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SLEEP.

slender race. The prevailing form of religion is the even when the attention is, in the first instance, Roman Catholic, but the non-united Greek Church voluntarily directed to them, as in some of the also numbers many adherents. Education is still plans which have been recommended for the inin a backward state. Capital of the country, Eszék duction of sleep, when there exists no spontaneous (q. v.).

disposition to it. In other methods, the attention SLEEP. This term is employed to designate is fixed upon some internal train of thought, which, that state of suspension of the sensory and motor when once set going, may be carried on automati. functions which appears to alternate in all animals cally, such as counting numbers, or repeating a with the active condition of those functions, and Greek verb. In either case, when the sensorial which may be made to give place to it by the consciousness has been once steadily fixed, the agency of appropriate impressions upon the sensory monotony of the impression (whether received from nerves. This definition, which we have borrowed the organ of sense or from the cerebrun) tends to from Dr Carpenter's article on Sleep' in Todd's retain it there ; so that the will abandons, as it Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology, may seem were, all control over the operations of the mind, somewhat complex, but cannot be simplified without and allows it to yield itself up to the soporifio rendering it less stringent. The necessity for sleep influence. This last method is peculiarly effectual arises from the fact that the exercise of the animal when the restlessness is dependent upon some functions is in itself destructive of the tissues of the mental agitation, provided that the will has power organs which minister to them, so that if the waste to withdraw the thoughts from the exciting subject, produced by their action were not duly repaired, and to reduce them to the tranquillising state of a they would speedily become unfit for further use : | mere mechanical repetition.' and it is on the nutritive regeneration of the tissues. The access of sleep is sometimes quite sudden, the which takes place during true healthy sleep that individual passing at once from a state of complete its refreshing power depends. While the sensory mental activity to one of entire torpor. More and motor functions are suspended during the con generally, however, it is gradual, the mind while dition we designate as sleep, the organic functions remaining poised, as it were, between sleep and the are uninterruptedly carried on, the respiratory, opposite condition being 'pervaded by a strange cardiac, and peristaltic movements proceeding with confusion which almost amounts to wild delirium ;

jual uniformity during the sleeping and waking the ideas dissolve their connection with it one by states.

oone; and its own essence becomes so vague and There can be no doubt that the state of sleep is diluted that it melts away in the nothingness of one to which there is a periodical tendency, and slumber.'--Macnish, Philosophy of Sleep, p. 21. The that this disposition is so arranged as to correspond amount of sleep required by man is affected by so in its recurrence with the diurnal revolution of the many conditions (amongst which must be especially earth. Although in man and most animals night is, I mentioned age, temperament, habits, and previous from its darkness and silence, the natural period for exhaustion), that no general rule can be laid down repose, yet there are numerous exceptions to the on the subject. The condition of the foetus may be rule. For example, amongst lepidopterous insects, regarded as one of continuous slumber : on its first butterflies are active during the day, hawk-moths | entrance into the world, the infant passes most of during the twilight, and moths during the night. its time in sleep, and this is particularly the case in Amongst birds, the goatsucker, or night-jar, and children prematurely born, such children seeming only the owls, are nocturnal, and, as a general rule,

to awake for the purpose of receiving food. During the same is the case with carnivorous animals. The the whole period of growth, in which it is necessary causes of sleep may be divided into the direct and that the constructive operations of the body should prethe predisposing. The direct cause of sleep is that ponderate over the destructive processes, an excess feeling of exhaustion or fatigue which is usually of sleep is required ; and by the time that adult age experienced when the waking activity has continued has been attained, and the constructive and destrucduring a considerable portion of the twenty-four

tive processes balance each other, the necessary hours- a feeling that the brain requires repose ; amount of sleep bas, gradually

