blood | the flesh of the sacred hog. It is, however, only of all dying men.

men of rank, as jarls (or earls), who enter Odin's When heaven and earth were thus formed, and hall after death, for the base-born, or thralls, belong all things arranged in their due order, the chief to Odin's powerful son, Thor (q. v.), who rules over gods or (Esir, of whom there were twelve, met in Thrudheim, and drives through the world in a the middle of their city Asgard, which lay on the chariot drawn by he-goats, bearing with him his plain of Ida. These gods were Odin, or All-father, magic hammer Miolnir, the iron gloves which he who has twelve names in Asgard besides many requires to grasp the haft, and his belt of power. others on earth; Thor, Baldur, Tyr, Bragi, Heimdal, Among the gods there reigned good-will and Hod, Vidar and Vali his sons, and Niord, Frey, Ull, happiness even after the rest of the world had been and Forsetti. Here they raised for themselves a disturbed by war, until Loki, or the impersonation court with a high seat for All-fader; a lofty hall of evil, who in infancy had been Odin's foster. for the goddesses; and a smithy, in which they brother, was admitted into Asaborg as their equal. worked in metal, stone, and wood, but chiefly in By his treachery Baldur (q. v.), the purest, most gold, of which precious substance all the implements beautiful, and best loved of Odin's sons, was slain. which they used were made, and hence this period The gods, indeed, had power to inflict temporary of their existence was known as the Golden Age. punishment on Loki, and to chain him under a

This age of peaceful labour lasted till three beau- hot sulphur spring, where he lay for ages, but tiful, but evil maidens made their way from the at length a time will come when Loki's' evil giants' world, Jotunheim, to Asgard, when con- progeny will prevail over the gods and the world. fusion and ill-will arose in the world. Then the This terrible age of destruction, the Ragnarök, gods, taking counsel, determined to create new or twilight of the gods, will be marked by a three beings to people the universe, and first they gave / years' winter of hard frost, cutting winds, and human bodies and understanding to the dwarfs, sunless air uncheered by summer or spring-tide, who had been generated like maggots within the when there will be bloodshed throughout the world, dead body of Ymir, but who now took up their brothers will slay one another, parents and children abodes in the bowels of the earth, in rocks and will be at war. The wolf Fenrir will break loose, stories, and in trees and flowers. Then Odin, with the sea will burst its bounds as the serpent Jor. two companions, Hænir and Lodur, went forth on mundgard, encircling Midgard, writhes in fierce an excursion to the earth, where finding two trees, rage, and struggles to reach the land. The wolf Ask and Embla, created a man and a woman of Sköll will swallow up the sun, and when the world them, Odin giving them spirit or the breath of life, is plunged in almost total darkness, his brother ILænir sense and motion, and Lodur blood and a Hati will devour the moon, while the stars will fair colour, with sight, speech, and hearing; and vanish from heaven. As Midgard's serpent and the from this pair, whose dwelling was in Midgard, the wolf Fenrir go forth, scattering venom through air human race has sprung. A bridge of three colours, and water, the heavens will be rent asunder; the Bifrost, known to men as the rainbow, connects ship Naglfar, which is made of dead men's nails, Midgard with Asgard, and over this the gods ride will be floated on the waters; the Esir will ride daily on their horses to the sacred fountain of Urd, forth across the bridge Bifrost, which will break where they sit in judgment. This fountain lies at away behind them; and all the friends of Hel, led one of the three roots of the ash, Yggdrasil, whose on by Loki, will offer battle to the gods on Vigrid's branches spread over the whole world and tower plain. Then Odin, having taken counsel at Mimir's above the heavens. Under one of these roots is the well, will advance armed with his spear Gungnir abode of Hel (q. v.), the goddess of the dead, under against the wolf Fenrir, while Thor encounters Midanother, that of the frost-giants, while under the gard's serpent, and is killed by the venom which it third is the dwelling of human beings. Below the exhales from its mouth. Although Fenrir, the wolf, tree lies the serpent Nidhogg, who is constantly will swallow Odin, and thus cause his death, he wil


