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Gounib, and after a desperate resistance, in which his police, public improvements, and repairs requiring 400 followers were reduced to 47, he was captured. much management, and entailing much expense, His wives and treasure were spared to him, and he the funds for which are obtained by taxation. S. was sent to St Petersburg, where he experienced a is also the seat of various missions for converting generous reception from the czar. A few days after- the natives, the schools, dispensaries, and other wards, he was assigned a residence at Kaluga, with a benevolent objects meeting with generous support pension of 10,000 roubles. From that time until the from foreign merchants. The products of S. itself date of his death in 1871 he remained in obscurity as are not of much value, but the city is a most im. a sort of parole prisoner of the Russian govern- portant entrepôt for goods passing between the ment.
north and south provinces of China, as well as for SHANGHAI', the most important maritime city the imports and exports from and to foreign counof China, situated on the left bank of the Hwang tries. The trade of the port increased threefold 1:00 or Woosung River, 12 miles from where it between the years 1860 and 1863; and this increase debouches into the southern portion of the mouth is due in a great measure to the large and increasing of the Yangtse-kiang, in lat. 31° 10' N., and long, trade from the ports opened on the Yangtse in 121° 30' E.. It is a heen or district city, having a Chinese produce of all descriptions. In 1867 the wall 3 miles in circuit, through which 6 gates open entrances and clearances were 1745 vessels, of 801,537 into extensive suburbs. The low alluvial plain on tons (384 American, of 224,082 tons); and 1734 veswhich it is situated is of great extent, and inter- sels, of 806,661 tons (378 American, of 221,413 tons). sected by innumerable streamlets and canals, which In 1868 the imports amounted to £6,370,918, and the environ the walls, and permeate the city in various exports to £15,607,757; the tea exports from S., in directions. It is a dirty, poorly-built town, the 1867, to the United States, amounted to 15,978,576 houses are mostly brick, the streets are very narrow, pounds. 40,000 chests of opium were imported into S. and constantly crowded with people. Few of the in 1867. The chief articles of import are opium and buildings rise above the low walls of the city; the treasure, and of export tea and silk. Great quantionly conspicuous objects are the Roman Catholic ties of the opium and treasure imported into S. are cathedral," a massive edifice, and the lofty spire of re-exported to the other parts of China, to Japan, &c. the Baptist chapel. The temples present the same The mercantile importance of S. promises to increase general appearance met with in all Chinese cities. / greatly through the opening of the Yangtse River to Every city has its Ching-hwang, or temple of the commerce. Pop. 1868, 149,475, of whom 2248 are tutelary gods; that of S. is in a picturesque position foreigners. See North China (Shanghai) Herald, and on a rocky islet, surrounded by a serpentine sheet Commercial Reports (1865–1870). of water, which is crossed by zigzag bridges. In close SHANNON, the largest of the rivers of Ireland, juxtaposition to these finest specimens of Chinese rises in the Cuilcagh Mountains, county of Cavan, taste, is the beautiful foreign settlement that has and after a course of 220 miles, falls into the sprung up on the banks of the river to the east of Atlantic Ocean between the headlands of Loop the city. Merchant princes have reared for them and Kerry Head. It is commonly divided into selves, to occupy during a brief residence, edifices two portions, the Upper S. from its source to that may be justly termed palatial. First, on emerg- Limerick, and the Lower S. from Limerick to the ing from the east gate, the native finds himself in sea, a distance of 56 miles. In its upper course it the French Reservation, which is gradually being passes from its source in Cavan to Lough Allen in filled up with buildings, forming a city under the the county of Leitrim; thence through a difficult jurisdiction of that power. On crossing a canal, he channel, where the navigation is in part transferred beholds a city apparently as large as his own--the to a canal, to a small expansion called Corry Lough, English quarter, streets parallel with, and at right and, with alternations of river and lake, to Lough angles to the river, paved and well lighted, bearing Forbes, in the county of Longford, on leaving which English names, and faced with substantial stuccoed | the river for a time attains an average width of 250 brick buildings, ornamented with colonnades, having yards as far as Lanesborough. Here it is again garden space in front of each filled with choice merged in a lake called Lough Ree, which stretches Howers. He sees, at the rear of this marvellous city ten miles southwards