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to derive full benefit from cod. liver oil, it must be developed, and is always aggravated, by debilitating taken for a long time. As Mr Savory remarks, the influences, such as bad food, or exposure to wet or oil should be regarded as an article of diet rather cold. Prevention is insured by breeding only from than a medicine. A tablespoonful may be considered healthy vigorous parents, and allowing the stock at as a full dose for an adult; but this quantity all times adequate food and shelter. should be gradually arrived at, the dose commencing SCROLL, an ornament of very common use in with a teaspoonful. It is most easily taken when all styles of architecture. It consists of a band floating on a mixture of orange wine, or some other arranged in convolutions, like the end of a piece of pleasant bitter fluid, with water. The lightest and paper rolled up. The Greeks used it in their Ionio clearest oil is probably the best, and in cold weather and Corinthian Styles (q. v.); the Romans in their it should be slightly warmed before it is taken, Composite : and in medieval architecture, and all for it is thus rendered more liquid and more styles which closely copy nature, it is of consta:ıt easily swallowed. If what are commonly known | occurrence as in nature itself. as 'bilious symptoms' supervene, the use of the SCROPHULARIA'CEÆ, or SCROPHUoil should be suspended for a couple of days, and LARI'NEÆ. a natural order of exogenous plants. a few gentle aperients should be prescribed. Excluding pulmonary consumption, in which the

plants. The calyx is inferior, persistent, divided leading pathological feature is the deposit of scrofu

into five (sometimes four) unequal divisions. The lous matter or tubercle in the lungs, one of the

corolla is monopetalous, more or less irregular, often forms of scrofula which most frequently presents

two-lipped, exhibiting great variety of form ; in the itself is in the lymphatic glands, especially of the neck.

bud it has five (sometimes four) segments. The The gland or glands may first become enlarged,

stamens are usually four, two long and two short, either from an attack of acute inflammation, or from an indolent and painless deposit of tubercle. They

sometimes two, rarely five. The ovary is 2-celled,

with many ovules; the style simple, the stigma may remain in this state either stationary or slowly generally 2-lobed. The lobes of the stigma someenlarging for years, till from some accidental local

times display much irritability. The fruit is a irritation, or from some constitutional disturbance,

capsule, or rarely a berry.-This order is a very they inflame and suppurate. After the discharge of

large one, containing almost 2000 known species, the matter, the ulcerated skin usually heals with an

which are distributed over the whole world, both in ugly puckered cicatrix, which generally remains as

cold and warm climates. Acridity and bitterness a disfiguring mark through life. The local treat

are prevalent characteristics, and many species are ment consists in attempting to disperse the tumour,

poisonous. Some are root parasites. Some are if it is hard and painless, by painting it with tincture

admired and cultivated for their flowers ; some are of iodine, or by the application of iodine ointment. If it is soft, and likely to suppurate, the process may Mimulus. Mullein. Antirrhinum

used medicinally. Digitalis or Foxglove, Calceolaria,

or Snapdragon. be facilitated by the application of warm water | Gratiola. Scronhularia or Figwort Veronica. I dressing or emollient poultices. When there is Speed

Speedwell, and Euphrasia or Eyebright, are familiar undoubted fluctuation, indicating the presence of examples.' Very different from these humble her. pus or matter, it is usually regarded as the best baceous plants is Paulownia imperialis, a Japanese practice to open the abscess with a narrow-bladed

tree, 30 to 40 feet high, with trunk two or three bistoury ; but some surgeons still prefer allowing feet' in diameter, and Howers in panicles, about as the matter to make its own way to the surface. iar

ces large as those of the Common Foxglove. The necessary internal treatment is that which has been already described. The skin, especially behind |