himself be slain by the god Vidar, while Loki will spirits of the air and water, and their wanderings fall beneath the hand of Heimdal, the watchman of on earth, are interpreted as memorials of real war the gods, and Surt, hurling fire from his hand, will with pre-existing races, and of the spread of Odin's burn up the whole world. After the conflagration religion from its chief seat in Sweden over the of heaven and earth and the whole universe, there neighbouring countries. This theory explains only will still be dwellings for the evil and the good, the a few of the myths; while some, as we have already worst of which is Nastrond, a horrible habitation observed, may be referred to traces of an older faith, for perjurers and murderers, where serpent-heads | which lingered amongst the Finns and Lapps after pouring forth venom line the walls, while in Gimli, l the advance of the more civilised conquering races Odin's best heaven, the good and virtuous will find had driven those tribes from the southern districts a happy resting-place.

of Scandinavia, which they originally occupied, to But from the great destruction of the universe the barren recesses of the north. " another earth, verdant and fresh, will arise from The worship of the gods was celebrated either in the deep waters of the ocean, the unsown fields will spacious temples, of which there were many in bear fruits, and all evil will cease ; Baldur and different parts of Scandinavia, or on stone heaps or other gods will then return to Ida's plain, where altars, known as horg. These altars were always Asgard once stood, and taking counsel together, near some well, and close to a sacred grove, or a will find the golden tablets which their race had solitary tree, on which the votive offerings were possessed at the beginning of time, and remembering suspended, after they had been washed at the their deeds of old, will await the coming of the neighbouring spring by the attendant priestesses, mighty All-father, the ruler of all things, who will known as horgabrudar. Human sacrifices, although pronounce judgments, and establish peace that shall never resorted to on ordinary occasions, were not endure to the end of time.

uncommon in times of public calamity, arising from The above brief epitome of the Odin cosmogony war, failure of crops, disease, &c.; and the horse, serves as a framework for the numerous beautiful whose flesh was highly esteemed, was a frequent prose and poetic myths which make up the sub- victim, while the fruits of the earth and spoils of stance of northern mythology; and are contained in war were the usual offerings. Three great festivals a rich mass of sagas, not all complete in themselves, were held every year, the first of which was celebut each capable of throwing some light on the brated at the new year in the Yule month, when others.

Thorablot, or the sacrifice of Thorri, an ancient god Many theories have been advanced to explain the of the Finns and Lapps, was offered. On these origin and the fundamental ideas on which the occasions, offerings were made to Odin for success northern myths have been based ; and while some in war, and to Frey for a fruitful year, the chief expositors have seen in them a mere re-clothing of victim being a hog, which was sacred to the latter Bible narratives, and a perversion of Christian truths, god, on the assumption that swine first taught and have referred their composition to monks living mankind to plough the earth. Feastings and Yule in the middle ages, others, feeling that their title to games occupied the whole of the month, whence it antiquity could not be set aside, have gone to the was also called the Merry Month. The second other extreme, and tried to prove that they reflected festival was in mid-winter, and the third in spring, the truths of Christianity, and represented under 1 when Odin was chiefly invoked for prosperity and active and tangible forms the mysteries of Revela- victory on the Vikings, or sea-roving expeditions tion; and that thus, for instance, in the narrative which were then entered upon. On the introducof Thor crushing the serpent we have a figurative tion of Christianity, the people were the more ready delineation of Christ. Other interpreters, again, have to conform to the great church festivals of Christmas attached very different meanings to these myths, and Easter, from the fact of their corresponding regarding them as historic, psychical, physical, or with the ancient national sacrificial feasts; and so even chemical; but against each of these assumed deep-rooted was the adhesion to the faith of Odin modes of explanation, taken in their full integrity, in the north, that the early Christian teachers, conclusive arguments might be adduced ; and unable to eradicate the old ideas, were driven to all that can be safely accepted is, that they are partly the expedient of trying to give them a colouring of historical and partly an impersonation of the active Christianity. Thus the black elves, giants, evil forces of nature. Like the northern languages, their subterranean sprites, and dwarfs, with which the original seat was in the south and east, where Northmen peopled earth, air, and water, were kindred mythologies existed among the ancient tribes declared by them to be fallen angels, or devils, and of India and Persia; and it is probable that the more under the latter character suffered to retain their practical and energetic spirit of the northern myths, old denominations. Belief in these imaginary beings and the more warlike character of the gods of the survived the spread of the Reformation, and can north, when compared with the reflective and con- scarcely be said to have died out in Scandinavian templative nature of their oriental prototypes, may lands among the superstitious and ignorant, while be due to the gradual effect on the minds of a people among the more enlightened the myths connected who had passed from the soft enervating influences with them are still related, and serve to give a of a southern climate to the stern rigours of the poetic interest to special localities. north, where man lived in constant warfare with Our own association with the Scandinavian myth. the elements and with his fellow-men. According ology is perpetuated in numerous superstitions and to Snorri Sturlesson (q. v.), whose opinion seems to usages still lingering amongst us, and in the name of a certain extent to have been a mere re-echo of the the days of the week. See WEEK. traditional belief of his forefathers, Odin and his The best northern authorities on Scandinavian sons and companions were earthly kings and priests mythology are N. M. Petersen, Danmarks Historie of a sacerdotal caste, who had migrated from Asia i Fledenold (1837); Rask, in his edition of Sæmund's --perhaps, as some conjectured, from Troy--and Edda; Jakob Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie ; Fave, who conquered and ruled over various parts of | Norske- Folke- Sang; Thorpe, Northern Mythology Scandinavia and Northern Germany, where after (Lond. 1851). their death they were regarded by the people as

