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SCUÍ PERS-SCUTARI. general style of ornamentation, though altogether only one case, and in 1807 only one case. Many destitute of the peculiar Scottish symbols. On some naval surgeons of the present day have never seen of them are Runic inscriptions. One inscription on a case of the disease. The potato possesses almost. a Manx cross indicates that Gaut (probably a equally great antiscorbutic properties, and, fortuNorwegian) made this cross and all on Man. Another nately, potatoes when cooked are as active as when is to the effect that

erected this cross to his taken raw. The late Dr Baly, to whom we are father Ufag, but Gaut Bjornson made it. Professor indebted for this discovery, states that in several Munch, from the character of the Runes on these prisons the occurrence of scurvy has wholly ceased crosses, assigns them for date the middle or end on the addition of a few pounds of potatoes being of the 11th century. See RUNES.

made to the weekly dietary. The salutary action A hundred and fifty of the sculptured stones of of potatoes is probably owing to their containScotland have been carefully engraved and described ing a considerable amount of tartaric acid, partly in a very valuable work contributed to the Spalding in combination with potash and lime, and partly Club by Mr John Stuart. Some of those belonging free. In addition to the dietetic treatment, which to the county of Angus had been previously illus- should include easily-digested animal food, potatrated by the late Mr Chalmers of Auldbar, in a toes, such ripe fruits as can be procured, and an volume forming one of the Bannatyne Club series. abundance of lemonade, little further need be preSCUPPERS are holes, lined with lead, in a

scribed. If necessary, constipation must be relieved

by mild laxatives, such as rhubarb and castor-oil ; ship's side, intended to carry off rain or other water the

the appetite may be stimulated by bitter tonics, and which may be shipped.

opiates given to procure rest in cases of pain or SCURVY, or SCORBUTUS, is a disease which obstinate wakefulness. When the gums are very is characterised by a depraved condition of the blood. troublesome, solutions of tannin, chloride of lime, In consequence of this morbid state of the blood, or of nitrate of silver, may be applied to them. For there is great debility of the system at large, with an excellent account of this disease, the reader is a tendency to congestion, hæmorrhage, &c., in various referred to the article Scurvy' by Dr Budd, in parts of the body, and especially in the gums. It The Library of Practical Medicine. is a disease that has probably existed from the SCURVY-GRASS (Cochlearia), a genus of plants earliest times, but the first distinct account of it is

of the natural order Cruciferæ, having small white contained in the history of the crusade of Louis IX.,

1.. | flowers, and turgid many-seeded pouches ; the in the 13th c., against the Saracens of Egypt, during |

01 Leypt, auring cotyledons accumbent. The species are annual or which the French army suffered greatly from it. |

suntered greatly from it. biennial, rarely perennial, plants; of humble growth, In the 16th c. it prevailed endemically in various

with branched smooth stems, smooth simple leaves, parts of the north of Europe, and it seems only to

and terminal racemes of flowers. They have an have abated about a century ago. It was in badly

acrid bitiny taste, containing the same pungent fed armies, in besieged cities, and on board ship,

ip, volatile oil which is found in horse-radish, and are that its ravages were most appalling, and it is

valued for their antiscorbutic properties. COMMON believed that more seamen perished froin scurvy S. (C. officinalis) is sometimes a foot high; the rootalone than from all other causes combined, whether

| leaves are stalked and heart-shaped, the pouches sickness, tempest, or battle. Whole crews were

globose, ovate, or elliptical. It is a variable plant, prostrated by this scourge, as in the well-known and some of the other species described by botanists case of Lord Anson's memorable voyage.

| are probably not essentially different. They possess Scurvy so closely resembles purpura in its general

the same properties. S. is very common on the symptoms that it will be sufficient for us to refer to

To shores of. Britain, growing both on rocks where the article on that disease, and here merely to there is little soil, and in muddy places. indicate the leading points of difference between the

