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SEA-SERPENT.

appeared more recently on the coast of Norway, in have easily recognised his features with the naked 1819, and to have been seen daily for a whole eye; and it did not, either in approaching the ship month, seeming to doze in the suubeains; and again or after it had passed our wake, deviate in the there is a story of its appearing in 1822, and another slightest degree from its course to the south-west, of its appearing in 1837, when it greatly alarmed which it held on at the pace of from 12 to 15 some fishermen who thought that it followed their miles per hour, apparently on some determined boat. Hans Egede mentions its appearance on the purpose. The diameter of the serpent was about 15 coast of Greenland in 1734. Mr M'Clean, the min- or 16 inches behind the head, which was, without ister of a parish in the Hebrides, saw a sea monster any doubt, that of a snake, and it was never,

or 80 feet long, of serpent-like form; which was sight of our glasses, once below the surface of the also seen, about the same time, by the crews of a water ; its colour a dark-brown, with yellowish. number of fishing boats, and caused them great white about the throat. It had no fins, but somealarm. In his description of this animal, he dis- thing like the mane of a horse, or rather a bunch of tinctly states that it seemed to move by undula- sea-weed, washed about its back.' Regret has been tion up and down,' which is not only contrary to all very naturally expressed that Captain. M‘Quhae did that is known of serpents, but from the structure of not bestow a shot on it. Figures prepared from a their vertebræ, impossible. (See SERPENTS.) Several sketch by him were published in the Illustrated instances have occurred of the supposed appearance London News of 28th October 1848. About the of the Great Sea-serpent on the Atlantic coasts of same time, the testimony of another witness, LieuNorth America. In June 1815, and in August 1817, tenant Drummond, appeared, and was found to it is said to have been frequently seen, iu calm differ in some important points from the account of bright weather, near Gloucester, about 30 miles the animai given by Captain M‘Quhan, and the froin Boston, on the surface of the water, like a figures published with his approbation, particularly number of buoys in a line, and sometimes moving in ascribing a more elongated form to the head, in very rapidly. Testimonies vary as to the length, the mention of a back-fin, whereas Captain M‘Quhae from 80 feet to 250 yards. We hear again of the expressly says that no fins were seen ; and in a Sea-serpent as seen off Nahant, near Boston, in lower estimate of the length of the portion of the August 1819, in calm and serene weather, making animal visible. Lieutenant Drummond's words are: curves “perpendicular to the surface of the water,' . The appearance of its head, which, with the back and its eye • brilliant and glistening.' A similar fin, was the only portion of the animal visible, was account is given of its appearance off Nahant in long, pointed, and flattened at the top, perhaps 10 July 1833. In Silliman's Journal of Science for feet in length; the upper jaw projecting consider1835 there is a notice of such an animal seen by the ably; the tin was, perhaps, 20 feet in the rear of captain and crew of an American brig, on her pas. the head, and visible occasionally; the captain also sage from Boston to New Orleans, and also of a asserted that he saw the tail, or another fin abont similar occurrence in lat. 341°, and long. 48° W. the same distance behind it; the upper part of the Great interest was excited in 1848 by an account of head and shoulders appeared of a dark-brown a Great Sea-serpent seen in lat. 24° 44' S., and long. colour, and beneath the under jaw a brownish. 9° 20' E., and therefore in the South Atlantic Ocean, white. It pursued a steady and undeviating course, near the Tropic of Capricorn, and not very far from keeping its head horizontal with the water, and in

rather a raised position, disappearing occasionally beneath a wave for a very brief interval, and not apparently for the purposes of respiration. It was going at the rate of perhaps from 12 to 14 miles an hour, and when nearest was perhaps 100 yards dis. tant. In fact, it gave one quite the idea of a large snake or eel.' Lieutenant Drummond's account is the more worthy of regard, as it is derived from his log-book, and so gives the exact impressions of the hour, whilst Captain M‘Quhae's was written from memory after his arrival in England. Into the dis

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of our power to enter.