to within two miles of Athlone. which has suddenly sprung up before his eyes, a At this point great natural difficulties have been race-course and a church-two things to be found overcome, and the course of the river, by Shannon wherever Englishmen congregate abroad. The river Harbour and Portumna, and through the picturesque in front of the Chinese town is thronged with junks, Lough Derg to Killaloe, has been so deepened and lashed side by side for a couple of miles, the reach | improved that a regular passenger and goods in front of the foreign settlement being crowded traffic is maintained. From Killaloe to Limerick with square-rigged vessels, numbering sometimes the navigation, owing to the rapid fall, is again in above 100. Lower down are the ship-yards, machine- part transferred to a canal. On approaching Limeshops, and dry-docks, which foreign commerce has rick the river divides into two branches, and on called into existence. Tugs are constantly steaming the island thus formed stands what is known as the to and fro, towing ships and junks against the Irish Town, in contradistinction to the English impetuous tides of the Yangtse. Under the arrange town, of Limerick. From the city, where an ment by which the foreign custom-house dues are extensive and commodious range of quays has been collected by foreigners, facilities have been created built, to the sea, the S. is navigable to sea-going for the navigation by stationing a light-ship, buoys, vessels; and although for a distance of eight or and signals, rendering safer the approach to this nine miles below the city it is very shallow at low important mart. There is also a system of foreign water, the navigation for the last 40 miles is pilotage, giving additional security to the mariner. free and unimpeded at all times of the tide. The There are a chamber of commerce, reading-room, entrance between Kerry Head and Loop is seven library, and literary institution-nothing being want- miles across. About ten miles from the entrance the ing to render the port of S. the metropolis of Eastern river narrows to about a mile and a half in width. commerce. The municipal government of the foreign At present, however, the most important part of settlement is highly creditable to the mercantile the outward navigation commences at the harbour traders. Three gentlemen, generally two English of Foynes, which is connected by railway with and one American, are elected annually by the Limerick, and from which steam-boats daily ply to holders of land, for the purposes of local government | Kilrush, Tarbert, and the intermediate stations. 406
Several rivers of considerable size fall into the S. tendril, the tendrils being apparently of use for during its course, as the Suck, the Brosna, the their entanglement amongst sea-weeds. These eggs, Fergus, the Maigue, and the Feale. The improve or at least their empty cases, are very frequently ment of this river has long been regarded a measure cast up by the waves on the sea-beach, and are of national importance, and was commenced under popularly known as Sea Purses or Mermaids' Pur sea. the Irish parliament. In 1837, the work was placed Near the head of the enclosed embryo there is a slit under a board of commissioners, by whom a sum of in the case through which water enters for respiramore than half a million was expended. It has tion, and there is another at the opposite end, by since been transferred to the Board of Works. The which it is discharged. The young tish ruptures the navigation is open from the head of Lough Allen to case at the head, where it is weaker than at any Limerick, a distance of 146 miles, over 179 of which other part, and on issuing from it, carries a yolk-bag large river steamers freely ply. Much dissatisfac- attached to its belly for its nourishment until it is tion, however, is expressed by the proprietors and able to seek food. At this stage of its existence, its occupiers of the banks of the river at the very respiration is also aided by tilaments projecting imperfect and, it is believed, faulty character of the from the gills through the gill-openings, which are provision for drainage and the prevention of over- absorbed as it grows older. The teeth are generHow; and the subject is at present again under ally large, sharp, and formed for cutting, with: the consideration of the government and the legis- the edge often serrated; but in the genus Ces. lature.
tracion (q. v.) the teeth are pavement-like; and in SHAN-SE (West of the Hills), a province of some genera they are small and numerous. The North-Western China, is of rugged surface, and lies Angel-fish (q. v.) is ranked among the sharks, but on the western limits of the plain. In the north differs from the rest in its flattened form. Some of are imperial hunting-grounds. It supplies the purest
the smaller sharks are popularly known by the iron ore and the best coal in China, besides cinnabar,
names Dogfish, Hound, Tope, &c. In the articles copper, marble, and other minerals.