It is also

found on high mountains. It is a very widelytwo diseases, which, notwitlistanding their similarity, distributed plant, and being found on the shores are essentially different. Scurvy is caused by a lof almost all marts of the corld has often heen of privation, for a considerable time, of fresh succulent

the greatest benefit to sailors, in times when the vegetables, while purpura often makes its appearance when there has been no deficiency of this food,

modern precautions against sea scurvy were un

known. or special abstinence from it. Scurvy is most

SCU TAGE, or ESCUAGE (Lat. scutum, shield), common in winter or the early spring, while summer and autumn are the seasons for purpura. In scurvy

a pecuniary fine or tax sometimes levied by the the gums are invariably swelled and spongy, and

crown, in feudal times, as a substitute for the perbleed readily; in purpura this is not necessarily the

| sonal service of the vassal. No scutage seems at any case. In scurvy there is extreme debility and

time to have been levied in Scotland. depression of spirits, venesection and mercury do SCU/TARI (Italian or Levantine form of the positive harm, while a cure is rapidly effected by Turkish Usküdar), a town of Asiatic Turkey, on the administration of lemon-juice, or of fresh fruits the eastern shore of the Bosporus, immediately and vegetables; whereas in purpura there is little opposite Constantinople, of which it may be conor no mental or bodily depression, venesection and sidered a suburb. It is built on the sides and mercury often give relief, while no marked and summit of a hill, sloping irregularly upwards from certain relief follows the administration of the the water's edge, and bears, both externally and lemon-juice and fruits that are all powerful in internally, a great resemblance to the Turkislı scurvy.

capital. It contains several mosques, bazaars, and Although the virtues of lemon-juice in scurvy baths, a college of howling dervishes, manufac. were known in Great Britain as far back as 1636, tories of silks and cotton fabrics, corn warehouses, when John Woodhall, Master in Surgery, published and imarets or kitchens for the poor. It has long

The Surgeon's Mate, or Military and Domestic been famed for its extensive cemeteries, adorned Medicine, this invaluable medicine was not made an with magnificent cypresses, the chosen resting-place essential element of nautical diet till 1795. The of many of the Turks of Constantinople, from effect of this official act may be estimated from the attachment to the sacred soil of Asia, and the tradı. following numbers. In 1780 the number of cases of tionary belief that their race will one day be driven scurvy received into Haslar Hospital (a purely out of Europe. The population is variously estimated naval hospital) was 1457, while in 1806 there was at from 40,000 to 60,000, or even 100,000. S. has SCUTARI-SEA.

of late years acquired great notoriety in connection probably taking advantage of the poetic licence to with the English army during the Russian War | exaggerate the danger of the navigation, although (1854-1856), when the enormous barracks built it is not improbable that the whirlpool may have by Sultan Mahmud, on the southern outskirts of the changed its situation since his days. The myth town, were occupied as barracks and hospital by connected with it is, that under a large fig-tree, the Enylish troops, and formed the scene of Miss which grew out of a rock opposite Scylla, dwelt the Nightingale's labours. A little to the south of the monster Charybdis, who thrice every day sucked General Hospital, on the cliffs bordering the Sea down the water of the sea, and thrice threw it up of Marmora, is the densely-filled English burial- again. ground, where Baron Marochetti's monument in | SCYTHE. See REAPING. honour of the troops has lately been erected.-S. is a place of considerable traffic, and is the rendez- |

SCY'THIA, a name employed in ancient times vous and starting-point of caravans and travellers to denote a vast, indefinite, and almost unknown trading with the interior of Asia. It occupies the territory north and east of the Black Sea. the site of the ancient Chrysopolis; and about two miles | Caspian, and the sea, of

Caspian, and the Sea of Aral. But the term is not to the south. lies the village of Kadiköi. the ancient so much geographical as ethnological, and the only Chalcedon.

interest attaching to the barren catalogue of tribes SCUTARI (Turkish Iskandere, the anc. Scodra), a

| and nations, which we meet with in the classical

writers, springs from the hope of connecting these considerable town of European Turkey, in Northern

with a recognised race of modern times. Lathan Albania, capital of a sanjak of the same name,

argues-successfully, as it appears to us--for the situated at the southern end of the Lake of Scutari,

