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pulse is feeble, the skin is cold, and there is particularly upon the nervous system, which is extreme prostration of strength. In such a case overwhelmed by its influence. The patients sink as this, death may occur (apparently from blood- often at a very early period, with but little affection poisoning) in a few hours. Other cases rapidly either of the throat or skin. If we can save such assume a typhus-like character. The pulse (says patients at all, it must be by the liberal adminisDr Watson) becomes frequent and feeble; thetration of wine and bark, to sustain the flagging tongue dry, brown, and tremulous ; the debility powers until the deadly agency of the poison has in extreme; the breath offensive; the throat is some measure passed away. But another source of livid, swollen, ulcerated, and gangrenous; and the danger arises from the gangrenous ulceration which respiration is impeded by viscid mucus, which is apt to ensue in the fauces, when the patient is collects about the fauces. Over this variety of the not killed by the first violence of the contagion. disease, medicine has comparatively little control.' The system is re-inoculated, I believe, with the

Even in S. anginosa, there is very considerable poisonous matter from the throat. Now, under these danger. The disease may prove fatal (1) from in circumstances also, quinia, or wine, and upon the flammation or effusion within the head, or (2) from whole, I should give the preference to wine, is to the throat-affection, which too often proceeds to be diligently though watchfully given. In addidisorganisation and sloughing of the adjacent parts. tion to these remedies, a weak solution of chloride Moreover, in parturient women, even the mildest of soda, of nitrate of silver, or of Condy's disinfectform of the disease is fraught with the greatest ant fluid, should be used as a gargle; or if, as is too peril. Further, when the disease is apparently often the case, the patient is incapable of gargling, cured, the patient is exposed to great hazard from the solution may be injected into the nostrils and its consequences or sequelce. Children who have against the fauces by means of a syringe or elastic suffered a severe attack of scarlet fever are liable (in bottle. the words of the eminent physician to whom we Three medicines have been so highly commended have already referred) 'to fall into a state of per- in scarlet fever generally, by trustworthy observers, manent bad health, and to become a prey to some that it is expedient to notice them. The first is of the many chronic forms of scrofula-boils, chlorate of potassium (KCIO:) dissolved in water in strumous ulcers, diseases of the scalp, sores behind the proportion of a drachm to a pint. A pint, or the ear, scrofulous swellings of the cervical glands a pint and a half, may be taken daily. It was and of the upper lip, chronic inflammation of the originally prescribed under the idea that it gave off eyes and eyelids. The above-named consequences its oxygen to the blood, and was eliminated from not unfrequently follow small-pox and measles, the system as.chloride of potassium (KCl). Although but, in addition to these, scarlatina is often fol- this view is now known to be incorrect, there is no lowed by the form of dropsy known as ana- doubt that the salt is often prescribed with great Barca, or serous intiltration of the subcutaneous benefit in this and some other diseases, as, for cellular tissue, frequently accompanied with dropsy example, diphtheria and typhus fever. The second of the larger serous cavities. Strange as it may medicine is a very weak, watery solution of chlorine, at first sight appear, this dropsy is much more of which a pint may be taken in the day; and the common after a mild than after a severe form third is carbonate of ammonia in five-grain doses of the disease; but this apparent anomaly is pro- three times a day, given in beef-tea, wine, &c. bably due to the fact, that less caution is observed in In the early stage, before the appearance of the the former than in the latter cases during the dan. rash, scarlatina may be readily mistaken for several gerous period of desquamation. If the patient (for other febrile diseases ; after the appearance of the example) is allowed to go out while new cuticle is rash, the only disease for which it can be mistaken still formning, the perspiratory power of the skin is is measles, and we must refer to the article on that checked by the cold, and the escape of the fever poison disease for a notice of the distinctive characters of through the great cutaneous outlet is thus prevented the two affections. An excess of the poison is therefore driven to the There is no complaint in which the final result kidneys, where it gives rise to the form of renal is more uncertain than this, and the physician disease known as "acute desquamative nephritis.' should give a very guarded opinion as to how any