There is no reason to doubt the truthfulness of Sea-serpent.

the statements made in any of these cases, although, (From Pontoppidan.)

in most of then, there is room for doubt as to the

accuracy of observation. It has been suggested, the coast of Africa, by the officers and crew of her and not without much uppearance of probability, Majesty's frigate Dredalnis. It was not, as in other that the supposed sea-serpent might in some incases, in bright and fine weather, but in dark and stances be a mere line of porpoises or such cetaceans, cloudy weather, and with a long ocean swell. The which often follow one another in lines. It hus animal was swimming rapidly, and with its head been thought that a line of foating sea-weed might and neck above water. Captain M'Quhae, in his account for the appearances presented. It has also Report to the Admiralty, describes it with cou- been suggested that the creature seen from the fidence as an enormous serpent, with head and Dredalus might be a sea-elephant or other large shoulders kept about 4 feet constantly above the seal, swimming for its life, far from land. And Dr surface of the sea ;' and he adds: “as nearly as we Owen has expressed much doubt as to the existence could approximate by comparing it with the length of a Great Sea-serpent on the ground that no bones of what our naintopsail-yard would shew in the or other remains of any such recent animal have water, there was at the very least 60 feet of the occurred; and this negative evidence he regards as animal à fleur d'eau, no portion of which was, to our inore than enough to counterbalance all the positive perception, used in propelling it through the water, evidence yet adduced in favour of its existence. It either by vertical or horizontal undulation. It is, however, to be remembered, that there are nany passed rapidly, but so close under our lee-quarter, fishes which inhabit the depths of the ocean, and that had it been a man of my acquaintance, I should I seldom visit the shallower waters near the shores,

SEA-SHORE-SEA-SICKNESS.

some of which are scarcely known except by single commonly present. The susceptibility to this specimens; and the same thing is true as to Četacea; troublesome affection varies extremely in different so that it is very far from improbable that many persons. Some never suffer from it, others only on species belonging to the ocean depths are still un- | their first voyage, and others, again, in every voyage known to us. As to the Great Sea-serpent, if we they undertake; with some it continues but a few should admit the general accuracy of the accounts hours, while others suffer almost continuously given of it by those who supposed themselves to throughout a long voyage. In the great majority of have seen it, there is no reason for concluding it to cases, the sickness disappears in a few days, unless be a reptile; it might at least as easily be supposed the weather be very boisterous. It almost always to be a fish of elongated form, and, indeed, much ceases on landing, although more or less giddiness more probably, as a reptile would need to come to may prevail for some hours, the patient when walk. ihe surface to breathe, which a fish would not. The ing feeling as if the earth were rising up under his first volume of the Wernerian Society's Transactions feet. Infants and aged persons are supposed to contains an account of an animal, 56 feet long, possess a comparative immunity from sea-sickness, which was cast ashore on the island of Stronsa, one while, as a general rule, women suffer more than of the Orkneys, in 1808, and of which some of the men. According to Dr Althaus, persons with a vertebræ are preserved in the Museum of the Uni- strong heart and a slow pulse generally suffer little versity of Edinburgh, but which, unfortunately, did from sea-sickness ; while irritable people, with a not come under the observation of any competent quick pulse and a tendency to palpitation, are more naturalist in its perfect state. On the high autho- liable to be affected ; and he thus accounts for rity of Dr Owen, it is pronounced to have been a different liability of different nations to this affecbasking shark ; but other men of science have ex- tion; 'for, as a rule, the French and Italians, being pressed a different opinion.

j of a more irritable temper, suffer most from the SEA-SHORE, or land bordering on the sea,

disorder, the Germans less, and the English least.'

(On Sea-sickness as a form of Hyperæsthesia,' in belongs partly to the crown, and the public have certain rights in relation thereto.

Proceedings of the Medico-Chirurgical Society, vol. The soil or pro

v. p. 23.) perty in the sea-shore is vested in the crown, and | the limit on the land side is defined to be the si

The primary cause (or rather coudition) of sea

sickness is the motion of the ship; and the pitching medium line of high-water of all the tides in the

of a vessel, or alternate rising and falling of the vourse of the year, or the height of the medium ides in each quarter of a lunar revolution during

bow and stern, is especially apt to produce it. It

is less felt in large and heavily ballasted vessels, the whole year. But though the crown is prima facie the owner of the sea-shore, the owner of the

because the movements referred to are least peradjoining manor has sometimes a grant of it, and he

ceptible in them. How this cause operates is a proves this grant by ancient use-such as gathering

subject regarding which there has been much dissea-weed, &c. The public have a right to walk on

cussion ; and without entering into the history of

the views of different physicians on this subject, we that part of the shore vested in the crown, which

may state that the most recent is that of Dr Chapholds it as a trustee for them. But the public have

man, who holds that the motions of the vessel cause no right to trespass on the adjacent lands in order

the accumulation of an undue amount of blood in to get at the shore, so that it is only where a highway

the nervous centres along the back, and especially leads to the shore, or the public land from seaward, l; that the right can be made available. Thus it has

in those segments of the spinal cord related to the been decided that the public have no legal right to 15

stomach, and the muscles concerued in vomiting.'