Cestracion, Dogfish, Fox Shark, Hammer-head, Por. SHAN STATES, a number of tributary states
beagle, and Tope, some of the S. tribe are noticed. in Indo-China, lying between Munnipur on the west
It only remains here to notice a few of the more and Yun-nan on the east, and from the parallel of
interesting of those which do not come under any of 24' N. lat., south to Bankok and Cambodia. Of
these heads. these the northern states are tributary to Burmah
The WHITE S. (Carcharias vulgaris) is the most (q. v.) and the southern to Siam (q. v.). A great
dreaded of all the monsters of the deep. The family portion of the mountainous region of these states is
Carcharido, to which it belongs, have two dorsal called the Laos Country. The Laos races are divided
fins, the first dorsal placed over the space between into two curiously distinct subdivisions. The
the pectoral and ventral fins; they have a nictitating northern race, beyond the northern frontier of
membrane; and have no spout-holes. In the genus Siam, are called Black-bellies, from the circumstance
Carcharias the snout is flattened. The white s. that they tattoo themselves with figures in ink,
| attains a great size; one has been caught of 37 feet printed on their bodies with sharp needle-like
i in length. The body is covered with a hard skin, points; the southern race, mostly on and within the eastern frontier of Siam and tributary to that kingdom, are called White-bellies, and do not tattoo. Xieng Mai, the capital of Laos, stands on a wide plain on the right bank of the Meinam, 500 miles north of Bankok, and is said to contain 50,000 inhabitants. The number of Laocians included in Siam alone is estimatel at 1,000,000. They are meek, gentle, unwarlike, and superstitious. Their chief employment is agriculture, and the principal crops raised by them are rice, maize, the sweet potato, calabashes, red pepper, melons, and other fruits. In religion they are Buddhists. SHA'PINSHAY, one of the Orkney Islands,
White Shark (Carcharias vulgaris). about 5 miles north-east of Kirkwall. It is 5 miles long and 44 miles in extreme breadth.
The fine and is grayish-brown above and whitish below. It
The fine natural harbour of Elwick Bay on the south side is
is a very rare visitant of the British coasts, if indeed overlooked by a pleasant modern village. Pop.
another species has not been mistaken for it; but is (1861) 973.
found in the Mediterranean, and is plentiful in the SHARI (i. e., river), the principal feeder of Lake seas of many of the warmer parts of the world, Tsad or Tchad (9. V.).
often following ships to feed on any animal subSHARK (Squalus), a Linnean genus of cartila- | stance that may be thrown or may fall overboard, ginous fishes, now forming in Müller's system a and often in its indiscriminate voracity swallowing suborder of Plagiostomi (q. v.), and divided into a things which are indigestible. A lady's work-box number of families and many genera. The sharks has been found in a S.'s stomach; and the papers have generally an elongated form, tapering gradually of a slave-ship, which had been thrown overto the tail, and not much thickened in the middle. board, in that of another. Human beings are not The muzzle projects over the mouth; the nostrils unfrequently its prey, and a large S. is not only are situated on the under-side of the muzzle. The capable of biting off the limb of a man, but of snap. males have claspers. The gill-openings are lateral. ping the body in two, and has even been known to There is no cartilage between the snout and the swallow a man entire. Its head is large, the mouth pectoral fin, as in the rays. Some of the sharks are large and wide, furnished with a terrible apparatus ovoviviparous ; others lay eggs, generally a pair at of teeth, of which there are six rows in the upper a time, more being produced in succession. The jaw and four in the lower; the teeth are triangular, eggs are large in comparison with those of osseous sometimes two inches in breadth, sharp-edged, and fishes, and are of a square or oblong form, with a serrated; when not in use they are laid back in the tough horny coat, each corner prolonged into a' mouth, nearly flat, but when the S. bites they are
brought up or at least those of the outer rows— import into China. The liver yields a large quanby means of muscles with which each tooth is inde- city of oil, which is now also, in some parts of the pendently provided. The tail, as in all the sharks, world, an article of commerce. For the sake of is heterocercal, but its lobes are more nearly equal this oil a S. fishery is prosecuted on the coast of than in most of them. The S. is often captured by Ceylon. sailors, by means of a great hook baited with a piece Possil Sharks make their first appearance in the of meat, and attached to a chain, as the S.'s teeth Oolitic rocks, from which eight species have been readily bite through any rope. When the S. is described. They become more numerous in the hooked and hauled on board, great care is requisite Cretaceous deposits, in which no less than 60 species to avoid danger both from the mouth and from the have been found. In the Tertiary strata, their tail, the powerful action of the latter being gener- remains are still more abundant. But as the deterally interrupted by a sailor springing forward and mination of fossil species depends entirely on the cutting it above the fin with a hatchet. A curious teeth, which, with the exception of the spines and method of catching the S. is practised in the South vertebræ, are the only portions preserved, it is Sea Islands; a log of wood is set afloat with a strong probable that the species and genera are too greatly rope attached to it, at the end of which is a noose, multiplied. and the sharks gathering about it as if from curiosity, one of them may be expected soon to get
SHARP, a sign in Music, which, when prefixed its head into the noose, and is at last wearied out by to a note, elevates it by a semitone in the scale, the log. Formidable as the S. is, men have sometimes successfully braved it in its own element,
raising, for example, F#
to F sharp watching its turning-as from the position of its mouth it must do-to seize its prey, and stabbing it in the belly.