Scythians being the ancestors of the later Turks, at the point where the Bojana, issuing from it, is

| and maintains their central and primitive abode to joined by the Drinassi. The lake is about 20 miles have been Independent Tartary, whence they spread long, and abounds in fish. S. is a fortified town, with a citadel on a commanding height.

west round the Caspian into Russia, Transylvania,

It has manufactories of arms and cotton goods a bazaar, Neumann favour the hypothesis of a Mongol origin

| and perhaps even Eastern Hungary. Niebuhr and and yards for building coasting-vessels. It carries for the Scythians : while others regard them as on a considerable trade. The population is esti

Finns or Circassians. In their mode of life they mated at about 40,000, of whom about one half are

were mainly nomadic and pastoral, though we Roman Catholics.

read of some trans-Danubian and Euxine tribes SCOTCHEON, in Carpentry, is the small metal that followed agriculture. Many of them were plate used to form the protection and ornament to | Hippomoliji ("mare-milkers'). the keyhole for locks ; it is usually of brass, but in SEA, in its general signification, denotes that ornamental cabinet-work, is often of ivory, mother large expause of salt water which covers the more of pearl, &c. See SHIELD.

depressed portion of the earth's surface, fills up SCY'LLA AND CHARY'BDIS. Scylla (Gr. Skul- each hollow and rift to a certain uniform level, laion), a rocky cape on the west coast of South completing as far as possible the spheroidicity of Italy, jutting out boldly into the sea so as to form the globe, and divides its surface into two great a small peninsula just at the northern entrance to and innumerable smaller portions—the Old and New the Straits of Messina. About the beginning of Worlds and their islands. This immense body of the 5th C. (B.C.), a fort was built upon the rock water is not distributed with the least approach (which is about 200 feet high, and much hollowed to regularity, but here forms a huge basin, there out below by the action of the waves), and in becomes a long and tortuous inlet or strait, which course of time a small town grew up, straggling narrows or widens as the configuration of the landdown the slopes towards the sea. The navigation surface on each side permits; nor is it placed at this place was looked upon by the ancients as symmetrically to the earth's axis of rotation; for attended with immense danger, which, however, the hemisphere of which the south-west corner of seems to have been much exaggerated, for at the England is the centre or pole contains the whole present day the risk is not more than attends of the land-surface, if we except the triangular the doubling of any ordinary cape. The rock, portion of South America, south of Uruguay, according to the Homeric legend, was the abode Australia, New Zealand, the most of the East of a monster called Scylla, possessing 12 feet, 6 | Indian Islands, and the land around the south pole long necks and mouths, each with three rows of (of unknown extent). The other hemisphere is, sharp teeth, and who barked like a dog. There with these exceptions, wholly water. From this are other accounts of Scylla, one of which repre- irregular distribution of the sea over the earth's sents her as having once been a beautiful maiden, surface, and from the specific gravity of water beloved by the sea-god Glaucus, but who, by the being about oth of that of the land, it necessarily jealousy of Circé, was changed into a monster follows that the centre of gravity of the whole having the upper part of the body that of a woman, globe does not correspond accurately with its while the lower part consisted of the tail of a fish centre of figure. The extent of sea-surface is estior serpent surrounded by dogs. The modern Scilla mated at 146,000,000 English sq. m., or nearly or Sciglio is a fortified town in the province of ths of the whole of the earth's surface, and its Reggio-Calabria, having large silk-works, the pop. mass, on the supposition of an average depth of 44 being upwards of 7400, mostly seafaring people. miles, is more than ototh of that of the whole

Charybdis (modern name Galofaro), is a celebrated globe ; such estimates, however, can be considered whirlpool in the Straits of Messina, nearly opposite at best as only rough approximations. One of the the entrance to the harbour of Messina in Sicily, most remarkable features of the sea is its continuity and in ancient writings always mentioned in conjunc. or oneness ; for in spite of the fact, that numerous tion with Scylla. The navigation of this whirlpool large stretches of salt-water, as the Sea of Azof, is, even at the present day, considered to be very Black, Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas, the Gulf dangerous, and must have been exceedingly so to of Mexico, and others, have barely avoided becoming the open ships of the ancients. A modern writer detached lakes, very few such are found on the earth's describes it as being an agitated water of from 70 surface; and with the exception of the Caspian and to 90 fathoms in depth, circling in quick eddies.' Aral Seas, they are of small size. Homer places it immediately opposite to Scylla, Composition, Specific Gravity, and Temperature of