SCRUPLE (Lat. scripulum, scriplum, or scruputhe ears, about the mouth, nostrils, and evelids, and lum) was the lowest denomination of weight among on the scalp, is liable to pustular diseases of a

| the Romans, and with them denoted the 24th part scrofulous origin. The free use of soap and water,

of an ounce (uncia), or the 288th of a pound (libra.). followed by the application of black wash or zinc

te As a measure of surface it was also the 24th part ointment, and proper constitutional treatment, will of the uncia, and the

and proper constitutional treatment will of the uncia, and the 288th of an acre (jugerum); generally effect a cure, except in the horrible form seeming, in fact, to be the 24th of the 12th part of of scrofulous ulceration of the skin of the face

any unit. In later Roman times it became the known as Lupus (q.v.). Amongst other well-known name of

name of the 60th part of an hour, and corresponded and very serious scrofulous affections must be

to our 'minute. The 'minute' being the scrupulum, mentioned Acute Hydrocephalus and Mesenteric

the 60th part of a minute was called a scrupulum Disease, to which special articles are devoted. There secundum (whence the derivation of our word is a peculiar and very intractable form of ulceration

* second'), the 60th part of this a scrupulum tertium, known as the scrofulous ulcer, which will be noticed and s

od and so on. Lexicographers define scrupulum' to in the article on ULCERS. The physical, chemical, be a small pebble, such as would be likely to find and microscopical characters of the peculiar morbid its way between the sandal and the foot, whence deposit, to which reference has frequently been the use of the term to signify a small difficulty or made in this article, will be found under the head of objection. The term at the present time is a TUBERCLE and TUBERCULOSIS.

denomination in that modification of Troy weight SCROFULOUS or Tuberculous Diseases are common which is used by apothecaries ; it contains 20 Troy amongst cattle, sheep, and pigs. In early life grains, is the third part of a drachm, the 21th of an the tubercle is laid down in the mesenteric gland, 1 ounce, and the zo

and ounce, and the 288th of a Troy pound. and occasionally about the joints. Along the exposed SCUDERY, MADELEINE DE, a once notable eastern coasts of Britain, scrofulous swellings French novelist, was born at Havre in 1607. are also met with about the head and neck; in Left an orphan at the age of six, she, along some of the great grazing districts, the mucous with a brother named Georges, was carefully membrane of the bowels is affected, constituting educated by one of her uncles. While still young, dysentery; but, as in man, the lungs are the most she left Normandy for Paris, was admitted to the common site of tubercle, which here gives rise to Hôtel Rambouillet (see RAMBOUILLET), and soon pulmonary consumption. Scrofnla in all its forms became one of the oracles of the brilliant society is hereditary, hence animals with any such taint that assembled there. It was in this famous but should be rejected as breeding stock. It is induced shewy circle that Mademoiselle S. gathered that and fostered by breeding in and in.' It may be ) immense fund of watery sentimentalism, platonic SCUDO-SCULPTURE.

gallantries, polished' conversation, dull ceremonial which do not, strictly speaking, involve the cutting incidents, affectations of moral purism, &c., which of hard substances are included in the term. Sculumake up the tedious contents of her romances- ture, as an art, includes the moulding of soft materomans de longue haleine (long-winded romances), rials as well. Clay, and even wax, has been in all as they have been felicitously nicknamed. Their ages of the art employed, sometimes for the purpose popularity for a brief period was painfully wide. of sketches or models for reproduction in marble or Everybody with the slightest pretensions to taste,' metal, sometimes as the material of the finished except the Port-royalists, Bossuet, and a few critics | work. The art of sculpture is as old as any that of the stricter sort, professed a boundless admiration has been handed down to us. The Scriptures allude for them. The bishops in general--as Camus, to the working of brass and other metals in the Mascaron, Huet, Godeau, Fléchier, Massillon-were beginning of human society, and we read of the in raptures, and studied the stately trash with images of Laban carried off by his daughter. The an ardour that considerably diminishes our respect great nations of antiquity all practised it, though