amount of sleep has gradually fallen to about one. and, in fact, unless the brain be in an abnormal | third or less of the diurnal cycle. In very old age, condition, sleep will at last supervene, from the again, in consequence of the deficient energy of the absolute inability of that organ to sustain any nutritive process, a larger amount of sleep is further demands upon its energy. Among the required. With regard to the influence of temperapredisposing causes" which favour the access of ture, it is observed that a plethoric habit of body sleep, we must especially notice the absence of

usually predisposes to sleep, while thin wiry people sensorial impressions ; thus, darkness and silence of a nervous temperament require comparatively usually promote repose ; and the cessation of the little sleep. Persons of lymphatic temperament are sense of muscular effort which usually takes place usually great sleepers, but this is probably due, as when we assume a position that is sustained without Dr Carpenter suggests, to the fact, that 'through it, is no less conducive to slumber.' - Carpenter's the dulness of their perceptions they are less easily Human Physiology, 6th ed. 1864, p. 592. On the kept awake by sensorial or mental excitement' other hand, persons accustomed to live where there than persons of a happier temperament. The influ. is a continuous noise, as in the neighbourhood ofence of habit is by no means inconsiderable on the mills or forges, often cannot sleep if the noise is amount of sleep required by individuals, and this suspended. These cases, liowever, probably fall influence may be brought to act on the protraction within the next general predisposing cause_namely, as well as the abbreviation of the usual period : as the monotonous repetition of sensorial impressions. extreme examples, we may mention that General Thus, the droning voice of an unimpressive reader or

Eliott, celebrated for his defence of Gibraltar, did preacher, the gentle ripple of the ocean, the hum of not sleep more than four hours out of the twentybees, the rustling of foliage, and similar monotonous

four (which is probably the smallest allowance for impressions on the auditory nerves, are usually pro- rest compatible with a life of vigorous exertion); vocative of sleep. In these and similar cases, the while Dr Reid, the metaphysician, could take as influence of the impressions is exerted in withdraw. much food, and afterwards as much sleep, as were ing the mind from the consciousness of its own sufficient for two days. Moreover, the influence of operations, and in suspending the directing power habit in producing an aptitude for repose, or a readiof the will; and this is the case, says Dr Carpenter, ness to wake at particiuar periods, is well known.

SLEEP OF PLANTS-SLESVIG.

The sleep of soldiers during a siege, of sailors or gaged, or whose occupations subject them to great others who must take their rest as they best can, mental exertion or to the vicissitudes of fortune. will often come on at command ; nothing more being It is, moreover, a symptom of many chronic diseases, pecessary to induce it than to assume a recuinbent, as gout, chronic rheumatism, skin-diseases, disorders or, at all events, an easy position, and to close the of the urinary organs, dyepepsia, hysterica, &c. It. eyes. Thus, Captain Barclay, in his celebrated may also be excited by certain beverages and articles match, in which he walked 1000 miles in 1000 of diet; thus green tea and strong coffee often successive hours, very soon got into the habit of occasion wakefulness, and a full meal of animal falling asleep the moment he lay down.

food late in the day often disturbs the sleep of The condition of the great nervous centres during persons accustomed to dine at an earlier hour. sleep is a subject of much interest, on which con- In the treatment of sleeplessness, or insomnia, as siderable light has recently been thrown by the it is usually termed by medical writers, the first observations of Mr Durham.* These observations indication is to remove the cause which occasions were made on a dog from which a portion of bone it, and more particularly to correct a close or con. about as large as a shilling was removed from the | taminated air; to reduce the temperature of the parietal region of the skull, and the subjacent dura apartment when it is high, and the quantity and mater cut away so as to expose the brain ; and Mr warmth of the bedclothes; to remove all the Durham draws the following conclusions from them: excitants to the senses; to abstract the mind from 1. Pressure of distended veins upon the brain is not, all exciting, harassing, or engaging thoughts; and as is generally believed, the cause of sleep, for to remove or counteract the morbid conditions of during sleep the veins are not distended. 2. During which this is a symptom or prominent consequence.' sleep, the brain is in a comparatively bloodless con--Copland's Dictionary of Medicine, art. Sleep and dition; and the blood in the encephalic vessels is Sleeplessness. A careful regulation of the secretions, not only diminished in quantity, but moves with by the due use of purgatives and alteratives, will diminished rapidity; and this is corroborated by often remove this symptom; and recourse should the observations of Dr J. Hughlings Jackson on the not be had to anodynes and narcotics until morbid ophthalmoscopic condition of the retina during secretions and fæcal accumulations have been com. sleep, the optic disc being then whiter, the arteries pletely got rid of. But these medicines are of great smaller, and the retina generally more anæmic than service when the system is thus prepared for their in the waking state. 3. The condition of the cere- reception. The choice of the individual drug or bral circulation during sleep is, from physical causes, combination of drugs must be dependent upon the that which is most favourable to the nutrition of peculiarities of the case, but, as a general rule, there the brain-tissue.

