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ancicut and modern times. The rudimentary shoe The delivery of a shoe was used as a testimony in is a sandal consisting of a sole, held to the foot by transferring a possession : 'A man plucked off his straps and thongs, as represented in fig. 1. Such shoe, and gave it to his neighbour : and this was a were the common Egyptian and Greek shoes, to testimony in Israel' (Ruth iv. 7). In cases of this which the shoes of the peasantry of the Abruzzi, in kind, the throwing of a shoe on a property was a
symbol of a new proprietorship or occupancy :
Over Edom will I cast my shoe' (Psalm lx. 8). From these ancient practices, in which the shoe was symbolical of contract, perhaps comes the curious old custom in the north of England and Scotland of throwing old shoes for good luck after a bride and bridegroom on departing for their new
home. We learn from several passages in the Ne: Fig. 1.
Testament that the untying of sandals, as involving
considerable trouble, was assigned to servants; the the south of Italy, bear a close resemblance. In unloosening of the thongs, translated latchets," Egypt, however, the ordinary materials for shoes accordingly became a symbol of servitude: “The were strips of the papyrus interwoven like a mat; latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose' an example of a sole of this kind is given in fig. 2. (Luke iii. 16). The carrying of the shoes of another As is seen from paintings on the walls of Thebes, is spoken of as a similar mark of inferiority: 'Whose shoemaking formed a distinct trade in the reign of shoes I am not worthy to bear' (Matthew iii. 11). Thothmes III., 1495 B.C., or about the period of the St Crispin and his brother Crispinian have long flight of the Israelites. In the adjoining illustration, been regarded as the patron saints of shoemakers. fig. 3, a sketch is presented from Thebes of two ' According to medieval legend, these personages
were natives of Rome, and having become converts to Christianity, travelled into France and Britain to propagate the faith, everywhere supporting themselves by making shoes, which they sold to the poor at a very low price one part of the legend being that an angel supplied them with leather. It is said that they suffered martyrdom in England towards the end of the 3d century. The memory of St Crispin, of whom we chiefly hear, has, from time immemorial, been kept up by processions and other festivities in his honour on October 25, which is known as “St Crispin's Day. Under this saintly tutelage, shoe. making has attained to the distinctive
appellation of the gentle craft ;' and above Fig. 3.
most other mechanical professions, is noted
for the number of individuals who have Egyptian shoemakers at work, with the tools of risen from it to eminence. See an amusing but their profession beside them. The first workman. scarce work, Crispin Anecdotes. The sedentary is piercing with his awl the thong at the side of the and solitary nature of the craft, as hitherto sole, through which the latchets were passed; before conducted, has possibly had some influence in him is a low sloping bench. The second workman is equally busy sewing a shoe, and tightening the thread with his teeth. It appears from one of the figures over the first workman that the bent awl of the modern shoemaker is of extreme antiquity. In one of the Greek dramas, allusion is made to the daily earnings of the shoemaker; and we know from historical record that the streets of Rome were encumbered with the stalls of shoemakers in the reign of Domitian. The shoe of the ancient Hebrews was a species of sandal. For ladies, the sandal, translated 'shoe' in the Scriptures, was highly ornamental: How beantiful are thy feet with shoes, O prince's daughter' (Cant. vii. 1). Ornamented slippers are still a luxury in the East. The footcoverings of the Romans were various in character, from the simple sandal and slipper to the boot, which extended up the leg. When the shoe covered the whole foot, it was termed calceus ; the calceus of a particular form and of great strength worn by the Roman soldier was known as caliga. From wearing these shoes, the common soldiers were designated caligati. The Emperor Caligula was so
Fig. 4. called from having worn caligulce, or little boots, when he served as a youth in the ranks of the army, producing a degree of thoughtfulness, while the Usually, the caligæ of the soldiers were studded act of hammering his leather is calculated, as with hob-nails.