This condition is induced, as he maintains, in three trespass on the adjoining lands in order to get

different ways, viz., (1.) by the movements of the to the shore for purpose of bathing. The public have a right to fish on the sea-shore if they get

brain, which are much greater in a pitching vessel legal access to it, and may take all floating fish, but

than on land ; (2.) by the corresponding movements

of the spinal cord ; and (3.) by the excessive movenot oysters or mussels which adhere to the rock, if the soil belongs to an individual. The public have

ments of the viscera within the abdominal and no right to gather sea-weed or shells, though, as

pelvic cavities. In one person the brain may be regards the latter, it is of so little consequence that

mainly responsible in causing that preternatural

afflux of blood in the spinal cord, on which (accordnobody prevents them. Nor have fishermen a right

ing to Dr Chapman's hypothesis) sea-sickness to go on that part of the sea-shore which is private

depends; in another, the spinal cord may be the property to dig sand for ballast, or to dry their nets,

main agent; and in a third, the abdominal viscera; or similar purposes, though in a few cases local

although each is always concurrent in some degree. customs permitting this have been held valid. In Scotland, the right to the sea-shore is also vested in

Hence, the only scientific and really effective

remedy for this disorder, must be one which has the the crown, but when a crown grant gives land bounded by the sea-shore, this is held to give to the

power of lessening the amount of blood in the whole

of the nervous centres along the back, and this can grantee the fore-shore also.

be done by lowering the temperature of the spinal SEA-SICKNESS is a variety of vomiting de- region by the local application of ice. For a desserving of special notice. It is often preceded by cription of Dr Chapman's 'spinal ice-bags' (which premonitory symptoms, which appear almost imme- may be obtained from any respectable surgical diately after a susceptible person is exposed to the instrument-maker), and for the method of applying motion of rolling water in a vessel or boat, and are them, we must refer to his work On Sea-sickness; as distressing as the vomiting itself. Amongst these its Nature and Treatment, p. 37 (Lond. 1864). He symptoms may be mentioned vertigo and headache, gives the details of 17 cases in which the ice-bags with a peculiar feeling of sinking and distress about were of greater or less benefit; in most of the cases, the pit of the stomach. Vomiting, however, in the result was perfectly successful. Besides Dr generul, soon comes on, accompanied with convulsive Chapman's evidence we have that of Captain White, heaving of the stomach, and such an indescribable commander of one of the Newhaven and Dieppe feeling of prostration as to render the patient utterly boats, who states that ' in ordinary weather it (Dr regardless of what is going on around him, and Chapman's remedy) is a success. I had some difficiuty almost indifferent to life. Moreover, a deadly pallor, in persuading passengers to try it, but those who a profuse cold sweat, and diarrhea, are more or less I did were benefited.' Mr Bradley, surgeon in the SEASIDE GRAPE-SEBASTIAN.

Cunard Service, in a letter to The Lancet, December the globe, the year is naturally divided into tuur 3, 1864, writes as follows : 'I have tried this remedy seasons --Spriny, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. In ir severe cases when other remeilies have failed the arctic and antarctic regions, spring and autumn (chloroform, iced champagne, effervescing draughts, are very brief, and the natural division of the year fresh air, &c.), and have very generally found it is simply into summer and winter, the winter being do great good. In no case does it do harm, but long, and the summer short; and this is very much in the great majority of instances it soothes the the case also in regions of the temperate zones lying nervous irritability which so commonly accompanies near the arctic and antarctic circles. In subtropical severe sea-sickness, induces sleep, and consequently regions, the distinction of four seasons is, in like relieves exhaustion. We are permitted to publish manner, very imperfectly marked. This distinction the following extract of a letter from Dr Hayle of is everywhere arbitrary as to the periods of the year Rochdale, to Dr Chapman, dated June 3, 1865 : I included in each season, which really vary according recommended a patient about to cross the Atlantic, to latitude, and partly according to the other causes to try one of your ice-bags for sea-sickness. The which influence climate; the seasons passing one result was most satisfactory. He was never sick into another more or less gradually, and their com: when wearing the bag. Once he went without it, mencement and close not being determined by and then, and then only, was he sick. His friend, precise astronomical or other phenomena. The who had no ice-bag, was frequently sick. As an greatest heat of summer is never reached till a ancillary remedy, the drinking of iced water, or the considerable time after the summer solstice, when swallowing of small lumps of ice, may be recom- the sun's rays are most nearly vertical, and the day mended. Dr Chapman prefers the ice, which, is longest ; the greatest cold of winter is in like • brought in contact with the peripheral ends of the manner after the winter solstice, when the day is nerves of the stomach, will act on the same prin- shortest, and the sun's rays are most oblique; the ciple as it does when applied to the spinal region. reason in the former case being, that as summer