ion), intring out to be in the other than


the Sea. The sea consists of salt water, and from Indian Ocean, and lat. 8° S in the Pacific. See Isoits continual motion, under the influence of currents THERMAL LINES. The temperature of the surface and waves, preserves, generally speaking, uniform on sea is far less variable than it is found to be on saltness. Under special circumstances, however, land, and there exist extensive tracts, especially in we find the saltness increased, as by the excess of the North Atlantic and North Indian Oceans, where evaporation over the fresh-water influx in the Medi- it is almost equable. terranean and Red Seas, and about the northern Colour and Phosphorescence of the Sea. --The and southern limits of the tropical belt; and colour of the ocean, when free from admixture of decreased, by the contrary cause, in the Sea of foreign substances, as animalcules, vegetable organAzof, Black Sea, Baltic Sea, and in the polar (isms, excessive rain, or the tinted waters of swollen regions. See TRADE-WINDS. The origin of the rivers, is a pure deep blue, which becomes less saltness of the sea is sufficiently accounted for marked where the water is of less depth. The origin when we consider, that the chloride of sodium of this colour is sought in the fact, that the blue rays and other soluble salts which form constituent of the spectrum are less liable to be absorbed by ingredients of the globe, are being constantly masses of transparent fluid than are the others, and washed out of the soil and rocks by rain and thus predominating in the reflected pencil, they make springs, and carried down by the rivers; and as most impression on the eye. This hypothesis is the evaporation which feeds the rivers carries none certainly supported by the numerous instances in of the dissolved matter back to the land, the ten- which it has been well ascertained that a 'different' dency is to accumulate in the sea. The principal colour of sea-water is due to the presence of some ingredients found in sea-water are chloride of foreign substance, e. g., the red, brown, and white sodium, or common salt, together with salts of patches of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, to the magnesia and lime. A more exact analysis will presence of swarms of animalcules, and the colours be given under WATER. The average specific of the Red and Yellow Seas, to matters of vegetable gravity of the sea, out of reach of the excep-origin. However, some fresh-water lakes exhibit tional action of the melting of snow, rain or river the same phenomenon, while others, for no ascer. water, is (at 62° F.) 1.0272. The slight variations tained reason, do not; and the Rhone, at its emerin the saltness of the sea must necessarily pro- | gence from the lake of Geneva, exhibits an intensity duce corresponding changes in its specific gravity ; of blue far surpassing that of any sea. The probaaccordingly, on the northern and southern limits bility is that we have only got hold of a part of the of the torrid zone, the mean specific gravity of explanation. The phosphorescence of the sea is due the sea is, in different longitudes, 1.0281, 1.0294 ; to the presence of myriads of invertebrata, especially while at the equatorial calm belt, it is 1.0272, rhizopoda, tunicata, &c. See LUMINOSITY OF ORGANIC 1.0279; and on the whole shews a tenilency to BODIES. diminish as the latitude increases, Beechey having Depth of the Sea.Till very recently, it might be found it to be 1.0258 in lats. 550—60° N. and S. in said that, with the exception of the more frequented the Pacific, and King: 1.0255 in the corresponding strips along the coast, and such other portions as latitudes of the Atlantic. It also increases with afforded anchorage-ground, our knowledge of the the depth below the surface, though not at a depth of the ocean amounted to nothing. It is true regular rate; is considerably diminished by rains at that deep-sea soundings had been frequently made, and near the mouths of rivers, and in those inlets but from the necessary defectiveness of the ordinary or semi-lacustrine arms which are the depositories of lead,' and inattention to the effect of under-currents more river-water than compensates for their evapor- in destroying the perpendicularity of the line, little ation, as in the Black Sea, where it is only 1.0141. dependence could be placed on the results obtained. A few springs of fresh water are found in the sea, Even at the present time, our knowledge is confined but their effect in diluting its saltness is infini- chiefly to the North Atlantic, the greatest depth of tesimal.