some imagine, to stimulate the mental energy of Reference is made in Scripture to different sym- the operative. If there be any real virtue in the bolical usages in connection with sandals or shoes. / sitting attitude of the shoemaker, a corresponding
evil attends that method of carrying on his opera- important character of the shoe-trade in Massachutions. In every profession, sitting at work in a setts, it may be mentioned that a few years ago there close atmosphere is particularly injurious to health. were as many as fifteen members of the gentle craft' Statistics assure us that out of 10,000 artisans / in the legislature of that state. who sit at their labour, 2577 fall sick, and 95 die, According to the State Census of Massachusetts in annually; whilst as regards an equal number of 1865, 55,160 persons were employed in that state in those who alternately sit and stand, only 1713 the manufacture of boots and shoes, valued at $52,sicken, and 61 die. To remedy this crying evil, a 915,243. In 1869, the annual value of boots and piember of the profession, Mr J. Sparkes Hall, shoes produced in the United States was $246,250,000, London, has invented a simple and inexpensive into which leather and other materials entered to the work-bench, at which shoes may be made standing. I amount of $130,169,608. Of this standing-bench, we offer a sketch in fig. 4. The product of Philadelphia for 1870 was valued at A few days' practice, we are told, renders the work- / $7,724,809, and employed 6215 hands. man as expert with the standing-bench as if he were seated according to the old plan, and he can
SHO'LA, the white pith of the leguminous plant execute closing with less fatigue and considerably
| Æschynomene aspera, a native of the East Indies. more cleanliness. The only kinds of work in which
With this substance, which is exceedingly light, the sitting is more convenient are rounding the soles,
natives of India make a great variety of useful lasting, and fitting, for which a seat may be em.
articles, especially hats, which being very light ployed.
and cool, are in great request. Helmets made The fashion of shoes, as has occurred with other
of shola are much used by the British troops in articles of dress, has undergone innumerable changes.
India. At one time, shoes were pointed to an extravagant SHOOTING, with intent to wound, is felony degree; and in last century, the high heels of ladies' in the law of England, and punishable with penal shoes became a monstrosity. Shortly after the servitude for life. The offence consists in shooting beginning of the present century, the most marked at another, or drawing a trigger, or in any other improvement was the making of shoes right and manner attempting to discharge loaded arms. It left; the substitution of latchets for buckles about is not, however, an offence unless there was a the same period was also a step in advance. In our possibility of injuring some person; the intent own day, the general disuse of the shoe proper, and must not only exist, but the relative situation the introduction of short ankle-boots, are the chief of the parties must be such that serious injury changes of fashion. A proposal for a more perfect might have ensued. The extent of the actual adaptation of shoes and boots to the shape of the wound is immaterial foot, is noticed under Foot. The shoemaking trade, as at present conducted in Britain, is divided into l SHORE. See SEA-SHORE. two departments-the bespoke and the ready-made SHORE, in Ship-building, is a strong prop or or sale business. The larger department hitherto stanchion placed under the bottom or against the has been that in which customers bespeak boots and side of a ship, to keep her steady on the slip or in shoes by having them made to measure ; but it is dock. Shores are also used to support or prop up a generally giving way to the plan of buying articles
building during alterations. ready-made. The cause of this is exceedingly obvious. The process of measuring is usually very
SHOREDITCH. See TOWER HAMLETS. imperfect, owing, among other reasons, to the want SHOʻREHAM, NEW, a seaport, and parliamentary of lasts to suit every variety of feet, as well as the borough of Sussex, on the left bank and at the too general indifference to meet individual pecu
mouth of the Adur, six miles west of Brighton. liarities. On this account, and even at the risk of
The town arose when the harbour of Old Shoreham, purchasing an inferior class of goods, the public are
now a mile inland, became silted up. Pop. of the becoming daily more disposed to encourage the
parish (1851) 2590; (1861) 3351. This increase is ready-made trade. Accordingly, large quantities
attributed to the extension of the ship-building of boots and shoes in innumerable varieties are now
trade here, and partly to the recent discovery of made and supplied wholesale by manufacturers for
oyster-beds on the south-west coast of the Channel. the retail dealers. Northampton, Stafford, and More than 30
More than 80 smacks, each manned by five hands, Leicester are considerable seats of this manufacture
are employed in this parish in the oyster-trade. in England; and from certain districts in France,
The parliamentary borough, which includes the there are increasing importations, chiefly of a cheap Rape (see SUSSEX) of Bramber, contains 32.622 kind of ladies' shoes.