is no more serviceable narcotic mixture for an adult This article would be imperfect without a brief than 25 or 30 minims of the solution of hydroreference to the conditions in which there is either chlorate of morphia (of the British Pharmacopæia), an excess or a deficiency of sleep. There are numer- and 10 minims of chloric ether, taken in half a ous instances on record in which sleep has been wine-glassful of water : medicines of this class should, continuously prolonged for weeks, or even months. however, never be resorted to without the advice Dr Carpenter refers to two such cases, namely, of a physician. those of Samuel Chilton (Phil. Trans. 1694) and SLEEP OF PLANTS, one of the phenomena of Mary Lyall (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 1818). Blan- | Irritability (a, v.) in plants. Light acts on .plants chet, a French physician, has recently recorded three

as a powerful stimulus, essential to their active and cases of what he terms constitutional lethargic | healthful vegetation. When it is withdrawn, the slumber' in the Comptes Rendus, 1864. In one of flowers of many plants close, and the greater number these cases, the patient, a lady aged 24 years, who shew a tendency to it, whilst leaves more or less had slept for 40 days when she was 18 years of age, I decidedly incline to fold themselves up. The leaf. and 50 days when she was 20, at length had a sleep stalk also generally hangs down more or less, of nearly a year, viz., from Easter Sunday 1862 to although in some plants it is more erect during sleep. March 1863. During this period, a false front tooth The sleep of plants, however, is not always noc. was removed in order to feed her with milk and

turnal. The Howers of some open and close at soup, her only food. She was motionless and insen- particular hours of the day. Thus, the crocus is a sible. The pulse was low, the breathing scarcely morning flower, and closes soon after mid-day ; perceptible, there were no evacuations, and she

whilst some flowers expand only in the evening or shewed no signs of leanness, her complexion remain during the night. Their hours of vegetative rest ing florid and healthy. In such cases as these, it is

are probably as essential to the health of plants as not a prolongation of healthy natural sleep that is those of sleep are to animals. It was Linnæus who present, but a condition of hysteric coma.

first observed the sleep of plants in watching the Again, there are certain states of the nervous

progress of some plants of lotus, the seeds of which system in which there is either an entire absence of

he had sown. sleep (and this may continue for many days, or even weeks) or incomplete sleeplessness. Complete sleep

SLEEPERS, timbers laid asleep or resting along lessness is often a most important symptom of

their whole length. They are chiefly used along disease. It frequently accompanies certain forms

the top of dwarf-walls for the support of the timbers of continued fever, inflammatory affections of the

of the ground Hoor of houses.--The timbers supbrain, the eruptive fevers, &c., and when it continues

porting railway rails, and laid at right angles to for many days and nights, delirium, followed by

them across the railway, are also called sleepers. stupor, is very apt to supervene. When the wake. SLESVIG, a duchy known till the 14th c. as fulness is unattended by any disorder sufficient to South Jutland, formed part of the Danish dominions account for it, some serious disease of the brain is till 1864, when it fell into the hands of the Austrians most probably impending, such as palsy, apoplexy, and Prussians, and in 1866 was, with the duchy of or insanity. Incomplete or partial sleeplessness is a Holstein, annexed to the kingdom of Prussia. The symptom of far less grave import. It is of frequent pop. in 1867 was 406,013. Within its old recognised occurrence in persons whose minds are much en- limits, it was bounded on the N. by Jutland; on

the E. by the Little Belt and the Baltic; on the W. * The Physiology of Sleep, in Guy's Hosp. Reports, by the German Ocean; and on the S. by Holstein, Third Series, vol. 6, pp. 149-171.

