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as it had at the last moment of revolution. This 1707-1725), containing also an excellent account velocity gives far greater range and force than of the topography, meteorology, and population of could be imparted in mere throwing.
the island, which book was the means of introduSLIP, in a Dockyard, is a smooth, inclined | cing into the Pharmacopoeia a number of excellent plane, sloping down to the water, on which a ship | drugs, hitherto unknown. is built. It requires to have a very solid foundation. | SLOBDO'SK, or SLOBODSKOI', a town of Among modern inventions is a slip on which a sort Russia, in the government of Viatka, is situated on of truck runs on numerous rails. This truck is run the river Viatka, about 16 miles north-east of the under a ship as she floats; the water is diminished town of the same name. Pop. 5914. till she rests on it, and it is then hauled up the slip SLOE, or SLOE-THORN (Prunus spinosa), a by steam power until she is high and dry. Such a shrub of the same genus with the plum, and perslip takes the place of a dry dock. See also LAUNCH
haps really of the same species with it and the and SHIP-BUILDING.
bullace. It is generally a shrub of 4 10 feet high, SLIPPED, in Heraldry, a term of blazon applied sometimes becoming a small tree of 15-20 feet. It to a leaf, branch, or flower, which is represented is much branched, and the branches terminate in with a stalk, and torn from the parent stem. spines. The youngest shoots are covered with a SLOANE, SIR HANs, an eminent physician and I
fine down. The flowers are small, snow-white, and naturalist, of Scotch parentage, his father having
generally appear before the leaves. The fruit is ovate, been the chief of the Scottish colony which was
or almost globose, pale blue with blackish bloom, settled in Ulster by James I. of Great Britain, was /
and generally about the size of the largest peas. born at Killyleagh, in County Down, Ireland, 16th
The Š. is abundant in thickets and borders of woods, April 1660. He devoted himself during his boy.
and in arid places in Britain and almost all parts hood to natural history and medicine, and in spite of
of Europe. The shoots make beautiful walking. an attack of hæmoptysis, which lasted from his
sticks. Although spiny, the S. is not suitable for 16th till his 19th year, he arrived in London in
hedges, as its roots spread, and it encroaches on the 1679, with an excellent knowledge of the first of
fields. The bark is bitter, astringent, and tonic. these sciences, and a fair acquaintance with the :
The flowers, with the calyx, are purgative, and are second. His apprenticeship to Stafforth, a pupil of
in some places much used as a domestic medicine. Stahl (q. v.), and the acquaintance, subsequently
The leaves are used for adulterating tea.. The ripened into close friendship, which he formed with
unripe fruit dyes black. The fruit is very austere. Böyle and Ray, two of the most celebrated
It is much used on the continent of Europe for naturalists of their time, did much to encourage
making a preserve, also in some places for making a and advance him in his favourite studies. During
kind of brandy. An astringent extract, called a brief sojourn in France, he attended the lectures
German Acacia, is prepared from it, which was once of Tournefort and Du Verney, obtained on his
much employed in cases of diarrhea and mucous return, by the active support of Sydenham (q. v.),
and bloody discharges. The juice is much used to a footing in London as a physician, and was elected impart roughness to port wine, and in the fabricaa member of the Royal Society in 1685, and of the tion of spurious port. Royal College of Physicians in 1687; but in SLO'NIM, a town of Russian Poland, in the September of the latter year, he accompanied government of Grodno, and 72 miles south-east of Monk, Duke of Albemarle, to Jamaica, and the town of that name. It has large manufactures investigated the botany of that and the adjoining of cloth. Pop. 10,021. islands with such zeal and diligence during the SLOOP is a one-masted cutter-rigged vessel. 15 months of his stay, that his herbarium num. | differing from a cutter, according to old authorities. bered 800 species. Resuming his professional in having a fixed bowsprit and somewhat smaller practice on his return, he became physician to sails in proportion to the hull. The terms “sloop' Christ's Hospital (1694-1724), President of the
and cutter' appear, however, to be used nearly e of Physicians (1719-1735), Secretary to indiscriminately. In the British navy, a sloop-ofthe Royal Society (1693), Foreign Associate of the war is a vessel, of whatever rig, between a corvette French Academy of Sciences (1708), and succeeded and a gun-boat, and ordinarily constituting the Sir Isaac Newton as President of the Royal Society command of a commander. In the days of the in 1727. He had been created a baronet and
sailing navy, sloops-of-war carried from 10 to 18 physician-general to the army in 1716; and in 1727
guns, but, with the introduction of steam, the received the further honour of being appointed |
number of guns has ceased to be distinctive. royal physician. Though of remarkably delicate constitution, he lived to the great age of 92, dying.