Those who are susceptible to this distressing advances the earth itself becomes more heated by affection, and have not the opportunity of trying the the continued action of the sun's rays; in the latter, ice-bags, may, at all events, diminish the severity of that it retains a portion of the heat which it has the vomiting by assuming, and as long as possible imbibed during summer, just as the warmest part retaining, the horizontal position, as nearly as pos- of the day is somewhat after midday, and the sible in the centre of the ship's movement, and coldest part of the night is towards morning. The keeping the eyes closed. The compression of the four seasons of temperate regions are distinguished abdomen, by means of a broad tight belt, sometimes by the phenomena of nature which characterise gives relief. A few drops of chloroform on a lump them, and which are of the greatest importance in of white sugar will sometimes check the tendency to relation to the wants and labours of man. But the vomiting in persons who only suffer slightly. A renewal of vegetative activity in spring is not to be little arrowroot, flavoured with brandy or sherry, is ascribed entirely to the increasing warmth of the usually a kind of food that will most easily remain sun's rays. Plants are so constituted that a period on the stomach, when the severity of the symptoms of rest is followed by new activity, and this new is abating. Dr Wood, one of the most eminent of activity very generally begins in the fresh circulathe American physicians of the present day, asserts tion of sap and enlargement of buds whilst the cold that he has found nothing under such circum- of winter still continues unabated, or before it has stances so acceptable to the stomach as raw salt reached its greatest intensity. A similar remark oysters.

may be made with regard to some of the phenomena SEASIDE GRAPE (Coccoloba uvifera), a small of animal life, which may as well be said to herald tree, of the natural order Polygoneve, a native of the the approach of spring as to attend its first days of West Indies. It grows on the sea-coasts; has | genial weather. orbicular, cordate, leathery, shining, entire leaves, SEA URCHIN. .See ECHINIDÆ. and a pleasant, subacid, eatable fruit, somewhat

SEAWEED and SEA WRACK. See FOCACEÆ resembling a currant, formed of the pulpy calyx

and WRACK. investing a bony nut. The extract of the wood is extremely astringent, and is sometimes called

SEBASTIAN, SAINT, a very celebrated martyi JAMAICA KINO. The wood itself is heavy, hard, of the early church, whose memory is venerated in durable, and beautifully veined.

both branches of the church, east as well as west SEA SLUG. See HOLOTHURIA.

(although the scene of his martyrdom was the city

of Rome), and whose story has formed one of the SEASONING, a term in Cookery for the most popular themes of Christian artists from the materials used to add flavour to food. They are earliest times. His history is contained in the so. chiefly salt, the spices, and pot-herbs. Salt is the called acts of his martyrdom, which, although par. most important, for it not only increases the taking of the legendary tone. are reo

taking of the legendary tone, are regarded as sapidity of most kinds of food, but also adds to authentic, not only by Baronius and the Bollandists, their wholesomeness.