the Fronde had broken up the gatherings at the a fair representation of the state of the art in those Hôtel Rambouillet, Mademoiselle S. organised a early times. From the nature of this art its pro. literary circle of her own, which met every Saturday ductions have proved more durable than those of at her house in the Rue de Beauce. These “Satur- painting, and have come down to us in more nume. days' began very well; but gradually they degener- rous instances even than works of architecture ated, and became ridiculous--pedantic and blue. While the latter have been destroyed, and their stockingish they had been from the very first. materials used up, works of sculpture, being smaller, Nothing further in Mademoiselle S.'s life calls for have remained buried, and from time to time bava notice. She died at Paris, 2d June 1701, at the been reproduced for the instruction and enjoyment advanced age of 94, honoured and respected to the of modern nations. last; and it is but fair to admit that she seems to As an art, or means of recording facts and reprehave been worthy of the regard in which she was senting ideas, sculpture has many disadvantages as held, being herself a perfect pattern of those watery compared with painting, neither colour nor picvirtues and superfine excellences of demeanour that turesque backgrounds being properly admissible in she loved to depict. Her principal works (never sculpture. To this rule, however, we shall find again to be read in this world) are : Ibrahim, ou exceptions in the works of Ghiberti in the 15th l'Illustre Bassa (Par. 4 vols. 1641); Artamène, ou le century. Grand Cyrus (Par. 10 vols. 1649–1653); Clélie, Sculptures are distinguished by different terms, Histoire Romaine (Par. 10 vols. 1656); Almahide, ou according to the nature and completeness of the l'Esclave Reine (Par. 8 vols. 1660); Les Femmes work. Groups or figures completely represented illustres, ou les Harangues Héroïques (Par. 1665); } are said to be in the round.' Those only partially 10 vols. of Conversations Nouvelles, Conversations detached from the mass or background are said to Morales, and Entretiens de Morale (1680-1692); be in relief. This, again, is called 'high' or 'low besides Lettres, and Poésies légères, &c. See Victor relief,' according as the figure stands fully or slightly Cousin's La Société Française au Dixseptième Siècle. above the mass behind it. The ancient Egyptians

SCU'DO (Ital. shield), an Italian silver coin, employed another kind of relief, their figures being corresponding to the Spanish piastre (q. v.), the

laver the sunk below the surface, and only the prominent American dollar (q. v.), and the English crown

portions remaining level with it. In this case the (q. v.). It was so called from its bearing the

background or unoccupied space is not cut away, heraldic shield of the prince by whose authority

but the figures are worked downwards into it. it was struck, and differed in value in the different Another process is called 'intaglio,' the whole figure states of Italy. In Rome, where it is called being regularly designed and moulded, but 'cut the scudo Romano or scudo nuovo. it is equal | into' the material and inverted. This is usually to 48. 32. sterling: and is subdivided into 10 paoli applied to the making of gems and seals. Another or 100 bajocchi. The Venetian scudo, or scudo della

sculptural process is that used in the treatment of croce, was of higher value than the Roman one;

metals. As metals are both harder than stone and while, on the other hand, the old scudi of Bologna,

more valuable, it is not possible to cut or grave Genoa, and Modena are inferior to it in value.

works out of masses of metal as is done in stone or Scudi are now gradually disappearing from the

gems. The metal is fused by heat, and the form is provinces of the Kingdom of Italy before the new giv

given it while in that state. This is done by first decimal coinage, but the name is sometimes given forming or moulding the design in clay or other soft to the piece of 5 lire, equivalent to a 5 franc piece

material. Round the model thus formed, a mould is in the French coinage. Scudi of gold are also struck

formed of sand, which is prepared and pressed round in Rome, the scudo d'oro being equivalent to 10

duivalent to 10 it in a wet state till it takes the complete form of scudi di argento. See PIASTRE.

the model, which is then removed, and the liquefied

metal poured in. It takes the exact shape of the SCULL, SCULLING. A scull differs from an

model by this means. These are said to be cast,' oar in size only. It is shorter, and less heavy. A

because of the casting of the liquid metal into the man can only manage one oar; but he can pull with

mould. Other processes, however, have, in the finer a pair of sculls, the ends of which lap over very

works, to be applied. The metal retains the rough little, or else do not meet within the boat.

surface of the sand in which it has chilled. It is Sculling has two senses, á river sense and a sea

therefore worked over with a graving tool, to give it

a final surface, and express every delicacy of form act of propelling a boat by means of sculls in pairs.linter

intended by the artist. In some cases this engravAmong seafaring men, however, to scull is to drive lir

is to drive ing' is in the form of ornamental design, such as a boat onward with one oar, worked like a screw

dress, &c. Sometimes the whole design is engraved over the stern.