| from which it was divided by the Eyder and the 413

789

SLESVIG.

Kiel Canal. The area was 3492 sq. miles. The the crown to the younger sons of the regal house. In country consists in its eastern and central parts of 1232, King Valdemar Seir, whose father, Prince Knud a gently undulating plain, deeply indented with Laward, had ruled ably over the duchy, gave S. fiords and streams; and on its western boundary of which was then, and for some time later, known as flat marshy tracts of ground, which require to be South Jutland-to his younger son Abel. The exact protected from the encroachments of the sea by terms of the donation became a subject of dispute numerous damos.

during the successive reigns of Valdemar's sons, The numerous islands which skirt the west coast Eric, Abel, and Christopher, and began the long of S. have probably, at some not very remote period, course of civil wars and family feuds which are formed part of the mainland, for navigation is so associated with this much-contested territory. Abel, seriously impeded by the sandbanks, that this and his sons after him, backed by their kinsmen, coast is now accessible for ships by only three pas the Counts of Holstein, maintained that Valdemar sages. The cluster of small islands known as the had given the duchy as an hereditary, inalienable, Halligers, which lie, unprotected by dams, in the and indivisible fief; while, on the part of the Danish midst of these submerged sand-tracts, are so con- crown, it was contested that South Jutland was stantly exposed to the action of waves and storms, merely a precarious fief, which might be recalled at that the inhabitants are compelled to raise their the pleasure of the sovereign. Its vicinity to Hol. houses on piles. On the eastern coast of S. lie the stein tended to keep up the feuds, to which the islands of Alsen, Aroe, and Femern, where the vexed question of its mode of tenure had given principal bays and inlets are the Haderslev and occasion, and which, in fact, only ceased when the Aabenrade Fiords, opening into the Little Belt; resources of the conflicting parties were exhausted, the Flensborg Fiord, the Slie, the Eckernforde although the bitterness and ill-will with which they Fiord, and the Kieler Fiord, which formed the were fed seemed to know no intermission. The ancient boundary between S. and Holstein on the following brief summary gives the skeleton of the S.-E., while the Eyder completed it on the S.-W. leading events of the history of S. from the dawn of The principal branches of industry are agriculture, its troubles till the final outbreak in 1848, when, by the reaning of cattle, fishing, and ship-building. The the influence of the neighbouring Holstein nobles, Slie is the chief seat of the herring and salmon the Germanised great landed proprietors of s. fisheries, which, although still of some importance, entered upon the course of armed opposition to are very inferior to those of the middle ages, the mother-country, which culminated, in 1864, when, according to the Danish historian, Saxo in the forcible separation from the Danish crown Grammaticus, herrings were so plentiful in the of the duchy of S., and its incorporation in Belts and Cattegat, that they could be caught with the Prussian monarchy. In 1386, Queen Margaret the bare hands. The chief towns of S. are Flensborg (q. v.) gave S. in fief to Gerhard, Duke of Hol(9. v.), Slesvig, Haderslev (pop. 8000), Husum, and stein; and on the extinction of his male heirs in Tonder, neither of which has more than 5000 inha- | 1459, it virtually lapsed to the crown, with which bitants. On the south frontier, and partly in Hol. it was united in 1460 under the rule of Chrisstein, Rendsborg (pop. 11,000). S. has 800 country tian I. (the founder of the Oldenburg line), by a schools, diffused over every part of the duchy. With mode disastrous to the integrity of the Danish regard to the language spoken by the mixed popu- monarchy. See DENMARK. After frequent division lation of the duchy, it may be asserted that rather among the younger members of the royal House, which more than the half speak Danish ; and of the gave rise to a great number of collateral lines of the remainder, about 30,000 persons who belong to the Oldenburg family (of which the Glucksburg-Sonislands on the western coast, which once formed derborg and the Augustenburg are, with the exceppart of the old province of North Friesland, still tion of the imperial House of Russia and the ducal inse the Frisic language, the rest of the inhabitants House of Oldenburg, the chief representatives), the using either Low or High German. The original ducal portions of S. were inalienably incorporated Danish element of S. has remained purest in the with the crown of Denmark under King Frederick northern half of the duchy; while in the southern IV. in 1721. This act, which had the guarantee of parts, where the inhabitants are naturally brought the great powers, had resulted directly from the much in contact.with Holstein, they have of late treasonable attitude maintained in the previous years adopted the views, tastes, and language of wars with Sweden by the Holstein-Gottorp princes their German neighbours. The Lutheran is the of S., and was ratified by Russia and Sweden, no established religion of Slesvig.