When placed at the beginning of a The BLUE S. (Carcharias glaucus) is much smaller than the White S., seldom exceeding eight feet in
in piece of music, it denotes that all the notes on length. It is also of a more slender form. The
the line or space on which it is placed, and their upper parts are of a blue colour, the belly white.. This species is common in the Mediterranean, and
octaves above and below, are to be played sharp.
A double sharp x raises a note two semitones. in the warmer parts of the Atlantic. It is not unfrequent on the south-western coasts of England SHARP, JAMES, Archbishop of St Andrews, was in summer, apparently coming in pursuit of pilchards, the son of William Sharp, sheriff-clerk of Banffshire, and often doing great mischief to the nets and lines and was born in the castle of Banff, May 1618. of fishermen, its sharp teeth biting through a net or Educated for the church at the University of Aberline with the utmost ease.
deen, where he attained distinction as a student, The BASKING S. (Selache maxima) belongs to the and 'where he is said (on the authority of a tract, family Lamnidæ, having two dorsal fins, spout-holes, entitled A True and Impartial Account of the Life and no nictitating membrane. The snout of the of the Most Reverend Father in God, Dr James Basking S. is short and blunt; the teeth are small, Sharp, Archbishop of St Andrews, published in 1719) numerous, conical, and curved backwards. The to have protested against the Solemn League and skin is much rougher than in the White S. and Blue Covenant;' he afterwards visited England, and Shark. This species attains a great size, being became acquainted with several eminent English sometimes 36 feet long, but it is not so thick in divines, such as Hammond, Sanderson, and Taylor. proportion as the White Shark. It is of a blackish Returning to Scotland, he was appointed a professor brown colour, glossed with blue. It does not exhibit of philosophy at St Andrews, through the influence a ferocious character, and is supposed to feed on of the Earl of Rothes, and soon after minister of the medusæ, crustaceans, and the like. It is often seen parish of Crail, an office which he held during the swimming slowly with its dorsal fin above the sur- ascendency of Cromwell. In August 1651, when face of the water, whence it has obtained the name Monk was reducing Scotland to obedience, he was of Sail-fish. It permits itself to be quite closely carried off, along with several other ministers, to approached by a boat, but on being struck with a England. S. quickly regained his liberty, and he barpoon, it plunges suddenly down, and swims off possessed, for some years, the confidence of the more with great rapidity, so that its capture is attended moderate party in the church. In 1656, he was with danger. It is not uncommon on the northern chosen by them to plead their cause in London and western coasts of Britain.
before the Protector, against the Rev. James The GREENLAND S. (Scymnus borealis) is of the Guthrie, a leader of the extreme section (the Profamily Scymnidce. It has large spout-holes, two testors or Remonstrators), which he did with 80 dorsal fins, no anal fin, and no nictitating membrane. much dexterity, that Cromwell is reported to have It inhabits the northern seas, and is rarely seen so said: “That gentleman, after the Scotch way, ought far south as even the northern Scottish islands. It to be termed Sharp of that Ilk.' When the Restora. attains a length of 14 feet or more, is thick, and tion was on the eve of happening, S. was appointed tapers suddenly at the tail; the fins very small; the by the moderate party to act as its representative teeth in both jaws so arranged as to diverge from a in the negotiations opened up with Monk and the centre. It bites and annoys whales, but feeds also king. This is the crucial period of his career, and on small fishes and crustaceans. When a whale has on the view we take of his motives depends our been killed, a S. will often come even whilst men whole estimate of his character. Was he sincere, are occupied in cutting off the blubber, and scoop or did he mean to betray the church to which he out one great lump after another, and will return to owed allegiance ? Presbyterian writers are nearly its repast after having been severely wounded. unanimous in affirming his perfidy, although the
The rough skin of sharks is employed by joiners evidence is doubtful. Among the first things the for polishing fine-grained wood, and for covering Scottish parliament that met 1st January.1661 did, the hilts of swords to make them firmer in the was to repeal or rescind every act passed since 1638, grasp.--The flesh is coarse, but is sometimes eaten. in consequence of which Episcopacy remained the The fins abound in gelatine, and are much used by Church of Scotland, as settled by law'-a disthe Chinese for making a rich gelatinous soup. honourable evasion of a promise made by Charles Dried sharks' fins are a considerable article of in a letter written to the Presbytery of Edinburgh