inhabitants. The plan of making boots and shoes by isolated workmen at their own homes, has been found quite SHORTHAND, a very useful art, by means of incompatible with the modern necessities of trade. which writing is made almost as expeditious an As in the case of the handloom weaver, the shoe speaking. In ordinary longhand, many separata maker of the old school has had to succumb to motions of the pen are required to form each single machinery. After an unsuccessful struggle to oppose letter : thus m requires seven motions, k requires the introduction of sewing-machines, these are now six, h five, t four, 1 three, &c. But as syllables coming generally into use, and men are employed include vowels as well as consonants, and often in large numbers together in what may be called two, or even three, and sometimes four consonants shoe-factories. This manufacture has long been a occur before or after a vowel, the number of motions staple trade of Massachusetts, in which state the requisite to write syllables in longhand is very quantity of boots and shoes fabricated annually is great. The monosyllabic words long and shori, numbered by millions of pairs. Recently, a machine for instance, require respectively fourteen and has been introduced into the American shoe-trade seventeen motions of the pen; while such syllables for fixing the soles to the uppers by means of pegs, as stream, splints, strength, &c., require from twentythe inventor being a person in Salem, Massachusetts. one to twenty-six motions. Abbreviated writing is A pair of boots or shoes can be pegged in two | thus a necessity in all cases where language has to minutes. These pegged goods are disposed of whole- be written from ordinary delivery. Some stenosale in boxes, and may be seen in retail stores graphers make use of the common alphabet, and all over the United States. As evidence of the merely contract words by the omission of letters.
They would, for instance, write the last sentence and the acquisition will be found valuable, in thus :
enabling a writer to save four out of every five
motions of the pen, in private memoranda, corresSo. ste g. ma. u. of th. com. alph. & me. contr. wo.
pondence, &c. by th. om. of let.
A great impetus was given to the study of shortThis is not properly shorthand; the latter term is hand, about 25 years ago, by the publication of Mr limited to writing which is both abbreviated in spell- | Isaac Pitman's Phonography. The introduction of ing, and simplified in the forms of the alphabetic the penny postage, at the same period, vastly aided characters. Much attention has been paid to this the diffusion of the system, and societies for phonoart in Britain during the last 300 years, upwards graphic correspondence were established in all parts of 200 systems having been published within that of the kingdom. The Psalms, the New Testament, period. The older systems were chiefly founded on and many other works, were published in the phonoorthography, the ordinary spelling of words being graphic alphabet, and magazines written in shortrepresented simply by a set of more convenient hand found a widely-diffused circle of supporters. symbols for letters. The highest brevity attainable This system of writing is elegant and expeditious to in this way was, however, altogether insufficient for a practised hand, and a very great improvement on reporting; and consequently, arbitrary signs for all preceding systems. The alphabet consists of the words and phrases, and distinctions in the value of following characters: characters, dependent on their relative position on, above, or below the line of writing, were largely used. The more modern systems have all been to a greater or less extent phonetic, or representative of sounds instead of letters, the number of sounds
td 11 into which syllables may be resolved, being considerably smaller than that of orthographic
ch j // elements.