less than by England and France. The different In accordance with the conditions stipulated in orders of the duchy took the oaths of allegiance for the treaty of Vienna, August 1864, by which the themselves and their heirs, the S. arms were quarduchies of Holstein and S. were ceded to Austria tered with those of Denmark Proper, and the duchy and Prussia, the island of Aroe and other districts was included with the latter in one common mode of S., measuring about 115 sq. m., were to be re- of administration. In 1848, the revolutionary moveunited to Denmark; while the latter power was toment of continental Europe fanned the flame of dig. give in exchange a territory of about 130 sq. m., content in the duchies into a blaze, and the upper which, although situated within the boundary of classes of S., who had in the course of time become S., had hitherto been under the jurisdiction of strongly imbued with the German tendencies of the Jutland.

Holstein nobles, with whom they fraternised, joined S., which forms part of the ancient Cimbrian Pen- the latter in open armed rebellion under the chief insula, has from the earliest period been a debatable leadership of the princes of Augustenburg. The land between Danes and Germans; and according Germanised S. nobles, influenced by the principles to the authorities of the latter, it was anciently of hatred to Denmark, which had long been gatherincluded in the Marches of the empire, having been ing strength in the university of Kiel, refused to incorporated by Henry the Fowler in 930, and reor- admit the difference between their relations to the ganised by Otho I., when in 948 the latter erected crown and those of the Holsteiners, with whom bisbops' sees in Aarhuus, Ribe, and Slesvig. In 1027, they demanded to be indissolubly associated in the Danish king Knud (our Canute) obtained from separate legislative and executive chambers. The Conrad II. the recognition of the independence of king refused to separate S. from the monarchy ; S., which was declared to belong unconditionally to the irritation increased on both sides; the royal Denmark, and thenceforth given as a Danish fief of troops appeared in the duchies to restore order ; SLICKENSIDES-SLIDING RULE.