Scarlatina is a disease that like all the exan- special case may terminate. themata-occurs in the epidemic form; and each Whether the disease is contagious throughout epidemic presents its peculiar type, the disease its course, or only at one particular period, is un. being sometimes uniformly mild, and in others known; and if the physician is asked at what alınost as uniformly severe. The treatment of period the danger of imparting the disease on the this disease varies according to the prepon one hand, or catching it on the other, is over, he derating symptoms. In S. simplex, nothing is should candidly declare that he does not know. required except confinement to the house, a non- That the contagion remains attached to furniture, stimulating diet, and the due regulation of the clothing, &c., for a long period is undoubted. Dr bowels, which are apt to be costive. In S. Watson gives a remarkable instance of a small anginosa, cold or tepid sponging gives much relief if piece of infected flannel communicating the disthe skin is hot. If there is much fever, and espe- ease after the interval of a year. cially if delirium supervene, a few leeches should be The popular delusion that scarlatina is a mild and applied behind the ears, or if the patient were pre- diminutive form of scarlet fever should always be viously in robust health, blood might be cautiously corrected, as the error, if uncorrected, may do much taken from the arm. If, however, no bad head. harm by leading to a disregard of those precausymptoms are present, all that is necessary is to tions which are always necessary in this disease. prescribe saline draughts, of which citrate of SCARLATTI, ALESSANDRO, a musician of great ammonia, with a slight excess of carbonate of eminence, born at Trapani in Sicily in 1659. He is ammonia, forms the best ingredient, and to keep said to have studied under Carissimi ; if so, it must the bowels open once or twice a day by gentle have been when very young. In 1680, S. visited laxatives. In S. maligna, there are two main Rome, and composed his first opera, L'onestà sources of danger, which were first recognised as nell' amore, first performed at the court of Queen distinct by Dr Watson, who describes them as Christina of Sweden. His opera, Pompeo, was per. follows : The one arises from the primary impres- formed at Naples in 1684. “In 1693, he composed sion of the contagious poison upon the body, and the oratorio, I Dolori di Maria sempre Vergine, and 398





the opera Teodora, in which orchestral accompani- was now at its highest ; but three years afterwards, ments were first introduced to the recitatives, and a | he had to give up the work of public teaching, and separate design given to the accompaniments to the entered, in 1814, on the office of Director of the airs. In the following eight years, during part of Medical Faculty of Pavia. His next publication which time he held the office of maestro di capella was some valuable observations on the operation at Naples, he produced various operas, the most for Stone. For the last years of his life, he suffered reinarkable being Laodicea e Berenice, composed in from almost total blindness, until, on the 30th of 1701. Between 1703-1709 he held the situation of October 1832, he died at Pavia, of inflammation of maestro di capella at St Maria Maggiore at Rome; the bladder. S.'s merits as an observer, a teacher, he then returned to Naples; and in 1715, produced and a writer were very great. Industrious, Il Tigrane. Alessandro S. died in 1721. His musical scholarly, artistic, he appeared to great advantage works comprise 117 operas, several oratorios, and a | in nearly every subject he undertook. great deal of church music, besides various madrigals SCARPA'NTO (anc. Carpathos), an island in and other chamber music. He was the founder of the Mediterranean, belonging to Turkey, midway the Neapolitan school, in which were trained most of

between the islands of Rhodes and Crete. It is 32 the great musicians of last century, and whose influ- miles long, and about 8 miles in extreme breadth. ence can be traced in the works of almost every and its surface is covered with bare mountains composer who has flourished since. His invention which reach the height of 4000 feet. The ruing of

rich and bold, his learning great, and his style towns, which are found in several places, seem to pure. His modulations, often unexpected, are never indicate that formerly the island was well peopled. harsh, and never difficult for the voice. --His son, At present, the inhabitants are only about 5000 in DOMENICO (born 1685, died 1757), was the first

number, and are mostly employed as carpenters and harpsichord player of his day. Among his com workers in wood, a trade of which they seem pecupositions are a number of sonatas, remarkable for liarly find and in invention, graceful melody, and skilful construction.- Domenico S. had a son, GIUSEPPE (born 1718,

SCARPE, in Heraldry, a diminutive of the bend died 1796), who was also known as an eminent |

an eminent sinister, being half the breadth of that ordinary. musician.