without any previous casting. In this case the SCU'LPTURE, the process of graving or cutting metal has had its form given by hammering' or hurd materials ; from the Lat. sculpo, in Gr. glypho.beating. The metal, hot in the case of iron or Its common application is to artistic carving or bronze, or cold in the case of silver and gold, softer cutting. Sculpture is the art of expressing ideas or metals, is beaten on the anvil into its form. A images in solid materials. In this sense processes coarser and deeper method of engraving is called SCULPTURE

chasing,' where deeper sinkings and holder promi- the artist proceeds to work on his marble. The cast nence are given to the different parts of the design. being placed on one block, and the marble on one pre

Of moulding we have already spoken. We may cisely similar, workmen proceed to place a needle on now remark on the materials in use for these various a measuring-rod, the rod resting against the block purposes. In sculpturing, or cutting designs or till it touches a point of the cast. The needle is figures, we generally find marbles have been em- then applied to the block on which the marble ployed; the most famous having been the Parian,' stands, and this is bored into till the needle touches from the Isle of Paros, and the Pentelic, from the it as it did the cast. In this way the distance of mountain of that name in Attica. . Besides these, the various surfaces of the future figure from the the ancients used numerous marbles—white, and outside of the unshaped marble are ascertained, and latterly coloured : the late classical sculptors some the workmen rough out the figure down to those times employing both white and black, or coloured, measurements. The sculptor then gives the final in lumps on the same work, the coloured marble and delicate touches that finish it, himself. Finally, being used for the dress or hair as it might be. it is brought smooth with pumice-stone or sand. The Egyptians, besides the use of these materials, Michael Angelo and some of the ancients actually and various kinds of fine and coarse-grained polished their statues. This, however, is generally stone, employed porphyry, purple and black, an objected to, as the sharp points of reflected light exceedingly hard and difficult material to handle. | injure the general effect of the form. The modern sculptors have used the white marble We must notice one other question relative to of Carrara in Italy, an excellent material, but liable sculpture before proceeding to a short review of the to veins and discolorations, which are unfavourable art historically, that is colour. The ancients—that to the art. "Terra Cotta,' or burnt clay, was exten- is, Egyptians, Ninevites, and others—did colour their sively in use both in ancient and modern times ; statues, intending, probably, to do so up to 'life'the clay being moulded to the utmost delicacy that is, to a direct imitation. The Greeks, too, while soft, and then baked to a 'red colour. Singu- employed colour on their statues, certainly on their larly fine reliefs remain to us from the Etruscans architecture. To what extent they coloured their and Greeks, as well as from Egypt and elsewhere, statues, it is not very easy to determine. Partly, as may be seen in the British Museum. It has also indeed, time has so altered, and partly so obliterated been extensively used in modern times. The Egyp- the colouring material, that we can only form an tians modelled little figures in porcelain clay, and approximate judgment. It seems probable that the coloured and enamelled them after the fashion of colouring was conventional, that is, that colour was porcelain, and vast numbers of such are in most of used to add to the splendour and distant effect of our museums. The word “toreutic,' from the Greek | the work, rather than to attempt any positive imitaword toreuo, to pierce or bore, is usually applied to tion of real life. A head in the Elgin Room of the sculpture in metal. For this the metal most appro- | British Museum has been coloured, the hair full priate, and most generally used both in ancient and red. The eyes are completely cut out, so as to modern times, is bronze,' a mixture of copper shew dark and shadowy hollows, even with the and tin. It is also known as “brass. Other metals, face coloured. Gilding, too, was used for the in small quantities, were also introduced, and various hair. Colour was extensively used in the middle kinds of bronze have resulted from this variety, as ages. Many, if not most, interior sculptures were well as from the proportions of the two principal coloured during that period. Quite in our own metals, the method of fusion, &c. Egina, Delos, and days Mr Gibson has coloured female statues. It is Corinth made different kinds of bronze, each of ex- open to doubt whether they can be called successful cellent quality. Besides this favourite metal, gold, as far as the colour goes. Other means, however, silver, copper, and even lead, and mixtures of lead were used to give colour in late classic times, as and tin, 'pewter,' have been used for artistic sculp- may be seen in the Vatican, where a bust retains ture. In the celebrated period of Greek sculpture, both enamelled eyes and black eyelashes inserted gold and ivory were used together. These statues, into the marble. To the mixture of marbles to two of which were made by Phidias, were called obtain the effect of colour we have already alluded. .chryselephantine'-that is, of gold and ivory.