the S.-Holstein army, whose ranks were princi- negotiations, Denmark was constrained to accept pally filled by German volunteers, took the field, peace (August, 1864), on the hard terms of ceding to aided by the confederate forces sent by the Diet Austria and Prussia, Holstein, S., and Lauenburg, to co-operate with the Holsteiners. The troubles on the ground that the indivisibility of the two duchies by which the German states were threatened at must be firmly established for the German fatherland home led, after a few indecisive engagements had by these two great powers. For some time afterward, been fought, to the withdrawal of the confederate Duke Frederick of Augustenburg was in turn the armies, and Prussia having made a special treaty of favoured and the rejected candidate for the throne of peace (after a preliminary truce with Denmark), the the new state of S.-Holstein. The upper classes in duchies were left to themselves, and the royal small numbers in S. and in Holstein were almost unaniauthority re-established, on the understanding that mously in favour of his claims, while the burgher and the king should submit a new form of constitution lower classes of S. appeared equally unanimous in for Holstein and S. to the Diet, on account of the regretting their severance from Denmark; and the former being a member of the Confederation; S. decidedly expressed wishes of the Holstein party, being in the meanwhile put under a provisional backed by the lesser German states, to have the duke government of Danish, Prussian, and English com- as their sovereign, the protests and counter-protests of missioners. By the peace with Prussia, it was the Diet and of foreign powers, resulted in an ansolemnly guaranteed that all old treaties, including nouncement by Austria and Prussia, that, according to that of 1721, should be maintained in regard to the evidence of the commission appointed to examine Denmark; and in 1851, Austria threw an army into the merits of the various claims of Denmark, Augusthe duchies to aid Denmark in supporting her tenburg, and Oldenburg to the duchies, Christian IX. authority, and in dissolving the joint S. and Holstein was by right of succession the undoubted possessor, assembly. On the death of Frederick VII. in 1863, and that from him the duchies had passed by right of Prince Christian of Glucksburg (see DENMARK), victory to Austria and Prussia. This extraordinary having ascended the throne as Christian IX., king solution of the S.-Holstein question was ratified at of Denmark, Prince Frederick of Augustenburg Gastein (August, 1865), in a treaty between Austria called upon the S.-Holstein authorities to refuse and Prussia, in which, without regard to the German the oath of allegiance to the new king, and to or Danish proclivities of Holstein or of S., the former acknowledge himself as the rightful duke of S.- duchy was transferred to Austria, and the latter to Holstein, basing his claims on his descent from the Prussia, the garrisons and forts to be manned at legitimate and elder male line of the House of the pleasure of the contracting parties. Austria Oldenburg. This appeal was responded to by 25 soon after made over to Prussia the rights acmembers of the Holstein Diet, who, on behalf of Iquired by the war over the duchy of Lauenburg for their own duchy and of S., petitioned the German the sum of two and a half million Danish dollars. Diet to recognise the validity of the claims of the The war between Prussia and Austria, which broke Augustenburg line, and to pronounce the London out in 1866, had the effect of bringing the whole of protocol of the act of succession devoid of force. the territory of Slesvig and Holstein under the sway The Prince, by this step, set at nought the family of Prussia, of which kingdom it now forms a province. compact by which his father, uncle, and himself, for

I SLIÄCKENSIDES are the smooth and polished, themselves and their heirs, had, at the close of the land

and generally glazed surfaces of flaws in rocks. war of 1848, accepted a sum of money as full indem- Ther

They are considered to have been produced by the nity for all claims on the Danish territories, and been friction of the two surfaces during some move

nent allowed on that condition to evade all further conse- 16748

of the rock. But the two surfaces of the flaw are quences of the open rebellion in which they had stood against the throne. In the meanwhile, the funda

almost always so uneven that it is impossible to mental law of November 1863 for the kingdom of

conceive that they could have rubbed against each Denmark and the duchy of S., which had passed

other ; besides, the flaws are generally very small,

and the true slickenside is always confined to a the Rigsrad, and received the late king's signature

single stratum, never passing into the bed above or shortly before his death, was published, together

below. We believe they are the castings of liquids with a manifesto of Christian IX., stating his inten

or gases confined in the bed, and subjected to great tion in regard to Holstein and Lauenburg. The

pressure, and are similar in origin to the glazed Diet, without committing itself to uphold the Augus

cavities produced by gases in slags, or, to use a very tenburg claims, put a confederate execution into

familiar illustration, by the compressed steam in Holstein; the Danish troops were withdrawn into S.;