SCARRON, PAUL, the creator of French SCARLET COLOURS. Cochineal furnished the burlesque, was born at Paris in 1610. His father, scarlet colour employed in dveing before the applica- a counsellor of parliament, was a man of fortune tion of aniline, and was extensively used: a solution and good family ; but he having married again of tin and cream of tartar being employed as the mor

after the death of Paul's mother, discord broke dant to fix it. Scheffer, who produced the best form out between the second wife and her step-children, ula for dyeing this colour, also added starch, the pro the result of which was that Paul had to leave portions being as follow : Starch, 9 lbs.; cream of

the house. About 1634, he visited Italy, where he tartar, 9 lbs. 6 oz.; solution of tin, 9 lbs. 6 oz.; and

d made the acquaintance of Poussin the painter. On cochineal, 12 lbs. 4 oz. These are the quantities re

re- his return to Paris, he delivered himself over to a quired for 100 lbs. of wool or cloth.

life of very gross pleasure, the consequence of which SCARLET RUNNER. See KIDNEY BEAN.

was that, in less than four years, he was seized with

permanent paralysis of the limbs. What makes SCARP. See ESCARP.

this incident in his career still interesting is the SCARPA, ANTONIO, a celebrated anatomist, was fact, that it undoubtedly exercised no inconsider. born on 13th June,' 1747, at Castello-Motta, a able influence on the development of his peculiar village in the Friuli.' He was educated at Padua, genius, which, as a French critic justly says, was where his ardour attracted the attention of the the image of his body. His love of burlesque, of octogenarian Morgagni, who, having lost his sight malicious buffoonery, of profane gaiety, was simply shortly after the arrival of S. at the university, a way of escape through the gates of mockery engaged the young enthusiast as his secretary, from the tourmens véhémens of his incurable ailment. and dictated to him in Latin the answers which. His scramble for the means of living is excusable he made to letters soliciting his advice. The when we consider his hapless infirmity. He wrote intervals between their medical studies were em- verses, flattering dedications, begging-letters for ployed by Morgagni and S. in the perusal of the pensions, &c. ; and in 1643 he even managed to get Latin authors, and it is to this practice that we a benefice at Mans, which he held for three years, must ascribe the elegance that distinguished the when he returned to Paris, and lived in a sort of scientific style of S. in his subsequent publications. elegant Bohemian style. He had a pension from In 1772, he was appointed Professor of Anatomy in Mazarin of 500 crowns ; but when the cardinal Modena. He afterwards visited France, Holland, declined (probably from avarice) to allow the and England ; and while in London, was so enam- Typhon to be dedicated to him, S. got absurdly oured of John Hunter's Museum, that he did not indignant, and joining the Frondeurs, lampooned rest until he had constructed a similar one at home. Mazarin with spleenful virulence. However, wher In 1783, he filled the anatomical chair at Pavia. the war of the Fronde was at an end, and Mazarin He made, in the following year, a journey through had triumphed, S. was ready with an ode to . out the greater part of Germany, and in the course