SCANSO'RÉS. See CLIMBERS. deities. In conjunction with this mode of repreBentation, the mythic tales of the warfare of the SCA'NTLING, the sectional breadth and thickgods with giants, their intercourse with dwarfs, and 'ness of timbers for roofs, floors, &c. The term is


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also applied to quarterings or pieces of timber of clavicle and humerus, and gives attachment to no about five inches in thickness and under.

less than 16 muscles, many of which, as the biceps, SCA'PHOID BONE (Gr. skaphe, a boat), a term

| triceps, deltoid, serratus magnus, are very powerful

and important. applied to two somewhat boat-like bones, of which

The uses of this bone may be stated as follows: one occurs in the carpus or wrist (see HAND), and

1. It connects the upper extremity to the trunk, and the other in the tarsus of the Foot (q. v.).

participates in, and is subservient to many of the SCAPPLE, a kind of work applied to masonry. movements enjoyed by the arm; 2. By its extended To scapple a stone, is to work the surface even flat surface it furnishes a lateral protection to the without making it smooth.

chest; and 3. It affords attachments to various SCAPULA, THE, or SHOULDER BLADE, is

muscles which modify the size of the thoracio

cavity, and is thus concerned in the process of a flat triangular bone, which, when the arm hangs loosely down, extends posteriorly and

respiration. laterally from the first to about the seventh rib./ SCA'PULAR, or SCAPULARY (Lat. scapula, It presents for examination an outer convex and the shoulder), a portion of the monastic habit, so an inner, smooth, and concave surface, three called from its being worn upon the shoulders. It borders (a superior, an inferior or axillary, and consists of a long stripe of serge or stuff, the centre a posterior), three angles, and certain outstanding of which passes over the head, one flap hanging processes.

down in front, the other upon the back. The The figure represents an outer or posterior view scapular of the professed monks in most orders of the scapula. It is divided into two unequal reaches to the feet, that of the lay brothers only to

the knees. The colour differs for different religious orders or congregations. Besides the scapular worn by the members of religious orders strictly so called, there exists also in the Roman Catholic Church a religious association or confraternity, the members of which, while living in the world and mixing in ordinary life, wear, although not conspicuously, a small religious emblem called a scapular. The chief duties of this confraternity consist in the recitation of certain prayers, or the observance of certain religious or ascetical exercises through devotion to the Blessed Virgin. The members may or may not bind themselves by a vow of chastity. This pious association was founded in the middle of the 13th c. by an English Carmelite friar named Simon Stock, and is said to have originated in a vision, which has been the subject of much controversy, as well with Protestants as among Catholics themselves.

SCARABÆ'IDÆ, a very numerous tribe of lamellicorn coleopterous insects (see LAMELLICORNES), of which more than 3000 species are known, the

greater number inhabitants of tropical countries, A Posterior View of the Left Scapula : although species are found in almost all parts of the The parts designated by the figures 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, are world. Some of the tropical species are amongst

sufficiently described in the text; 8 is the superior border ; 5, the anierior or axillary border; 7, the inferior angle; 9, regions, as in Britain, are of comparatively small the posterior border or base; 13, one of the nutritious

size. The tribe is divided into six sections : foramina: 14, the coracoid process. (From Wilson's Anatomist's Vade Mecum.)