Odo; breakfast rolls. and on the 6th January 1864, the Holstein towns did homage to the duke; while a Federal commission SLIDING RULE, an instrument invented by suppressed the provisional Holstein government, the Rev. William Oughtred, an English divine which had exercised its powers since 1862, and and mathematician, for the purpose of solving arithestablished a ducal government at Kiel. The metical problems mechanically, consists of three Austrians and Prussians, professing to act for the pieces of wood, of which two are fastened together Diet, summoned the Danish king to withdraw the by slips of brass at a sufficient distance from each constitution of November within 48 hours; in reply other to permit of a third sliding between them. to which the Danish government demanded" à The size of instrument which best combines conve. term of six weeks to convoke the Rigsrad, with- nience with accuracy is one about 2 feet long, 2 inches out whose sanction no constitutional change could broad, and I inch thick. One side of the rule has be adopted. The demand was rejected, and the the following scales marked on it in order: a line Austro-Prussian army entered Holstein, and hostili- of tenths of inches, of equal parts divided into tenths ties commenced. For ten weeks the Danes made and hundredths of feet; three lines of numbers, a gallant stand against their enemy, whose enor- each line consisting of the numbers from 1 to 10 mous superiority in strength of numbers, and in twice repeated; a line of sine rhumbs (logarithmic the efficiency of their artillery and small-arms, sines of each quarter-point of the compass); a lino made their final victory the inevitable rather than of meridional parts; and a line of equal parts. Of the glorious result of the campaign. The Danes | these, two of the lines of numbers are on the middle were compelled to suspend hostilities, and to submit piece or slider. On the other side are—two lines of to the terms dictated by their conquerors. A con- natural scales, including sines, secants, tangents, ference was held at Vienna, and after protracted equal parts, &c. ; two lines of logarithmic sines,

SLIDING SCALE-SLING.

two lines of logarithmic tangents, a third line of by a railway, which is a branch of the Midland logarithmic sines, and a line of versed sines. Of Great Western, and connects the county town of these, one line of logarithmic sinės and one of tan- Sligo (q. v.) with Dublin. The mineral products of gents are upon the slider. The scale in most the county, although not very rich, are various, and common use is that of numbers, and a description of consist of copper, lead, iron, and manganese. The the way in which it is used will give a key to the climate is variable, and although rain is frequent, whole working of the instrument. It is necessary, it is, on the whole, mild and healthy. The however, to notice as a preliminary, that the scale soil in the north is mossy and sandy, both being of numbers is not evenly divided, as in this case occasionally intermixed. and at times alternating only addition and subtraction could be performed, with a gravelly loam. The plain of S. is a deep but is divided in proportion, not to the num- rich loam; and in the southern portion of the bers, but to their logarithms, so that 3, whose county are found large tracts of corn-land and logarithni is very nearly the half of that of 10, pasturage. The occupations of the people aro stands almost halfway between 1 and 10; and mainly agricultural, and, until some years back, similarly of the other numbers. All questions they were chiefly engaged in tillage ; but the land of numerical proportion can thus be easily worked is now chiefly used for pasturage. The number of by means of the line of numbers on the slider, acres under crops of all kinds in the year 1862 was and the adjacent and corresponding one on the 103,301. The cattle in that year numbered 76,226; fixed part of the rule. To find a fourth propor- sheep, 44,717 ; and pigs, 18,062. The number of tional to three given numbers, we place the first holdings ten years before 1852 had been 13,992, term (on the slider) opposite to the second term (on which is now somewhat reduced. The extent of the fixed scale), and opposite the third term (on the coast-line has led a considerable number of the slider) is the fourth or number required (on the population to engage, at least partially and occascale). Multiplication is performed by making 1 the sionally, in tishing. The S. fishery district comfirst term of a proportion, and division by making it prises i 12 miles of coast, and keeps engaged upwards the second or third. The other scales marked on of 200 registered vessels, employing more than 1200 the rule are useful in the solution of trigonometrical, men and boys. The principal towns are Sligo geographical, and nautical problems, and the results (q. v.), Ardnaree, and Tobercurry. The number of obtained are much more accurate than one at first pupils attending the national schools throughout the sight would believe. Sliding rules of circular form county in 1864 was 8734, distributed over about 100 have been made by the French, but they are not schools. in any way preferable to the ordinary straight form. S. was anciently the seat of the O'Connors, and

| was the scene of many conflicts between the several SLIDING SCALE, a provision in some of the

branches of that family. The domestic feuds of the statutory restrictions formerly in force on the trade