but also by Tillemont and others of the more SEASONS. In the article EARTH, the motions stringently critical schools of ecclesiastical history. of the earth on which the changes of the seasons S., according to this narrative, was born at ultimately depend, are explained. The chief cause Narbonne and educated at Milan. Although a of the greater heat of summer and cold of winter is Christian, he entered the Roman army, without, that the rays of the sun fall more obliquely on the however, revealing his religion, and with the view earth in the latter season than in the former. See of being enabled, by his position, to assist and pro. CLIMATE. Another concurrent cause is the greater tect the Christians in the persecution. In this way length of the day in summer, and of the night in he supported and comforted many of the martyrs in winter. Within the tropics, the sun's rays have at Rome; and he even converted Nicostratus, the keeper no time so much obliquity as to make one part of of the prison in which the martyrs were confined, the year very sensibly colder than another. There and his wife, Zoe, to whom he miraculously restored are therefore either no marked seasons, or they the use of her speech, after she had been dumb for have other causes altogether, and are distinguished six years. Still unrecognised as a Christian, S. rose as the Wet and Dry seasons. This is explained in to high favour under Diocletian, while at the same the article Rain. But in all the temperate parts of time the grateful pontiff, Caius, named him

SEBASTIANI--SEBASTOPOL.

"Defender of the Church. At length came the or administrator. He died at Paris, July 20, time for his open profession of his faith. Diocletian 1851. used every effort to induce him to renounce the Christian creed, but in vain; and in the end he was

SEBASTIANI'STAS, the name given in Portugal condemned to be put, to death by a troop of Mauri

and Brazil to persons who believe in the future tanian archers, who transfixed him with numberless

return to earth of the king Dom Sebastian, who fell arrows, and left him as dead. But a Christian lady,

in the battle of Alcazarquebir, 1578 A.D., while frene, finding that life was not extinct, had the body

leading on his army against the Moors. This repioved to her house, where life was restored ; and

belief has continued to be entertained by many in although the Christian community desired to con

Portugal; but the S. are said to be now most

numerous in Brazil. On the return of Dom Sebastian, ceal his recovery, S. again appeared in public before the emperor, to profess his faith in Christianity.

they expect Brazil to enjoy the most perfect prosDiocletian condemned him to be beaten to death perity and happiness. with clubs in the amphitheatre; and his body was | SEBASTO'POL, or, as it is sometimes written, Hung into one of the sewers of the city, in which it in accordance with modern Greek pronunciation, was discovereil, according to the Acts of Martyr- SEVASTOPOL (Sebastopolis, the august city'), a dom, by means of an apparition, and carried by a Russian seaport, fortress, and arsenal in the Crimea, Christian lady, Lucina, to the catacomb, which is in the government of Taurida. It is situated near still called by his name. The date of his martyr- the south-west extremity of the Crimea, on the don was January 20, 288. By the Greeks the southern side of the magnificent harbour or roadfeast is held on the 20th December. The festival stead of S., one of the finest natural harbours in the was celebrated with great solemnity in Milan as world. This harbour is an inlet of the Black Sea, early as the time of St Ambrose ; and it was stretching inland for about four and a half miles observed in the African Church in the 4th century. from west to east, about half a mile wide at the There is another saint of the same name, who is entrance, but immediately opening out to the width said to have suffered martyrdom in Armenia. of a mile, with an average width of about half a