which, as far as it has (according to Maury's opinion) The temperature of the sea, where it is not been satisfactorily ascertained, is 25,000 feet, though affected by currents from a warmer or colder region, there are, in all probability, considerably greater pecessarily corresponds to that of the air above it; depths in the region between the United States, but this is true only of the water at and near the the Bermudas, and Newfoundland. Soundings surface, for it has been found, that beyond a certain giving a depth of 2} and of more than 3 miles were limit of depth, the temperature is constant at 39° to made by Lieutenant Brooke in the Pacific, and this 39:5° F. This depth, however, is not the same at all result corresponded very nearly with the estimate latitudes, but appears to vary in a similar manner of its average depth drawn by Professor Bache from to the perpetual snow-line on land- being about observation of the time taken by the great tide. lįths miles under the equator, thence gradually waves of December 23, 1854, originated by the rising to the surface, which it reaches (in the south- terrible earthquake which occurred in Japan on ern hemisphere) in lat. 56° 25', and in the northern that day, to traverse the ocean between Japan and hemisphere in lat. 48° 20'-67° 30', the limits of California; the latter giving an average depth of the isotherm of 39-39° 5', and descending as the 2365 fathoms, or 211 miles. From the numerous latitude increases to ths of a mile about lat. 70°. islands which stud this ocean, one would be led at From the equator to the isotherm of 39°, the first sight to assume its comparative shallowness ; water above this line is warmer, and between but the abruptuess with which they rise above the this latitude and the pole is. colder than it is surface, and the remarkable soundings which have below the line, the temperature gradually, though been obtained near their shores, completely annihinot uniformly, varying from the line to the surface. late this supposition. In the Indian Ocean, Brooke Of course, in a few localities where exceptional made a sounding of about 8 miles, but Maury (who causes are at work, as in the case of the sea strenuously opposes the old belief in the great depth between Corunna and Ferrol, as found by Hum- of the sea) throws great doubt on the correctness of boldt, violations of this rule may occur, but these this result. From the remarkable gentleness of are comparatively few in number. The line of slope of the bed of the Arctic Ocean to the north greatest surface-temperature does not correspond to of Siberia, the line giving only 14–15 fathoms at the equator, but, owing to the disturbing influence 150 miles from the shore, and from its configuration of currents, is found in lat. 10° N. in the Atlantic on the north of America, it is generally concluded (28° N. in the Gulf of Mexico), lat. 12° N. in the to be by far the shallowest of the oceans, but no one


has bitherto ventured to give a deliberate estimate vindicate the right in the reign of Charles I. Every of its depth. Of the depth of the Antarctic Ocean, nation has undoubtedly a right to the exclusive nothing is known, but it is supposed to be deeper dominion of the sea within a certain not very well. than its antipodal kinsman. Till our chart of defined distance from the shore, depending on the soundings be tolerably complete, it will be impos- usage of the country. This right of lordship includes sible to give any general idea of the conformation of the right to free navigation, to fishing, to taking the bed of the sea, but, judging from what has been wrecks, the forbidding passage to enemies, the right lately discovered concerning the North Atlantic of flag, of jurisdiction, &c. By the law of England, (q. v.), it would seem as if the land-surface under | the main sea begins at low-water mark; and water were the counterpart as regards eminences between low and high-water mark the common law and hollows, chasms, valleys, plateaus, &c., of the and admiralty have a divided jurisdiction, one on land-surface above.

land when left dry, the other on the water when it Motion of the Sea.--The sea is in a state of per is full sea. By the law of Scotland, the sea-shore is petual restlessness, its motion being either a vertical not considered to extend beyond the point which the oscillation, or an actual transference of its waters sea reaches in ordinary tides. See BLOCKADE from one place to another. The first motion, which | NEUTRALS. constitutes waves, is due either to the attraction of SEA CUCUMBER. See HOLOTHURIA. the sun and moon on such a mobile body as the sea