Of the two classes of elements, vowels and consonants, the latter are the more important for the recognition of words; and these are generally written without lifting the pen, vowels being supplied by dots and other interpolated symbols. In
Duplicate forms some systems, no attempt is made to discriminate one vowel from another, but only the places where
8 Z OO vowels occur are indicated by å general sign; in others, the five vowel letters have distinctive sym sh zh i bols ; and in others an accurate representation of the varieties of vowel sound is aimed at. The The distinction between breath and voice (or mute degree in which words are recognisable without and sonant) consonants, as above shewn, is happily vowels, may be judged of by the following speci- expressed by a thickening of the symbolic line for men :
the latter elements. The characters in the second
column are, however, anomalous, the first four, Chmbrzz nsclpd a dcshnr v nvrsl nlj fr th ppl n th which are written thin,' representing yoice con. bss v th Itst dshn v th jrmn cnvrsshnz Icscn.
sonants, and the fourth and fifth, written with the An indication of where vowel sounds occur
difference only of 'thick' and thin,' representing without shewing what vowels-will be found
distinct formations, which differ from each other to give increased and sufficient legibility to a
| as d does from g, and both of which are voice
consonants. reader who is acquainted with the language. Thus:
3. | In this system vowels are denoted by the inter.
polated signs Ch-mb-rz-Z -ns-cl-p-d--a d-csh-n-r. -V -n-V-rs-1 n-l-j f-r th- p-pl -n th- b-8-8 -V th- l-t-st -d-sh-n -v th
C ) v ^ L 7 j-rm-n c-nv-rs-sh-nz l-cs-c-n.
Chambers's Encyclopædia, a Dictionary of Universal | placed at the top, the middle, or the bottom of the Knowledge for the People, on the basis of the latest consonant lines. The Vowel marks are written edition of the German Conversations Lexicon.. thick for long,' and thin for short' sounds. The
long and short vowels are not, however, phonetic Shorthand alphabets consist of simple straight pairs, differing only in quantity; and thus the and curved lines, to which hooks, loops, or rings are vowel scheme is less accurate than that of the added. These elements of writing are common to all consonants. It is, besides, very complex to a systems, but the powers associated with the symbols beginner, from the employment of a special set are, of course, different in different systems. Much of characters for vowels preceded by w and y, the ingenuity has been shewn by various authors in latter elements not being included in the alphabet developing the application of the simple radial and of consonants. segmental lines of a circle, and the positions of a In ‘Phonography,' as in almost all other systems dot, for the representation of language; but, in many of shorthand, vowels are added by separate liftings cases, while a wonderful amount of apparent brevity of the pen, while their insertion is indispensable to has been attained--as by writing on a staff of lines, legibility, unless special modes of writing consonant each of which gives a different value to the same combinations are adopted. The latter expedient is sign-the systems are all but impracticable, from employed by Mr Pitman for such compounds as pr, pl, the multitude of details with which the memory of spr, str, nl, mp, &c., the characters for which make, the learner has to be burdened. The prevailing practically, large additions to the alphabet. The fault of such systems of shorthand is, that they are use of a general vowel sign would evidently be of long in being short. Reporters must abbreviate little advantage in this system, as it would, equally even the simplest possible form of alphabetic writ- with the exact vowel marks, require the pen to be ing, but the mastery of a shorthand alphabet for | lifted for its insertion. other than reporting purposes, is a very easy matter; In a more recent system of phonetic shorthand, a
new principle of writing is adopted, by which the Bell's alphabet, as published in the Reporter positions of all sounded vowels are indicated in the Manual : writing of the consonants, thereby securing easy legibility, with brevity and simplicity, in the writ.
k g ing of a known language. This system, the invention of Mr Melville Bell, is based on the following
sh zh-y principles :
I. A full-sized character represents a consonant with a vowel sound before it.
II. A half-sized character represents a consonant with a vowel sound after it.
III. A tick-sized, or very small character, repre ch j JJ nents a consonant alone, and neither preceded nor | followed by a vowel.
In this way, all words are distinguished to the eye as monosyllables, dissyllables, trisyllables, &c., with
th dh )) out any necessity for interpolated vowel points. The relative size of the letters pt, for example, In this arrangement, all breath consonants aro forming the consonant outline of the words pet, apt, written by thin lines, and all voice consonants by pity, poet, &c., shews the first pair of these words to thick lines ; and no additional characters are used be monosyllables, and the others to be dissyllables. for compound consonants. The essential principle Thus :
of the system, by which the positions of vowels, or
the absence of vowels, are indicated in the writing of pet, . . tick p, full t.
one syllable. the consonants, manifestly dispenses with the neces. apt, . full p, tick t.
sity for separate symbols for combinations. pity, half p, half t.