SEBASTIANI, FRANÇOIS - HORACE - BASTION, mile up to the eastern end. It is sheltered on the marshal of France, was born November 10, 1772, north and south by lofty limestone ridges shutting at Porta d'Ampugnano, a village near Bastia, in it completely in, with a depth of water varying from Corsica. He was the son of a tailor, but his extreme 3 to 11 fathoms, and sufficient in several places to vanity led him to declare himself of noble descent allow ships of the largest size to lie close to the and à distant relative of the Bonapartes. He shore. At the eastern end, under the heights of entered the army as a sub-lieutenant of infantry, Inkermann, the river Tchernaya enters the harbour August 27, 1789. His rise, due to his bravery in the through low marshy ground. The South Bay, or field, was no doubt somewhat aided by his splendid | Dockyard Harbour as it is also called, extending physique, graceful manner, and facile diction. He about one and a half miles from north to south, forms became chef-d'escadron in 1797, and brigadier in the harbour proper of S.; and between it and 1799, and was one of Napoleon's inost devoted par. Quarantine Bay, occupying rather more than half tisans. He fought at Marengo, executed some im- the peninsula thus formed, is built the chief portion portant diplomatic service in Turkey in 1802-1803, of the town of S., on ground sloping irregularly after which he became general of brigade (August upwards. The town, previous to its destruction in 1803), and was wounded at Austerlitz. On May 2, the siege of 1854-1855, was well and substantially 1806, he was again deputed to Turkey, this time to | built of stone, with lines of streets running from break the alliance of the Porte with Russia and north to south, and smaller ones intersecting them England ; and before he had been seven months at at right angles, containing several handsome public Constantinople, his mission had obtained complete edifices. The docks, constructed for the Russian success, and war was declared. The English fleet government by Colonel Upton, an English civil forced a passage through the Dardanelles, and cast engineer, were among the most important works anchor before Constantinople, their presence causing at S.; the dock basin, docks, and quays were such terror among the sultan's ministers that a total formed in the most substantial way, being partly reversal of foreign policy was imminent, but S., cut in the solid rock, and lined with cement, partly coming to the rescue, revived with lois seducing built of limestone and granite. From the Dockyard eloquence their failing resolution, and assuming an Creek, ships were admitted into the Dock Basip authoritative superintendence of the preparations by means of three locks, the bottom of the docks for defending the coast, put the batteries in a being above the sea-level, and the basin was sup. state fit for action. In five days, he had the plied with water by a canal some 12 miles in length coast batteries manned with 600 guns, 100 small from the Tchernaya above Inkermann-itself a gunboats afloat, a line of vessels laid along shore, work of no inconsiderable magnitude. For the each with a broadside ready to be discharged on defence of town and harbour from attack by sea, the English fleet, which at last gallantly ran the several forts were erected. These forts were gantlet, losing two ships and 700 men. But the works of immense strength, built' of limestone faced death of the sultan, and the treaty of Tilsit, put an with granite, on which artillery was found to make end to the French intrigues in Turkey, and S. was but little impression; they mounted a very larye recalled June 1807, and decorated with the grand number of guns, and by their cross-fire completely cordon of the Legion of Honour. He subsequently protected every spot accessible to a hostile fleet. commanded the fourth corps-d'armée in Spain. On the land side, with the exception of a slight He distinguished himself in the Russian campaign loopholed wall extending partially round the western of 1812, and at Leipzig. On the exile of Napoleon side, the town, previous to the siege, was entirely to Elba, he gave in his adherence to the Bourbon undefended; hut the earthworks and fortifications

return. After the revolution of 1830, he held General Todleben, which for so many months kept for brief periods the portfolios of naval (1830) and the armies of France and England at bay, and of foreign affairs, and the embassies to Naples (April which the Malakoff and the Redan were the most 1833) and London (January 1835); but was more formidable, are now of historic fame. distinguished for his elegance, and graceful de- The siege of S. by the allied English and French meanour in the Parisian salons, than as a politician armies will rank among the most famous sieges ir SEBENICO_SECOND SIGHT.

history; it lasted for 11 months, from October 1854 disturh others. Since the abolition of physical to September 1855; the place sustained repeated restraint by chains and strait-jackets, seclusion has bombardments, the first of which took place October become a favoured and useful mode of repression 17, 1854; and the capture of the Malakoff and and treatment. That it should be resorted to Redan, on September 8, 1855, at length forced the exclusively as a remedial agent, and by the medical Russians to evacuate it, and retire to the north side. | attendant, is now received as an axiom. In 1854, The town had been completely ruined ; the docks the Commissioners in Lunacy in England ascer. and forts (such as were still standing) were after tained, by circular, the opinions of almost all those wards blown up by French and English engineers. intrusted with the care of the insane in that country, By the treaty of Paris (March 1856), the naval and as to the employment of such means of cure ; when military works are not to be restored. Before the it appeared that it was generally considered benesiege, the population of S., including the soldiers ficial, if used for short periods and during paroxysms and marines forming the garrison, amounted to of epileptic anıt violent mania. Even when not about 40,000. Since that time the town has been absolutely required for the tranquillisation of the partially rebuilt and reinhabited, but the population individual, seclusion may become expedient in order in 1866 was only 10,537. S. was intended to be the to secure the quiet, comfort, or safety of the patients station of the Russian Black Sea fleet, and as such with whom he is associated. That such an instruto form a standing menace to Turkey; during the ment may be abused and adopted from the parsisiege, the fleet was almost entirely destroyed, many mony, timidity, or ignorance of those around, is of the ships having been sunk by the Russians obvious. One of the lunatics liberated by Pinel, in across the entrance of the harbour by way of 1792, had been incarcerated or secluded in his dark defence. The great disadvantage of S. as a naval cell for forty years; and occasionally even now the station arises from the ravages of the Teredo navalis, duration of the isolation may be unduly prolonged which soon render wooden vessels unseaworthy. even under medical sanction; but the instances of S. was founded on the site of a small Tartar village gross and cruel seclusion in garrets and cellars, and called Akhtiar, immediately after the Russian con- outhouses, are now chiefly to be found in private quest of the Crimea in 1783, under the orders of the families, and where, as in the ‘Flushing case,' no Empress Catharine II. The promontory on which better course is known to be practicable.--Eighth S. stands is a spot of considerable classical and his- Report of Commissioners in Lunacy to Lord Chantorical interest. Here, perhaps on the site now cellor, App. C, p. 123; Bucknill and Tuke, Psycholooccupied by the Greek convent of St George, west gical Medicine, p. 562; Browne, What Asylums Were, of Balaclava, stood the temple of the Tauric Arte Are, and Ought to be, p. 137. mis, in which, according to the legend, Iphigenia, SECOND (for the derivation of which see