SEA GRAPE (Ephedra), a genus of plants of the (see TIDES), or to the impulsive action of the winus natural order Gretacece a natural order consisting of which blow over its surface (see WAVES) : the second arises from the sun, which, directly through its heat,

a small number of species, closely allied in botanical and indirectly by scorching dry winds, produces

characters to the Conifere, and by many botanists evaporation to a great extent, of the parts most

united with that order, although differing much in

appearance. The Gnetaceæ are small trees, or twiggy exposed to its influence, and by its similar action on the atinosphere (see TRADE-WINDS), causes a trans- |

shrubs, with opposite or clustered branches and ference of this vapour to remote latitudes, where it

jointed stems, whence they are sometimes called descends as rain, and, destroying the equilibrium

JOINT-FIRS. They secrete not resinous but watery

matter. The development of the ovule is very of the sea, gives rise to currents. The nature of these currents is described under GULF STREAM,

peculiar; it has a projecting process formed from

| the intimate covering of the nucleus. and the chief currents of each ocean are found under its own head. This constant motion of the

SEA'HAM HARBOUR, a thriving seaport in sea is of great service in tending to equalise the | the county of Durham, 6 miles south of Sundertemperature of different parts of the globe; it also land. Its excellent harbour is furnished with produces remarkable changes in the form of coasts, 1 wharfs, quays, and jetties, and the town contains eating into rocks, converting low-lying lands into most extensive bottle-works, blast furnaces, iron. shoals and sanıl-banks, or carrying away the earthy

foundry, and chemical works. It communicates by materials, and depositing them in some distant | railway with collieries in region. The erosive action of the sea is generally | the vicinity, and the prinalmost imperceptible during several years, but incipal articles of export are course of two or three centuries, the magnitude of coals and agricultura? prothe changes effected by it is almost incredible. duce. The town nearly dou

The sea, like the land, teems with animal life ; | hled its population between representatives of the four great divisions of the the years 1855 and 1865.

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its temperature is far more equable, the limitation |(1865) 7000.
of the zonal range of animals is not a whit less SEA-HORSE, in Her.
definite : the profound depths of ocean would appear aldry, a fabulous animal,
to be as barren of vegetable and animal life as consisting of the upper part
are the lofty summits on land ; and the inhabitants of a horse with webbed feet,
of the deep seem to suffer as much from being taken / united to the tail of a fish.
even a little out of their depth, as would a land A scalloped fin is carried
animal removed to an unaccustomed altitude. down the back. The arms

Sea-horse. On the economic value of the sea as a puritier, and of the town of Cambridge as a commercial highway, it is unnecessary to dilate. are supported by two sea-horses, proper finned and For some of the peculiar phenomena of the sea, see maned or. ICEBERGS, AURORA BOREALIS, WHIRLPOOLS, the five SEA-KALE (Crambe maritima; see CRAMBE), a great OCEANS (q. v.), CORAL, &c.

perennial plant with large roundish sinuated seaThe term Sea is also applied in a more limited

green leaves, found on the sea-shores in various parts though indefinite sense, to an offshoot of one of the l of Europe, and in Britain. The blanched sprouts oceans, as to the Black, Baltic, Okhotsk Seas, to have become a very favourite esculent in Britain, any portion of an ocean which from its position although as vet little known on the continent. The or configuration is considered deserving of a special common people, on some of the shores of England, name, and to the two great inland salt lakes of had long been in the practice of watching them Central Asia, the Caspian and Aral Seas.

when they came through the sand, and using them SEA, SOVEREIGNTY OF THE Blackstone lays it as a pot-herb, but the cultivation of the plant in down that the main or high seas are part of the the kitchen garden became general only at a comrealm of England, as the Courts of Admiralty have paratively recent date. It requires a deep rich soil, jurisdiction there; but adds that they are not subo and the care of the gardener is bestowed upon the ject to common law. But the law of nations, as blanching, without which the sprouts are not tender now understood, recognises no dominion in any one and agreeable, but even acrid. The blanching is nation over the high seas, which are the highway of accomplished in various ways, by earth, sand, boards, all nations, and governed by the public law of the earthenware pots, &c. Sea-kale is generally raised civilised world. Such a right has, however, long from seed, although also sometimes propagated by been claimed over the four seas surrounding the offsets or by cuttings of the roots. The seedlings British Isles. It was strongly asserted by Selden, do not yield a crop till the third year; but a plantaand denied by Grotius, and measures were taken to I tion of sea-kale remains productive for many years,