Coprophagi (dung-eaters), Arenicoli (dwellers in

sand), Xylophili (delighting in wood), Phyllophagi parts, the supra-spinous fossa (1), and the infra- | (leaf-eaters), Anthobii (living on flowers), and Melispinous fossa (2), by the spine (loj, a crest of bone tophili (delighting in honey), named according to commencing at a smooth triangular surface (11) on

prevalent and characteristic habits of the species the posterior border, and running across towards

belonging to them, although the names do not the upper part of the neck of the scapula (8), after

accurately denote the habits of all the species of which it alters its direction, and projects forwards

each section. The sections are distinguished by 80 as to form a lofty arch, known as the acronion

differences in the organs of the mouth and the process (12), which overhangs the glenoid cavity (6),

antennæ. To the section Crotophagi belong tho or receptacle for the head of the humerus, or main

greater number of the Dung Beetles (q. v.), or bone of the arm. This acromion (so called from the

Scavenger Beetles, so useful in warm countries in Greek words acros Ömos, the summit of the removing ortensive matter ; amongst which is the shoulder) obviously serves to protect the shoulder

Sacred Scarabæus of the ancient Egyptians (Scarajoint, as well as to give great leverage to the deltoid bæus, or Ateuchus sacer). Some of the Xylophilt. muscle which raises the arm. It is this process as the great H

as the great Hercules Beetle (q. v.), have remarkwhich gives to the shoulder its natural roundness.

able projections from the head or the thorax of the From the upper part of the neck (8) there proceeds

males. The Cockchafer (q. v.) is an example of a remarkable curved projection termed the coracoid

the Phyllophagi; the Goliath Beetle (q. v.) is one process, from its supposed resemblance to the beak of the Melitophili, to which section the Rose Beetle. of a raven (Gr. kórar). It is about two inches long, common in Britain, also belongs. None of the and gives attachments to several muscles.



The | Anthobii are British. upper border of the scapula presents a very remark. SCARABÆ'US, the name of a beetle held sacred able notch (4), which in the recent state is bridged by the Egyptians, commonly known in entomology over with a ligament, and gives passage to the supra- as the Scarabæus or A teuchus sacer. It was called scapular nerve. This bone articulates with the Heliocantharus or Cantharus, by the Greeks, and

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$. by the Latins. Scarabæi were employed for At present, it serves as a barrack, and is fortified rings, necklaces, and other purposes by the Egyp- | by batteries. tians, Phænicians, and Etruscans (see GEMS). Į SCA'RCEMENT, a plain set-off or projection in These are principally distinguished by the absence

a wall ; foundations have generally one or more or presence of striated elytra and other marks.

scarcements. of the A teuchus on the Egyptian monuments, | SCARF, in Heraldry, a small ecclesiastical banner viz., A. semipunctatus, A. laticollis, A. morbillosus, suspended from the top of a crosier. A. puncticollis. Several mystical ideas were

SCARFING, the junction of two pieces of tim. attributed to the S. : the number of its toes, 30, symbolised the days of the month;

ber made to overlap, and united so as to appear as the time it deposited its ball in which one piece. its eggs were deposited, was supposed SCARLATI'NA, or SCARLET FEVER, is one to refer to the lunar month; the of the group of diseases called Exanthemata (q. v.). movement of the clay-ball referred to In addition to the characters common to the group, the action of the sun on the earth, scarlatina is almost always attended by sore throat, and personified that luminary. The and the rash or eruption, which is of bright scarlet