Jule, autrefois l'objet de l'injuste satire. of it acquired the experience that made him one of the greatest clinical surgeons in Europe. On his This baseness, however, did not win him back his return to Pavia, he published in rapid succession pension, which the object of his unjust satire' had treatises on the anatomy of the Organs of Smell and withdrawn; and it might have fared hard with the Hlearing; on the Nerves of the Heart, and on the poet, had other friends not started up-for example, micute anatomy of Bone. These, especially that on Fouquet, who granted him a pension of 1600 the innervation of the heart, which settled the crowns-and had he himself not been the most conquestion whether that viscus was supplied with summate beggar that ever lived. If he could not nerves, gave S. a European reputation. His work get a benefice or a purse of gold, or a lodge at on the Disquses of the Eye, published in 1801, was court, he would take a load of firewood, or a followed in 1894 by his observations on the Cure of carriage, pasties, capon, cheese, poodles, &c.Aneurism. But his greatest achievement was his nothing came amiss; and his ample acknowledg work on Hernia, published in 1809. His reputation ments shewed how thoroughly he had masterea SCATTERY ISLAND-SCHADOW.

the art of expressing gratitude. Doubtless his! SCEATTÆ. See NUMISMATICS. physical helplessness induced this bad habit, but SCENA. See THEATRE his importunities were so pleasantly worded that I SCEPTICISM (Gr. skeptomai. "I consider' they never estranged the friends on whom he

strictly denotes that condition in which the mind is fastened. In 1652, S. married Françoise d'Aubigné

| before it has arrived at conclusive opinions —when -a girl of 17, who subsequently became the

it is still in the act of reflecting, examining, or mistress of Louis XIV., and is known as Madame

pondering over subjects of thought. Scepticism is Maintenon (q. v.). He died early in October 1660

therefore the opposite of dogmatism (see DOGMA).

The notion of disbelief,' is quite a seconılary on the 7th. It is a proof of the charm of his

meaning of the term. Among the Ctreeks å company that his rooms were frequented by most of

skeptikos, (sceptic,' was originally only a thoughtful the men and women of his day who were distin

person, and the verb skeptomai, never acquired any guished either in literature or society. . Among

other signification than to consider.' But inasmuch his works may be mentioned Le Typhon, Virgile

as the mass of men rush to conclusions with baste, Travesti (Par. 1648--1652), La Mazarinade (1649),

and assert them with far more positiveness than La Baronade Léandre et Héro, Ode Burlesque, La

their knowledge warrants, the discerning few of Relation du Combat des Purques et des Poëtes sur la

clearer vision or cooler head, are often brought into Mort de Voiture, Poésies Diverses (Par. 1643-1651),

collision with popular beliefs--more especially in comprising sonnets, madrigals, epistles, satires,

religion, the sphere in which popular beliefs are songs, &c. ; Le Roman Comique (Par. 1651), a most

most numerous, most positive, and most inconsideramusing account of the life led by a company of

ate--and are compelled by the violent shock given strolling players-it is the best known, and perhaps

to their reason to doubt, it may be to disbelieve' the best of all S.'s productions; Nouvelles Tragi

what they hear affirmed by the multitude with comiques, from one of which (Les Hypocrites) |

indefensible emphasis of speech. Thus it is that in Molière has taken the idea of Tartufe ; besides a

common parlance a sceptic has come to mean an number of clever but coarse comedies. The editions

infidel, and scepticism infidelity. But the field of of his works are very numerous, but the best is that thought in which scepticism properly so-called of Bruzen de la Martinière (Amster., 10 vols., 1737 ; 1 ho

Si has preferred to exercise itself is not religion but Par., 7 vols. 1786). Victor Fournel, to whom we nhild

philosophy. Philosophical sceptics in all ages and are indebted for most of the information in this

countries have generally denied or at least doubted article, republished Le Roman Comique, in 1857, the trustworthiness of the senses as vehicles of and Le Virgile Travesti in 1858.

absolute truth, and so have destroyed the very SCA'TTERY ISLAND, a small islet in the possibility of speculation. In ancient times, Pyrrhon estuary of the Shannon, three miles south-west of Tq. v.), in modern, David Hume (q. v.), are the the town of Kilrush. Besides a fort, the islet most characteristic representatives of this kind of contains fragments of several small churches, and an scepticism. ancient round tower 120 feet high.