Speaking of sculpture generally, we may say that The ordinary modes of proceeding in sculpture a great deal has come down to us. Of the best have been very various; whether the inore celebrated work known, that of Phidias, our readers will see sculptors of ancient times cut out their designs at notices under the head of the ELGIN MARBLES. The once without the previous rehearsal of a model, we majority of portable works are statues. Of these, do not know. It is, however, very probable. The some calculations reckon as many as 60,000 of one Egyptian bas-reliefs may still be seen in some of kind and another. their tombs, lined out, and corrected afterwards by Fragments of these have various terms applied to a master's hand previous to execution. Michael them. 'Busts' are heads, or heads and chests ; a Angelo, the most powerful of modern sculptors, is 'torso' is a figure without head or limbs. These known to have worked many of his statues, without are perhaps fragments. Horace, however, is supthe use of any model, out of the blocks. Florence, posed to allude to a recognised form of such pieces and the Louyre (Paris), contain marble sketches or of sculpture in the words 'mediam minervar.' unfinished figures thus roughed out. The length Statues are called “terminal' when they consist of and size of the chisel-marks shew how boldly this a head only made out, the body being represented great master went to work to within fth of an by a square post. These were set up as boundary inch of his final surface. As, however, there can be marks, to invoke favourite deities for the owner's no putting on of any of the substance of stone once prosperity, and hence the name 'terminal.' reduced by inadvertence, the artist commonly makes We now proceed to a very summary survey of his sketch or design, in small, in clay. This is sub- the history of sculpture. We have said that sequently enlarged, and then studied from the ancient nations, both of profane and sacred history, life;' that is, men, horses, draperies, &c., the most were well used to sculpture. Of these, the Egypsuitable to the artist's present purpose are selected, tian and the Ninevite are best known. The Egyptian and with these before him, he corrects his design sculpture goes back as far as 1700, or even, in the and perfects it while the material is soft. A mould case of the Pyramids, to 2000 years before Christ is then taken, as in the case already described, and (Gardner Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians). Both with a plaster instead of a metal cast before him, sculptured the human form, the Egyptians with SCULPTURE-SCULPTURED STONES.

most knowledge and refinement; both were restric- shall notice of classic times being the famous ted by religious traditions from arriving at a full column of Trajan, in the early part of the 2d c. A.D. representation of the human form; both used This is, in fact, a tower over 100 feet high, of white mixed forms of man-headed bulls, or man-headed marble, entirely covered with bas-reliefs representing and ram-headed lions. Usually these were colossal. the Dacian wars of Trajan. We here see the expir. The Egyptians, besides this, covered the walls of ing effort of classic art. Skilful and correct as the their sepulchres and temples with spirited and design is, it is, as a whole, graceless, stiff, and with amply detailed historical representations.

out beauty, compared with the old work. The next great nation of whose productions we Constantine,' in the 4th c. of our era, carried can judge was the Etruscan. They were of Greek off to Byzantium, his new seat of government, all origin. There is a great oriental influence or char- the sculpture he could remove. acter in their work. It is also to some extent con. The art revived in Italy. As early as the 10th ventional, but often full of sublimity, and the figure c., sculpture exhibited both design and grandeur, quite correct in outline. This also is illustrated by though wholly different from that of older times. their pottery, covered with figure designs, of which Absolute freedom from old conventionalities, vigour, great abundance has been excavated in various dignity, and childlike freshness of mind, distinguish parts of Italy. All these schools, including the modern sculpture down to the 15th century. The Etruscan, are stiff and dry in execution that is, most noted names we will mention here are those wanting in the ease, fulness, and movement of the of Niccolo of Pisa, in the 13th c., who executed the human form. They are called "archaic,' meaning bas-reliefs at Orvieto ; after him, his son Giovanni. by that term unformed and undeveloped, belonging Andrea Pisano made one of the bronze gates of the to an age uninstructed in technical knowledge. baptistery of Florence. Ghiberti, the author of the