The three different sizes of the alphabetic charac
Stwo syllables. attack, . full 7, full k.
ters, which express the effect of vowels in this active, full k, tick t, full v.
system, are employed with some specific value in capital, half k, half p, tick t, full l. Lahoma
all systems. In Mr Pitman's Phonography, for
to three syllables. appetite, full p, full t, full t.
instance,“ half-sized' consonants are used to denote
the addition of t or d to the consonant which is The importance of this mode of writing will written; while the vowel symbols are in size prebe at once obvious in such words as contain cisely the same as the characters which, in Mr the same consonants with various syllabica. Bell's phonetic shorthand, represent tick-sized' tion, as sport, sprite, spirit, support, separate, consonants. aspirate, &c.
The vowel scheme of the latter system furnishes To a learner this system offers a very brief and a separate sign for every difference of vowel quality, easily read stenography of his own language, so and the distinction of thick and thin symbols is soon as he has learned the alphabet only. The limited to actual phonetic pairs of long and short system is of course susceptible of the ordinary sounds, such as are heard in the words full and fool, methods of abbreviation for the fleet exigencies of yon and yawn. But, except in monosyllables written the reporter, such as the use of letters for words, in the first or simply alphabetic style, the distinc. special positions for logograms,' &c. Exact vowel tive vowel signs rarely require to be inserted. marks also are provided for insertion wherever they! As an illustration of the aspect of the writing in are considered necessary, as in the writing of foreign these two phonetic systems, the following sentences words, proper names, &c. The following is Mr are written in the full alphabetic styles :
! De tio ou live that you may be fit to die.
3. Where words are scarce they are seldom spent in vain.
( Pirnar, a) of a lishe
4. Forgive and forget; do as you would be done by.
PPrruar. yclo) nalilur
The fundamental difference between these systems cal enumeration of authors, was published a few years will be understood from the examples; in the first ago. system, all syllabic sounds are definitely shewn hy i SHORT-SIGHT. See SIGHT, EFFECTS O.. means of vowel points, but without these latter, a SHOT is the term applied to all solid balls fired reader could not distinguish the number of syllables from any sort of firearins: those for cannon and contained in a word; in the second system, the con- i carronades being of iron. those for small-arms, of sonant outline, without inserted vowels, informs the eye lead. The latter are known as bullets and small, of the number of syllables in every word-all full as well į shot. The shot used for guns at vresent vary from as all half-sized consonants being necessarily syllabic.
the 3-pounder, for boat and mountain artillery, to : Some systems of shorthand consist mainly of ideo
the 101-inch shot, which weighs about 150 lbs. as a graphic signs, alphabetic writiny being used only as
sphere, or 300 lbs. as an elongated bolt. Generally, supplementary to the arrangement of arbitrary sym
shot are cast. There are simple practical rules for bols and ruled lines. Thus the positions upon, above, calculating the weight from the diameter of a shot. ir below a single line, are associated with such mean
and vice versâ, which are often useful in reading of ings as present, past, and future for verbs; affirma
artillery actions. Given the diameter in inches, to tive, interrogative, and negative for propositions; per
find the weight in pounds : Cube the diameter, and sonal, relative, and demonstrative for pronouns, &c.;
multiply the result by 14; reject the two rightwhile the symbols for the various classes of words are hand figures : those remaining give the weight in merely uniform points, commas, hyphens, and other