SLOPS, in the Navy, are somewhat more extenat Chelsea. Ilth January 1753. The chief point sive than ' necessaries' in the army. They comprise to be remarked in S.'s moral character was his the clothes and bedding of a sailor. Within certain benevolence, as shewn in the charitable uses limits, government, acting through the ship's pay. to which he applied the whole of his salary as master, supplies the men with slops at cost price. physician of Christ's Hospital, in his zealous pro
When a sailor dies, his slops are sold by auction for inution of the various schemes for affording medi- the benefit of his representatives. cine and attendance gratuitously to the poor, and SLOTH (Bradypus), a genus of mammalia, of the his support of the Foundling Hospital, of which he order Edentata, and family Tardigrada. The name was one of the founders. By long-continued per- was given from observation of the very slow and severance, he succeeded in forming a most exten awkward movements of the animals of this genus sive museum of natural history, a library of 50,000 on the ground; but a better acquaintance with their volumes, and 3560 MSS., which he directed to be habits, and observation of their movements among offered at his death to the nation for £20,000 (about the branches of trees, for which their conformation one-fourth of its real value), and which formed the peculiarly adapts them, have shewn it to be by no commencement of the British Museum (q. v.). He means appropriate or descriptive. In like manner, also contributed numerous memoirs to the Philo- Buffon's notion that they are creatures of imper80phical Transactions, whose publication he super- fect organisation, and doomed to a miserable existintended for a number of years. But his great ence, has been completely exploded. Their strucwork was the Natural History of Jamaica (fol. ture, like that of every other creature, is admirably
adapted to their mode of life. They feed on the is about two feet in length, of a uniform grayish. leaves, buds, and young shoots of trees, amongst the brown colour, often with a reddish tint. The bestbranches of which they are born and spend their known species of THREE-TOED S. is the AI (Bradypus whole life, rarely and unwillingly descending to the or Acheus tridactylus), which is smaller than the ground. They do not walk upon the branches, Unau, has a more obtuse muzzle, and is generally but cling beneath them, with the back downwards. brownish gray, slightly variegated with hairs of The fore-legs are much longer than the hinder ones, different tints, the head darker than the body. All and are used for embracing a branch, or for drawing the sloths belong to the tropical parts of America. in the branches on the foliage of which they are to SLO'TTING-MACHINE. a machine for cutting feed, and both the fore and hind feet are furnished slots, or square grooves, in metal. It is of great with very long, curved, and sharp claws. The importance
ne importance in mechanical pelvis is very wide; and the hind-legs, thus widely engineering and many y separated, also diverge from one another. The ingenious "inventions have structure of the wrist and ankle-joints is such that | been made for facilitating the palm or sole is turned towards the body, so l the process. The principle that upon the ground, the animal is compelled to lis, however, very simple and rest on the side of the hind-foot, whilst the length is the same in all. It con. of the fore-legs causes it to rest on the knee or sists of a cutting tool or elbow of them, struggling forward by a shuffling | chisel, held verù firmly in movement, and dragging itself along by stretching lan arm, which is pressed out the fore-legs alternately and hooking the claws | down and raised alternately into the ground, or grasping some object. But in a The tool is thus made to dense tropical forest, sloths generally find it easy to
pare off a thin portion of from the branches of one tree to those of the metal each time it de- Slotting-machine. another, often taking advantage for this purpose of a time when branches are brought within slot of sufficient size. Water is continually thrown their reach by the wind. Where the trees are more on, to prevent the metal from becoming overheated distant from each other, they will eat up the whole foliage of a tree ere they descend from it. The hair of sloths is coarse and shaggy, of a very
SLOUGH, a village of England, in the county of peculiar texture, inelastic, and much like grass
Buckingham, 18 miles west of London, by the Great Western Railway. On the road between S. and Windsor, which is distant about two and a half miles, lived Sir William Herschel, and at the observatory which he erected here, in which was placed his great telescope, many of his important astronomical discoveries were made. Pop. (1861) 3425.