It is planted in rows, four to six feet apart. It a cross between the heads of St Peter and St sends its tap-root very deep into the ground. Paul, while the papal privy seal, impressed not on

SEAL (Lat. sigillum, Fr. sceau), an impression on lead but on wax, known as the Seal of the Fisherwax or other soft substance made from a. die or man, represented St Peter tishing. In the 9th and matrix of metal, a gem, or some other material. / 10th centuries we find Charlemagne, the Byzantine The stamp which yields the impression is some. i emperors, and the Venetian doges, occasionally times itself called the seal. In Egypt, seals were in s sealing with gold, and we have an instance as late as use at an early period, the matrix generally forming the 16th c. of a gold seal appended to the treaty of part of a ring (see GEM, RING). Devices of a the Field of the Cloth of Gold, between Henry VIII. variety of sorts were in use at Rome, both by the and Francis 1. carlier emperors and private individuals. The Seals were not much used in England in Angloemperors, after the time of Constantine, intro-Saxon times, but they came into general use after dazed bullae ur leaden seals, and their use was the Norman Conquest. On the royal great seals continued after the iall of the Western Empire was the king in armour on a caparisoned horse by the popes, who attached them to documents galioping, his arms being shewn on his shield by cords or bands. On the earlier papal seals after the period when arms came into use; and the are monograms of the pope; afterwards the great reverse represented the king seated on a throne. seal contained the name of the pope in full, and I The great seals of Scotland begin with Duncan II

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in the end of the 11th C., and have also for subject practice of sealing has degenerated into a mere the king on horseback; the counterseal, with the forınality. The custom was gradually introduced seated figure, being used first by Alexander I., and of covering the wax with white paper, on which the the earliest appearance of the arms of Scotland being impression was made, and latterly wafers have been on the seal of Alexander II. In both countries considered a sufficient substitute for seals. there were also the privy seals with the royal arms In Scotland, every freeholder was obliged by only.

statutes of Robert III. and James I. to have his Écclesiastical seals first appear in the 9th C., and seal of arms, an impression of which was kept in attained great beauty in the 13th and 14th. They the office of the clerk of court of the shire ; and are of the pointed oval form kuown as Vesica piscis; among the Scottish armorial seals of the 14th and and have for subjects, a figure of the bishop', sume. | 15th centuries are some of wonderful beauty of times of the Trinity, the Virgin, or a patron saint, execution. Act 1540, c. 117, for the first time made seated under an elaborate architectural canopy. | subscription an essential formality to deeds ; but The arms of the bishop are often addel.

sealing still continued to be necessary till 1584, Under the Norman monarchs of England, sealing when it was dispensed with in the case of deeds became a legal formality, necessary to the authenti- containing a clause of registration, and soon after. cation of a deed; and from the 13th c. onwards, wards the practice was altogether laid aside. the seals of all persons of noble or gentle birth The use of corporate seals by towns and boroughs represented their armorial ensigus. The seal was dates as far back as the 12th century. The earlier generally appended to the document by passing corporate seals bear the town gates, city walls, or a strip of parchment or a cord through a slit in some similar device; the use of corporate arms its lower edge; and the ends being held together, the did not begin till the latter half of the 14th wax was pressed or moulded round them a short century. distance from the extremity, and the matrix im- The principal use of seals in the present day is in pressed on it. Occasionally the seal was not pendant, closing letters, and even for this purpose they have but the wax was spread on the deed. The coloured of late years been less used than formerly, owing to wax with the impression was sometimes imbedded the fashion of using stamped adhesive envelopes. in a mass of white wax forming a protective border The study of medieval seals is of great import. to it. In England, a seal is still an essential to all ance and interest in connection with many branches legal instruments by which real estate is conveyed; of archæology, including neraldic and genealogica) but since subscription has also become necessary, thé, investigations. See GREAT SEAL; PRIVY SEAL.

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