pounds.Given the weight in pounds, to find the non-alphabetic marks. Sometimes the principle of diameter in inches : Multiply the cube-root of the different positional values of symbols is carried to so weight by 1.923. and the result is the diameter of great an extent, that the projectors of such systems the shot in inches. are able to boast, paradoxically, that one-half of any Small-shot is of various sizes. from swan-shot. speech is virtually written before the speaker opens nearly as large as peas, to dust-shot. It is made by his lips! Reporters have discovered several objections dropping molten lead through a colander in rapid to Pitman's method, most of which, it is said, are ob- motion from a considerable height into water. The viated by the Tachygraphy of D. P. Lindsley, of Men- lead falls in small globular drops. The holes in don, Massachusetts, which experts declare is more easily the colanders vary in size according to the denomi. read. Lindsley's Tachygraphy is described as purely nation of the shot. No.O requiring hõles 4th inch in phonetic, and uses the simplest geometrical lines so diameter, No. 9, ixth inch. The colanders are iron arranged as to insure a linear direction, and not a hemispheres. 10 inches in diameter, and are coated perpendicular style of writing, while a word can be within with the cream or scum which is taken off written without raising a pen. Mr Lindsley has, as the molten metal. A small portion of arsenic is said Horace Mann, 'phonographied Phonography,' so
melted with the lead, and the fusion in the colanders that it really appears to be an attainable art. The
is maintained by those vessels being surrounded by following specimen of 'dot' positions is extracted
burning charcoal. The discovery of the advantage from Moat's Shorthund Standard :
attending a long fall was made in England towards the end of last century. Previously the shot had dropped from the colanders at once into the water. The lead was then so soft that the shot were flattened by the water. The fall through the air enables the lead to cool and harden before taking its plunge. The smaller sizes require less fall than the larger
100 feet suffices for sizes Nos. 4 to the larger Moat's system may be taken as the represen
sorts demand 150 feet. The highest shot tower tative of this class. It is certainly the most elaborate
te is at Villach in Carinthia, where there is a fall of and methodical-in fact, a marvel of ingenuity and
249 feet. After cooling, shot is sifted in successive perseverance-but, like other ideographic systems,
sieves to separate the sizes. Misshapen shots are found it is so burdensome to the memory of a learner, as
by their inability to roll; and finally, the whole are well as difficult in application, that it could never
polished by rotatory motion in small octagonal boxes, be of much use to any other person than the con
in which a little plumbago has been thrown. See triver.
also CASE-SHOT, CANISTER, GRAPE-SHOT. In all systems, more or less use is made of what may be called analogical symbols, such as a circle,
SHOTTS, a small and ancient village of Lanarkfor the earth, the world, &c., with a point above,
shire, close to the Kirk of Shotts, about 16 miles east below. before. after or within the circle. for such of Glasgow. About 3 miles to the south-east of the phrases as above the earth, under the earth, in the
Kirk, modern S., or S. Proper, began to rise at the world, &c. But alphabetic writing by sound can
close of the last century, when the Shotts Iron Comderive little assistance from such arbitrary signs,
pany erected their extensive iron works there. S. however suggestive. Abbreviated phonetic writing
may be said to consist of three villages-riz., Stane, undoubtedly furnishes the simplest and most exact
Shotts Iron Works, and Dykehead; and the district method of stenography; and the two systems above
within a radius of a mile from the works which disexemplified, sufficiently illustrate the nature of the
trict includes these three villages-contains about art of shorthand, as most widely practised on the
5000 inhabitants. Valuable coal and iron-stone, pecuphonetic basis at the present day.
liarly suited for the manufacture of iron, abound in The older methods of Byrom, Taylor, Gurney,
the district, and 1000 hands are employed in ironLewis, Odell, and other authors, still find many
making and moulding. adherents. In fact, any system to which a writer | SHOULDER-JOINT, THE, is a ball-and-socket is accustomed is better than longhand; and, practi- joint. The bones entering into its composition are cally, reporters and others modify for themselves, to the humerus or arm-bone, and the scapula or shoula great extent, the systems they employ. Fancutt's der-blade, the large globular head of the former being Stenography on the Basis of Grammar (1840) may received into the shallow glenoid cavity of the be referred to as a very ingenious work. Jones's latter, an arrangement by which extreme freedom Phonography (1865), a modification of Pitman's, is of motion is obtained, while the apparent insecurity one of the more recent publications on the subject. of the joint is guarded against by the strong ligaA History of Shorthand, containing a chronologi- ments and tendons which surround it, and above by