SCEPTRE (Gr. skēptron, staff; from skēpto, to SCAUP DUCK (Fuligulamor Nyroca-marila), send or thrust), originally a staff or walking-stick. an oceanic species of duck, of the same genus with the hence in course of time, also a weapon of assault Pochard (q. V.), an inhabitant of the northern parts and of defence. At a very early period the privilege of the world, spending the summer in arctic or of carrying it came to be connected with the idea of subarctic regions, and visiting the coasts of Britain authority and station. Both in the Old Testament and of continental Europe as far south as the land in Homer. the most solemn oaths are sworn Mediterranean in winter, when it is also to be seen by the sceptre, and Homer speaks of the sceptre as in great flocks in the United States, not only on the

an attribute of kings, princes, and leaders of tribes. According to Homer, the sceptre descended from father to son, and might be committed to any one to denote the transfer of authority. Among the Persians, whole classes of persons vested with authority, including eunuchs, were distinguished as the 'sceptre-bearing classes. The sceptre was in very early times a truncheon pierced with gold or silver studs. Ovid speaks of it as enriched with gems, and made of precious metals or ivory. The sceptre of the kings of Rome, which was afterwards borne by the consuls, was of ivory, and surmounted by an eagle. While no other ensign of sovereignty is of the same antiquity as the sceptre, it has kept its place as a symbol of royal authority through the middle ages and down to the

present time. There has been considerable variety Scaup Duck (Fuligula marila).

in its form ; the sceptre of the kings of France of

the first race was a gold rod as tall as the king sea-coast, but on the Ohio, Mississippi, and other himself. rivers. It breeds in fresh-water swamps. It is SCHADOW-GODENHAUS,FRIEDR.WILH. VON, nearly equal in size to the Pochard. The male has a distinguished German painter, of the Düsseldorf the head, neck, and upper part of the breast and school, was born at Berlin, September 6, 1789. His back black, the cheeks and sides of the neck glossed father, Joh. Gottf. S., an eminent sculptor, died with rich green; the back white, spotted and director of the Berlin Academy of Arts, in 1850. striped with black lines ; the wing-coverts darker At first young S. did not give much promise of than the back, the speculum white; the rump and excellence, but during his first visit to Ropie, the tail-coverts black. The female has brown instead influence of Overbeck, Cornelius, Führich, Veit,

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around the base of the bill. The flesh of the and in company with some of these artists, he 8. D. is tough, and has a strong fishy flavour. executed several pictures remarkable for their SCHAFFHAUSEN-SCHEELE.

depth of religious sentiment; as "An Explana- dynasty (1645), and was honoured by visits from tion of the Dream of Joseph' and The Grief of the emperor at four stated times in each year. Jacob when told of the Death of his Son.' While Through this favour with the emperor, S. obtained residing in the city of the pope, he passed over to an edict which authorised the building of Catholic Roman Catholicism. Scarcely had S. returned to churches, and the liberty of preaching throughout Berlin when he was •appointed professor of the the empire ; and in the space of 14 years the academy, and soon gathered round him a host Jesuit missionaries in the several provinces are said of brilliant pupils ; but in 1826 he went to Düssel- to have received into the church 100,000 proselytes. dorf as successor of Cornelius, in the direction of the On the death of this emperor, however, a change of notable academy there. His pupils followed him, policy fatal to the prospects of Christianity took and ever since the “Düsseldorf School' has been place. The favourable edict above referred to was associated specially with their names. So's principal revoked; S. was thrown into prison and sentenced works are · Mignon' (1828); The Four Evangelists,' to death. He was afterwards liberated; but he was one of the finest productions of German art; . The again imprisoned, and, at the end of a long incarWise and Foolish Virgins,' The Source of Life,' ceration, died August 15, 1669. He had acquired a

and “Heaven,' 'Purgatory, and 'Hell.' S. was enno- he compiled numerous treatises upon scientific and bled by the king of Prussia in 1843. He died in 1862. religious subjects. A large MS. collection of his SCHAFFHAU'SEN, the most northern canton

remains in Chinese, amounting to 14 volumes in 4to, of Switzerland, is bounded on all sides but the

is preserved in the Vatican Library. He also trans

lated into Chinese several works, doctrinal and south by the duchy of Baden. Area, 117 sq. m. ; pop. (1860) 35,964, of whom 33,000 are Protestants,

medical, especially some treatises of Father Lessius, and 2400 are Catholics. The chief river is the

a Flemish Jesuit, the most important of which was Rhine, which forms part of the southern boundary,

that on the Providence of God. See Mailly's and within the basin of which the canton is wholly

| Histoire Générale de la Chine and Huc's Le included. The surface is hilly, especially in the