S. was supposed to be only of the colour, commonly appears as early as the second day Scarabæus. male sex, hence it signified the self- after the manifestation of the febrile symptoms, and

metamorphosis, and the male or paternal principle seventh day. Most writers on medicine make three of nature. In this sense it appears on the head varieties of this disease—viz., S. simplex, in which of the pygmæan diety, Ptah-Socharis Osiris, the there are the fever and the rash, but scarcely any demiurgos, and in astronomical scenes and sepul- throat-affection ; S. anginosa, in which, in addition chral formulas. In the hieroglyphs it is used for to the fever and the rash, the throat-affection is the syllable khepru, and expresses the verb 'to be, the most prominent symptom; and S. maligna, a exist. In connection with Egyptian notions, the name which is applied to certain cases of extreme Gnostics and some of the Fathers called Christ the violence, in which the system is at once overwhelmed scarabæus. The insect, during its life, was wor- by the force of the disease, or in which the sympshipped, and after death, embalmed. -Horapollo, i. toms evince an extraordinary degree of weakness c. 10; Ælian, De Nat. Anim. X. 15; Pettigrew, ! and want of vital power. History of Mummies, p. 221; Wilkinson, Man, and I The disease begins with shivering, lassitude, headCust. v. p. 255.

ache, a frequent pulse, a hot dry skin, a flushed SCA'RAMOUCH (Ital. scaramuccia, skirmish),

face, thirst, loss of appetite, and a furred tongue. a character in the old Italian comedy, originally

114 Shortly after the appearance of the febrile symp

na derived from Spain, representing a military poltroon toms,

toms, the throat begins to feel irritable, and, on and braggadocio. He was dressed in a sort of:

examination, is found to be red, and often more or Hispano-Neapolitan costume, including a black les

joals less swollen. This redness becomes diffused over toque and mantle, and a mask open on the fore-15 head, cheeks, and chin, and always received an ra

ñ rash begins in the form of minute red points, which

soon become so numerous that the surface appears inglorious drubbing at the hands of harlequin.

of an almost uniform red. It first appears on the SCA'RBOROUGH (i. e., fortified rock), a sea neck, face, and breast, whence it gradually spreads port and municipal and parliamentary borough in over the trunk and extremities. The reddened sur. Yorkshire, in the East Riding, 42 miles north-east face is smooth to the touch, and the colour tem. of York, and about 20 miles north-west of Flam- porarily disappears on pressure of the finger. Along borough Head. It is built around a charming bay with the true rash, minute vesicles, known as Sud. open to the south and south-west, and protected amina (q. v.), sometimes occur. The eruption, in on the north-east by a promontory ending in a ordinary cases, is persistent for three or four days, castle-crowned height, which looks out on the North after which it gradually disappears, and is usually Sea. From the sands the town has gradually climbed gone by the end of the seventh day. The cuticle the rising ground behind in successive terraces then begins to scale off in small bran-like scurf, or and crescents. The chief buildings are churches, in flakes of various sizes. Specimens of an almost chapels, and benevolent and other institutions, with entire epidermic covering of the hand or foot, which the town is well furnished. A fine cast-iron forming a natural glove or slipper, are of common bridge, 75 feet high, and stretching over a chasin occurrence in our pathological museums; but 400 feet wide, connects the old and new towns, it is comparatively seldom that such perfect moultand leads to the spa, and a bridge has recently ing takes place. The desquamative process is been erected over a picturesque ravine to connect usually completed in a fortnight, or rather more, the western part of the town with its large and from the commencement of the disease. The fashionable southern suburb. The springs, which fever does not abate on the appearance of the rash, are saline and chalybeate, are on the margin of but continues in a more or less decided degree the sea, and are surrounded by walks and orna- through the progress of the case ; it often presents mental grounds. The harbour, composed of three exacerbations towards the evening, and is occasionpiers, and furnished with a light-house, is the ally attended with delirium, or even with comatose most important in this part of the east coast. symptoms. If the urine be examined, both chemiEvery accommodation is offered to visitors for sea- cally and microscopically, a few days after desquabathing, and S. is reputed the most fashionable mation has set in, it will be found to contain albuwatering-place on the north-east coast. The men, and to exhibit a large amount of epithelium season lasts from June to the middle of October. from the uriniferous ducts of the Kidneys (q. v.). In 1863, 407 vessels, of 22,349 tons, entered and Malignant Scarlatina is so terrible a disease cleared the port. Pop. (1861) 18,377. The castle that its characteristic symptoms require a brief was erected about the year 1136. It was held special notice. The rash comes out late and imagainst the barons by Piers Gaveston, who, how perfectly, and sometimes is hardly. perceptible; or, ever, surrendered, and was afterwards beheaded. having appeared, it may suddenly recede; and It was twice besieged by the parliamentary forces. sometimes it is intermixed with livid spots. The

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