O'Connors were among the causes which facilitated in corn, by which, in order to encourage importation

the first inroads of the Anglo-Normans. The dis. when prices were high, and discourage it when low,

trict contains many remains both of the Celtic and the import duty was diminished as the price rose,

of the Anglo-Norman period. Of the former, there and at famine-prices grain came in duty free. By

is one very interesting called the Giant's Cairn, near the act of 1828, wheat was allowed to be imported

Sligo; and there are many raths, cromlechs, and on payment of a duty of £1, 48. 8d. when the average

ancient caverns. The county of S. sends two mem. price over England was 628. a quarter. For every shilling less of price, a shilling was added to the

bers to the imperial parliament. duty; and for a rise of price the duty decreased. SLIGO, chief town of the county of the same In 1842, while the agitation regarding the corn- name, situated on the river Garrogue; distant from laws was going on, Sir Robert Peel introduced and Dublin, with which it is connected by a branch from carried a modification of the Sliding Scale, which, the Midland Great Western Railway, 131 miles however, did not succeed in mitigating the popular north-west. The pop. in 1862 was 10,420; of whom hostility to the corn-laws. By the Sliding-scale Act 8242 were Roman Catholics, and 1557 Protestants of 1842, the duty per quarter was fixed at £l when of the Established Church. S. had its origin in the the price of corn was under 51s., and diminished as erection of a Dominican abbey in the 13th c. by the price increased, till on the quarter of wheat Maurice Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare, around which attaining the price of 738. it fell to 1s. See Corn -and a castle also built by him--a town was LAWS.

gradually formed. In the reign of James I., it

received a charter. The modern town stands within SLI'GO, a maritimè county of the province of

a bend of the river, chiefly on the left bank. It is Connaught, Ireland, bounded on the N. by the

for the most part well built, and contains several Atlantic and the Bay of Donegal, S. by Roscommon

handsome public edifice:3. It possesses few importand Mayo, E. by Roscommon and Leitrim, and W. by Mayo. It is 41 miles from east to west, and 38

ant manufactures, but is a place of considerable from north to south; the total area comprising

coinmerce, which is directed with judgment and

energy by a body of town and harbour commis461,753 acres, of which 290,696 are arable, while

sioners. In 1863, 772 vessels, of 123,349 tons, 151,723 are uncultivated. The pop. in 1861 was 124,845, of whom 112,436 were Roman Catholics,

entered and cleared the port. The exports are

chiefly of corn, flour, meal, butter, provisions, and and 10,438 Protestants of the Established Church. The coast-line is very irregular, and indented

yarn. Steamers ply regularly between S. and Glas

gow. The borough returns one member to the with numerous bays, and, except in the Bay of

imperial parliament. Sligo, is rocky and dangerous for navigation. The surface rises gradually from the coast eastwards as | SLING, a weapon much in use before the introfar as an elevated range called Slieve Gamph and duction of firearms, consisted of a piece of leather, the Ox Mountains, the highest point of which rises with a round hole in the middle, and two cords of to 1800 feet. S. contains comparatively few and about a yard in length. A round pebble being unimportant lakes, but some of these, however, are hung in the leather by the cords, the latter were extremely picturesque, especially Lough Arrow and held firmly in the right hand, and swung rapidly Lough Gill. Only three of its streams are navigable round. When the stone had attained great speed, -the Moy, the Owenmore, and the Garrogue, and one string was disengaged, on which the stone flew they are all inconsiderable. The county is traversed off at a tangent, its initial velocity being the same

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