Christianisme en Chine. north and east, and of the many rich valleys that SCHÄ'SBURG, or SCHÄSSBURG (Magyar, slope southward to the Rhine, that of the Klettgau Segesvá), a town of Austria, in Transylvania, on the is famous for its unusual fertility, and for its great Kokel. It consists of the Burg or Upperwines, the bouquet of which is peculiarly fine. The Town and the Lower-Town. Pop. 7962. climate is mild; the soil, which is mostly calcareous, | SCHAU'MBURG-LI PPE. a principality and is generally fruitful, and agriculture is the principal state of the German empire, formerly the county branch of industry. Grain, fruits, flax, hemp, and

of Schaumburg, and bounded on the W. by Westwine are the chief crops. Iron is obtained, but phalia, and the N. by Hanover. Area. 212. sq. m.: the manufactures are not important. About 20,000

pop. (1867) 31,186. It shares the physical characters tons of gypsum are obtained yearly at the town of

of the surrounding states. The prince, who resides Schleitheim (pop. 2000). The canton is divided into for the most part at Bückeburg (pop. 4214), has six districts.

large possessions in Mecklenburg, Hanover, and SCHAFFHAUSEN, a town of Switzerland, Bohemia. The public revenue amounts to $81,capital of the canton of the same name, beautifully 480, and the expenses to the same sum. It had situated on the right bank of the Rhine, immediately one vote in the plenum, and part of the 16th vote above the celebrated falls of that river. Higher up in the curies. It contributed to the force of the the slope on which the town stands, is the curious North German Confederation a contingent of 516 castle of Munoth, and this edifice and the minster, men. The line of S.-L., a branch of the House of founded in 1052, are the chief buildings. The town Lippe (q. v.), divided from the main stem in the is remarkable for the antique architecture of its year 1613. houses. The old wall and gateways of S. are also SCHEELE, CHARLES-WILLIAM, an eminent very picturesque. Pop. 7770, who are partly engaged Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund. 1742. and in the manufacture of iron, cotton, and silk goods. after receiving a brief and incomplete education.

was apprenticed to an apothecary at Gothenburg, the town, form, perhaps, the most imposing spec

where he laid the foundation of his knowledge of tacle of the kind in Europe. The river is here 300 )

chemistry. In 1767, he settled at Stockholm as feet broad, and the entire descent is about 100 feet.

an apothecary; and in 1770, removed to Upsala, From a projecting balcony which overhangs the

where at that time the celebrated Bergmann was roaring cataract, the visitor may appreciate the full

professor of chemistry. It was during his residence grandeur of the fall.

at Upsala that he carried on those investigations SCHALL, JOHANN ADAM VON, a celebrated in chemical analysis which proved so fruitful in Jesuit missionary to China, was born of noble family important and brilliant discoveries, and placed at Cologne in 1591, and having made his studies and their author by the side of Linnæus and Berzelius, entered the Jesuit order in Rome, in 1611, he was his countrymen-in the front rank of science. In selected, partly in consequence of his great know. 1777, he removed to Köping to take possession of a ledge of mathematics and astronomy, to form one of vacant apothecary business, but died of ague-fever, the mission to China in 1620. Having, with the 24th May 1786, at a time when he was receiving characteristic skill and ability of his order, turned to the most tempting offers from England to persuade good account among the Chinese his familiarity with him to settle in that country. The chief of his dismathematical and mechanical science, he not only coveries were tartaric acid (1770), chlorine (1774), succeeded in forming a flourishing mission, but was baryta (1774), oxygen (1777), and glycerine (1784) ultimately invited to the imperial court at Pekin, the second-last of which had been previously made where he was entrusted with the compilation of the known through the labours of Priestley, though S. calendar, and the direction of the public mathe- was not aware of this till after his own discovery matical school, being himself created a mandarin. of it in 1777. In experimenting on arsenic and its Such was his favour with the emperor, that, acid, he discovered the arsenite of copper, which is contrary to all the received etiquette, he had the known as a pigment under the name of Scheele's privilege of free access to the presence of the Green or Mineral Green. In 1782, during an emin. Emperor Chun-Tche, the founder of the Tartar ently delicate and subtle investigation to determine