ter of Agamemnon, was priestess. - In later SCRUPLE) is the sixtieth part of a minute, whether times, the promontory was colonised by Greeks

of time or of angular magnitude. See MINUTE. In from Heraclea, in Asia Minor, and became known

old treatises we find seconds distinguished as minuto as the Heracleotic Chersonese. Two cities, succes.

secundo, from minutes, or minute prime. The six. sively built a few miles apart on the sea-coast to

tieth part of a second was called a third, but instead the west of S., have left remains existing to the l of this and succeeding subdivisions, decimal fracpresent day. In after times, the Chersonesus fell

tions of seconds are now employed. into the power of the Genoese, who established

SE'CONDARY, in Geology, is the designation their headquarters at Balaclava, where the remains

given to that large section of the fossiliferous strata of the “Genoese castles' on the heights still bear

which includes the Triassic, Oolitic, and Cretaceous witness to their rule. See History of the Russian

rocks. It is synonymous with Mesozoic. The War (W. and R. Chambers).

strata grouped under this title are separated from SEBE'NICO, a small port on the coast of Dal- the inferior and superior deposits more by their matia, 42 miles south-east of Zara. It is built on a organic contents than their petrological structure, steep slope, and rises in terraces, and was formerly and this separation is more evident between them defended by walls and towers. Its cathedral, a fine and the older rocks, than between them and the edifice with a bold dome, was built 1443—1536. Its newer; and yet recent discoveries have shewn excellent harbour is defended by several forts. Pop. that the St Cassian Beds form a connecting 14,238.

link between the Permian and Triassic epochs. SEBE'STEN, SEBESTAN, SEPISTAN, or S. They contain a series of fossils which are partly PLUM, the fruit of the Cordia Myxa, a tree of the Palæozoic and partly Mesozoic in their facies. natural order Cordiaceve, a native of the East Indies. The appearance of the great types of all subseThe tree has ovate leaves, and an egg-shaped fruit, quent organisms in the Secondary rocks, has sug. which is succulent. mucilaginous, and emollient, 1 gested the grouping of the fossiliferous strata in with some astringency, and was formerly an article respect of their fossils into only two great divisions of the European Materia Medica, being employed viz., the Palæozoic and the Neozoic--this last for the preparation of a lenitive electuary and of a term including the Secondary and Tertiary periods. pectoral medicine. It is believed to be the Persea SECONDING is a temporary retirement to of Dioscorides. It has a sweetish taste, and is which officers of Royal Artillery and Royal Engi. eaten by the natives of the Northern Circars' of neers are subjected when they accept civil employ. India, where it grows.

ment under the crown. After six months of such SE'CALE. See RYE.

employment the officer is seconded, by which he SE'CANT. See TRIGONOMETRY.

loses military pay, but retains his rank, seniority,

and promotion in his corps. After being seconded SECE DERS AND SECESSION KIRK. See for ten years, he must elect to return to military UNITED PRESBYTERIANS.

duty or to retire altogether. SECLU'SION (of the Insane). This term has SECOND SIGHT, a superstition or belief once recently been narrowed so as to apply to the removal common in the Scottish Highlands and Isles, where of the violent insane from the ordinary wards and it was known by the Gaelic appellation Taisch, fellowship of an asylum to an airing court, gallery, signifying a spectral or shadowy appearance. Ceror room so situated and furnished that its solitary tain persons, called seers or wizards, were supposed occupant can neither injure himself, nor injure nor to possess a supernatural gift, by which they

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