SLOVAKS, THE, are the Slavic inhabitants of North Hungary, who, in the 9th C., formed the nucleus of the great Moravian kingdom, but whu, after the bloody battle of Presburg (907 A. D.), wero gradually subjugated by the Magyars, to whom even yet they bear no friendly feeling. Their number is reckoned at 2,750,000, of whom 800,000 belong to the Protestant, the rest to the Catholic Church. The S., whose character probably comes
nearest to that of the old Slavic type, travel in Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus trydactylus). great numbers over Germany and Poland as pedlars.
Their language is a dialect of Bohemian. Among withered in the sun, but affords an excellent protec- the most notable of the Slovak authors are the tion from insects, whilst it also gives them such an poets Holly and Kollar (q. v.); Matth. Bel (1684 appearance that they are not readily observed except -1749); Stephan Leschka (1757-1818), editor of when in motion. The muzzle of sloths is short, the first Slovak journal; Bernolak, author of a and the tail is short. There are no incisor teeth, but Slovak grammar; Palkovitsh (died 1835); and sharp canine teeth, and eight molars in the upper, Tablitsh, who published four volumes of poetry six in the lower jaw. The molars are cylindrical, | (1806-1812). A fine collection of popular Slovak penetrated by no laminæ of enamel, and adapted ballads has been published by Kollar (2 vols., Ofen, merely for crushing, not for grinding the food. For 1834). this, however, there is compensation in the stomach, SLOW-MATCH. a combustible material. such which is somewhat imperfectly divided, by transverse as cotton, hemo towe often dipped in an ligatures, into four compartments, for the longer of nitrate of potash (saltpetre), and formed into a retention and more thorough digestion of the food, thin rope. It is used for exploding gunpowder in although there is no rumination. The female sloth
various ways, on account of its slow, steady way of produces only one young one at a birth, which clings burning, a sufficient length being taken to enable to its mother till it becomes able to provide for itself. the operator to remove to a safe distance before Tbe voice of sloths is a low plaintive cry. & low plaintive cry, their the explosion. Their the
Slow-match was much used by: chief enemies are large snakes, but against these
artillerymen for firing of cannon, but it has generthey defend themselves by their powerful fore-legs ally given way to friction fusees and percussion and claws. A sloth has been known to grasp a dog ca round the neck and strangle it. There are very few species. One species has the fore-feet furnished with
SLUBBING. See SPINNING. only two toes: the others have three. These, with SLUG (Limax), a genus of gasteropodous molluscs: other differences, have been made the ground of a of the division Monacia (hermaphrodite), and of the recent division of the genus into two. The Two- family Limacidæ, which is closely allied to the snail TOET) S., or UNAU (Bradypus or Cholæpus didactylus), family, Helicidæ, but has no external shell. There
solution d SUNT
is, however, a rudimental shell, generally concealed heads, BAYONET, FIREARMS, LANCE, SWORD, PISwithin the mantle, placed over the respiratory cavity. | TOL, &c. The Limacidæ are diffused over the whole world. SMALL-ARMS FACTORIES. ROYAL & They commit great ravages among field and garden
establishments through which all the small-arms crops during moist weather. In frosts, they become
of every description are supplied to the regu
lar army, the militia, yeomanry, and volunteers. 2 V
The headquarters are at Enfield, where there is a vast manufactory; at Birmingham, there is a con. siderable establishment for viewing the arins supplied by contractors; and at Pimlico there is a factory for repairing damaged arms, and for training armourer-sergeants for detached service with regiments. For many years, there had been a small ordnance factory at Enfield Lock, where a few thousand muskets were laboriously forged by hand each year; but when the sudden introduction of the rifle, and the demands of the Russian war, called for a supply of arms, which the trade of all Europe and America was unable to meet, govern.