the nature of the colouring-matter in Prussian Blue, (April 19, 1839), the Netherlands secured the right he succeeded in obtaining, for the first time, prussic of levying 2s. 6d. per ton on all vessels. By a acid in a separate form. The mode and results of treaty signed at Brussels, July 16, 1863, this toll his various investigations were communicated from has been bought up, nominally by Belgium, but time to time, in the form of memoirs, to the Academy in reality from a sum of £750,000 paid to that of Stockholm, of which he was an associate, and country by the powers whose ships navigate the also in his chief work, the Chemical Treatise on S., the proportion falling to Great Britain being Air and Fire (Upsala, 1777), and in an Essay on the fully £350,000. Colouring Matter in Prussian Blue (1782).

SCHE'LLENBERG, a village in the south-east SCHEELE'S GREEN. See ARSENIOUS ACID. of Upper Bavaria, six miles south-west of the

SCHEFFER. Ary, a French painter. born at Austrian town of Salzburg, near which occurred the Dort, in Holland, 10th February 1795, studied H

h Februaru 1795. studied first battle of the “War of the Spanish Succession,' in under Guerin of Paris, and made his début as an which the English took part. Maximilian-Emmanuel. artist in 1812. Some vears later appeared his elector of Bavaria, had fortified the hill of S. to • Mort de Saint-Louis.' Le Dévouement des Bour. resist the progress of Marlborough; but on July geois de Calais,' and several genre pieces, such as 4th, 1704, the work was attacked by the English, • La Veuve du Soldat," · Le Retour du Conscrit,’ | led on by Prince Ludwig of Baden, and carried by * La Sæur de Charité,' La Scène d'Invasion,' &c., storm after a bloody fight. which have been popularised in France by engrav- SCHELLING, FRIEDR. WILH. Jos. Von, an ings; but compared with his later performances, illustrious German philosopher, was born at Leonthese early pictures have little merit. It was not till berg. in Würtemberg, January 27, 1775, studied at the 'Romantic' movement reached art that S. began Tübingen and Leipzig, and in 1798 proceeded to to feel conscious of his peculiar power. The influence Jena, then the headquarters of speculative activity of Goethe and Byron became conspicuous in his in Germany, through the influence of Reinhold and choice of subjects, and to the remarkable facility Fichte. Si's philosophical tendencies were originof execution that had always marked him, he now ally determined by Fichte ; in fact, he was at first added a subtilty and grace of imagination, that give only an expounder, though an eloquent and indean inexpressible charm to his works. The public pendent one, of the Fichtian idealism, as one may admired his new style greatly, and lavished eulogy gee from his earliest speculative writings. Über die with liberal hand on his ‘ Marguerite à son Rouet, Möglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie (On the • Faust tourmenté par le Doute,' Marguerite à l'Eglise,' 'Marguerite au Sabbat,' 'Marguerite sor- | Vom

possibility of a Form of Philosophy, Tüb. 1795),

Ich als Princip der Philosophie (Оf the Ego tant de l'Eglise,' 'Marguerite au Jardin,' 'Marguerite as the Principle of Philosophy, Tüb. 1795), and à la Fontaine,' 'Les Mignons,' 'Le Larmoyeur,' Lothers