Beginning with the early Egyptian times, this more famous doors of the same baptistery, is next to first period, called Archaic, may be concluded with be named ; then Donato di Betto Bardi, or Donaa those of the Etruscans, and brings us down to about tello. Some of his works are in the church of Or 600 B.C. From this time a rapid growth in the san Michele, which the famous Orcagna, sculptor, art took place; schools were formed in the great painter; and architect, had built and decorated." cities of Greece, Sicyon, Egina, and Corinth; and We begin the next period with Verocchio, in the we read of Callon, Onatas, Glaucias, and other 15th c., and the more famous Michael Angelo in names, culminating in Ageladas of Argos. These the 16th. A host of great names followed : Cellini, men sculptured on a colossal scale, and we have | Torregiano (who made the monument of Henry already alluded to the bronze for which the Greek VII. at Westminster), Della Porta, Giovanni di cities had long been famous. These schools pro- | Bologna, and Luca della Robbia, who also worked duced the famous works known as the Egina in enamelled terra-cotta on a large scale. These Marbles, found in 1812, as well as those of Selinus, are Italian names. We may add Jean Goujon and in Sicily. Casts of the former may be seen in the Germain Pilon in France. In our own country, British Museum. The originals are at Munich. splendid medieval works are to be seen in the

The great period of sculpture began about 484, noble sculptures of Wells Cathedral, and of that of when Phidias was born. Ageladas was his master, Lincoln, coeval with those of the Pisani. Cibber, as also of Polycletus and Myron, of whose works who sculptured in England, was a Dane. Thorcopies are now in the Vatican and elsewhere, made waldsen, a native of Iceland ; Canova, an Italian ; by Greek artists in the times of the Roman empire. and, lastly, Flaxman, bring us down to our own

Of the great work of Phidias we will not here days. Of the latter, the finest work is perhaps treat, as it is described elsewhere. Pericles did the Wellington Shield, after the Homeric descripmuch to encourage the arts both of sculpture and tion of that of Achilles. See the works of Winckelpainting.

mann, and Kugler, and Westmacott's Handbook of For å century and a half, or for two, sculpture Sculpture. continued very slowly to decline. This great school | SCULPTURED STONES. In Norway, Den. ended in Praxiteles, a sculptor of consummate mark, the Isle of Man, Wales, Ireland, and Scot. powers. He carried the representation of the land, a class of monuinents is to be found decorated human form further than Phidias and his scholars, with rude sculpture, and belonging to the early and draperies in his hands lost their severer char- | periods of Christianity-sometimes, indeed, shewing acter, and clung to the rounded limbs, which they the symbols of paganism in conjunction with those no longer concealed. His work may be seen in the of Christianity. “By far the most remarkable stones casts of the Nike Apteros, or sculptures of the of this description are those found in Scotland. temple of unwinged Victory, in the British and other which, with some points common to them with the museums. He is said to have been the first to rest, possess the distinguishing feature of a class of represent the female form quite nude, and to have characters or symbols of mysterious origin, whose contributed by such sculptures to the enervation meaning yet remains an enigma to antiquaries, and and gradual sensualising of the art.

which yet recur with such constancy in different During the 5th and 4th centuries B, C., we have combinations, that it is impossible to suppose their Agoracritos of Paros; Alcamenes of Athens; Scopas, form to be the work of chance. Along with these the author of the famous Niobe group now at symbols the figure of the cross is often found on Florence: Lysippus of Sicyon, the favourite of one side. Neither in Ireland, in Wales, nor any. Alexander: Chares, the author of the famious where else, are the symbols in question to be met Colossus of Rhodes; Agasias, who sculptured the with. These monuments all occur within a circum. * Fighting Gladiator ;' Glycon of the Farnese scribed part of Scotland. None are to be found Hercules; and many others.

either within the ancient Dalriada, or south of the The Roman conquest of Corinth under Mummius Forth; their limit seems to be the eastern lowin the 2d C., and afterwards of Athens, brought | lands from Dunrobin to Largo Law, or the part this old art to an end. Thenceforth, Greek artists of Scotland inhabited by the Pictish race. From were found all over the Roman empire, and 150 to 200 of them are known to exist. The most the famous works of these former sculptors were interesting as well as the most numerous specireproduced by them for their new masters. The mens are in Strathmore, at Glammis, Meigle, Roman sculpture, indeed, is included in this phase and Aberlemno. Among the various theories of Greek art - the last remarkable work that we which have been formed regarding these stones,



one is, that they were boundary stones, the cross chase, men shooting with a bow and arrow, men denoting the possession of the church, and the devoured by animals, processions with men and oxen, mysterious figures having reference to the lay lord ; and priests in their robes with books. Many of but those antiquaries who have devoted most attention to the subject, including Mr John Stuart, have come to the conclusion that they are sepulchral. The practice of erecting stones to commemorate deceased persons of note, existed in Scotland in pagan times, and, like other pagan practices, it was turned to Christian purposes by the earliest preachers of Christianity. Most of these monuments are of unhewn stone, and more or less oblong in shape ; a very few have the form of a cross. A sculptured cross is met with on about half of them, the class without crosses belonging chiefly to Aberdeenshire, though a few of them are to be found in the country north of Spey. Among the symbols to which we have alluded, one of the most frequent, which has been likened to the letter Z, consists of a diagonal line, from whose extremities are drawn two parallel lines terminating in some sort of ornament. This Z symbol is often

Fig. 2.----Part of Sculptured Stone-Island of Ellanmore,



these figures are highly interesting illustrations of the manners, customs, and dress of the period. On a stone near Glammis is a man with a crocodile's head. On the cross at St Vigeans, a hybrid, halfbird half-beast, appears in the midst of a border of entwining snakes and fantastic creatures. A stone of great interest at Meigle contains a representation of a chariot. At Farnell is a group of figures that seems to be meant for the temptation. In but two instances have inscriptions been known to accompany these sculptures ; in the one case the letters are so worn away as to be undecipherable ; in the other instance, at St Vigeans, a few letters can be traced of the same Celtic character which has been found on the earliest Irish monuments and the oldest tombs at Iona.

The general style of ornamentation of these stones, judging by a comparison with Anglo-Saxon

illuminated MSS., has led to the conclusion that Fig. 1.-Dunnichen Stone.

they were erected in the 8th or 9th c., a period when Christianity had but lately supplanted pagan

ism among the Scottish Picts. traversed with what has been called the spectacle A stone differing in character from those described, ornament, consisting of two circles decorated within now erected near the House of Newton in Aberdeenwith foliated lines, and united by two reversed shire, in the same neighbourhood in which it was curves, or occasionally intertwined with a serpent. found, has been a notable puzzle to archäologists. Another prevalent symbol is a crescent, sometimes It is not sculptured, but inscribed in a character appearing by itself, more frequently with two lines which seems unique. Besides the principal inscripdrawn through it, diverging diagonally from a point tion, there is another running along the ecige, conbelow its centre, and terminating in a floral or other sisting of groups of short lines, and apparently in ornament. A mirror and comb, a horse-shoe arch, a the Ogham (q. v.) character, fish, and a figure like a fibula, are also all occasion. The crosses in Ireland are the likest to these ally met with. Similar devices to the above have Scottish monuments. They are chiefly found near been found engraved on certain silver ornaments churches and graveyards, and are generally crucidiscovered on Norrie's Law, including a figure form, with a halo or circle binding the arms and occurring on the Dunnichen Stone, which had been stem together. They usually taper to the top, on taken by ingenious theorists for the high cap of the which a conical capstone is fixed, and they are Egyptian Osiris, surmounted by a lotus, but which, inserted in pedestals of stone, which are frequently as engraved on one of those silver relics, appears to covered with sculpture. Most of their subjects are be the head of a dog or some other animal.

from Scripture history, without anything like the The earlier of the Scottish sculptured stones, such Scotch symbols. as the Maiden Stone in Aberdeenshire, and the The Welsh crosses are, for the most part, in the older of the stones at Aberlemno, have no sculptures form of a small cross within a circle, set on the top except of the class above described ; the later com- of a long shaft, the latter having at times interlaced bine these with devices of a more intelligible kind. ornaments in compartments. Many of them have An elephant is not unfrequent, represented in such inscriptions in the Romano - British character, a fashion, that it is obvious that the artist could relating to the persons in memory of whom they never have seen one; and fabulous and grotesque were erected. figures abound, often drawn with considerable spirit. The sculptured crosses of Scandinavia and Man We have centaurs, lions, leopards, deer, beasts of somewhat resemble the Scotch monuments in their

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