Iz others. Gradually, however, s. diverged from his • Francesca de Rimini,' &c. Towards the year 1836, teach

; teacher, and commenced what is regarded as the his art underwent its third and final phase--thé

e second phase of his philosophy. Fichte's idealism religious. To this class belong his . Le Christ Con

now seemed to him one-sided and imperfect through solateur,' 'Le Christ Rémunérateur,' • Les Bergers

its rigorous and exclusive subjectivity, and he conduits par l'Ange,' 'Les Rois Mages déposant

sought to harmonise and complete it. The result of leurs Trésors,' 'Le Christ au Jardin des Oliviers, This speculations in this direction was the once "Le Christ portant sa Croix,' • Le Christ enseveli, far

veli, fainous Identitätsphilosophie (Philosophy of Idenand · Saint Augustin et sa Mère Sainte Monique, some of which are well known in England by I kn

que, tity), which claimed to shew that the only true

by knowledge, and, therefore, the only philosophy, was engravings. S. also executed some remarkable that of the Infinite-absolute, in which the real' and portraits ; among others, those of La Fayette, Bér

ideal,' nature' and 'spirit,''subject' and 'object,' anger, Lamartine. He died at Argenteuil, near

are recognised as absolutely the same; and which Paris, 15th June 1858.

affirmed the possibility of our attaining to such SCHELDT, THE (pron. Skelt; Lat. Scaldis, knowledge by a mysterious process, known as Fr. l'Escaut), rises in the French dep. of Aisne, Intellectual Intuition.' The philosophy of iden. flows northerly to Cambrai, Valenciennes, Bouchain, tity,' though only the second stage in Si's speculaand Condé, when entering Belgium, it passes Doornik, tive career, is the most important, and is the one Oudenarde, Ghent, Dendermonde, Rupelmonde, and by which he is best known in England-Sir William Antwerp, having received, among other tributaries, Hamilton having elaborately discussed it, and enthe Lys, Dender, and Rupel. Navigable from its deavoured to demonstrate its unter ableness in his entrance into Belgium, the S. at Antwerp becomes essay on the Philosophy of the Conditioned' (see a noble river, of sufficient depth for large ships. Discussions in Philosophy and Literature, Education From Antwerp, the course is north-west, to Fort and University Reform, 1852). The principal works Bath, in the Netherlands, where, coming in contact in which it is more or less completely developed, with the island of South Beveland, it divides into are Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (Ideas two arms. The left or southern, called the Honte towards a Philosophy of Nature, Leips. 1797, or Wester S., takes a westerly direction, south of 2d ed. 1803); Von der Weltseele, eine Hypothese iler the islands of Zeeland, and meets the North Sea at Höhern Physik zur Erläuterung des allgemeinen Flushing; the northern or right arm, called the Organismus (Of the World-soul, an Hypothesis of Kreekerak, flows between Zeeland and North the higher Physics in elucidation of the Universal Brabant, near Bergen-op-zoom, dividing again into | Organism, Hamb. 1798, 3d ed. 1809) ; Erste Entwurf two branches, the left, called the Easter S., passing eines Systems der Naturphilosophie (First Attempt between the islands of Tholen and Schouwen on at a Systematic Philosophy of Nature, Jena, 1799); the right, and the Bevelands on the left, reaches and System des I'ranscendentalen Idealismus (System the sea through the Roompot (Romanorum portus); of Transcendental Idealism, Tüb. 1800). In 1803, the other branch, flowing between North Brabant after the departure of Fichte from Jena, S. was and Zeeland, discharges itself by several passages. appointed to succeed him, but in the following These several mouths of the S., forming various year went to Würzburg, whence, in 1808, he was islands, are called the Zeeland streams.

| called to Munich as secretary to the Academy The Dutch had long monopolised the navigation of Arts, and was ennobled by King Maximilian. of the lower S.; and by the treaty signed in London Joseph. Here he lived for 33 years, during

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