ment determined to erect machinery for the fabricaSlugs.
tion of arms. For this purpose, the factory at 1. Gray slug; 2. Black slug; 3. The same full grown, and as it Enfield was entirely remodelled ; machinery of appears when at rest; 4. Its egge.
great power and delicacy was adopted, and now,
when in full work, the factory can turn out daily dormant, taking shelter under clods and at the roots | 1000 complete and proved rifles, besides a corres. of plants. They lay eggs in clusters, in moist places, ponding complement of other small-arms. At the often at the roots of grass. The eggs resemble small same time, the accuracy of workmanship is so great, oval bags of jelly. The body is generally oval or that a hundred rifles might be taken entirely to oblong, elongated. The foot is not distinct from the pieces, the several portions thrown promiscuously body. There are four retractile tentacles; the eyes together, and a hundred complete rifles could be are at the tips of the longer pair. Slugs often climb instantly re-formed without any difficulty from the trees in quest of decaying vegetable matter on which same pieces. Much of the merit of this great to feed, and let themselves down by means of establishment is due to Colonel Manley Dixon of mucous threads, for the formation of which there is the Royal Artillery, who has superintended the a small aperture at the hinder end of the body. Of factory since it has been remodelled. The success British species, one of the most common is the GRAY of the factory has reduced in a remarkable degree S. (Limax agrestis), which is of a whitish ash colour; the cost of rifles, and has brought down correspond. another is the GREAT GRAY S. (L. maximus or anti- ingly the price charged by the trade for the large quorum), the largest British species ; another is the quantities still intrusted to it. BLACK S. (L. ater), often popularly called the The cost of the factories, when in full operation, Black Snail. The RED S. * (Agrion agrestis) is is of course considerable. In the year 1865, when also very plentiful. Careful gardeners often gather the demand for small-arms was small, the annual slugs by the aid of a lantern at night, and destroy charge was only £172,974. them. They may also be killed by watering the SMALL DEBTS is a phrase current in Scotland ground with a weak solution of ammonia.
to denote debts under £12, recoverable in the SLUR, in Music, an arch drawn over two or more Sheriff Court. See SHERIFF. In England, the same notes not on the same degree, to indicate that these debts are recoverable in the County Court (a. v.). notes are to be played legato, or smoothly and fluently
SMALLPOX, or VARI'OLA, is one of the most
formidable of the class of febrile diseases known as - In vocal music, a slur is placed | the Exanthenata (q. v.). All cases of regular small.
pox are divisible into three stages-viz. (1), over all the notes that are to be sung to the same
that of the initial or eruptive fever; (2), that of syllable, unless where they are grouped together by
the progress and maturation of the specific erupa common line. A slur must be distinguished from
tion; and (3) that of the decline. Some writers a tie, which is a similar arch drawn over two notes
make a primary stage of the period of incubation,
or of the time intervening between the reception of on the same degree, and denoting that instead of the
the poison into the system, and the first appearance two notes written, one is to be played of the length
of febrile symptoms; but this is not entitled to be of both.
regarded as a stage of the disease, seeing that no SLUTSK, a town of Russian Poland, in the
e symptoms of disorder have begun to shew them. government Of Minsk, about 63 miles south of the selves. The first stage begins with ricors, followed town of that name, near the source of the Lesser by heat and dryness of the skin, a quickened pulse. Slutch. With the exception of its public buildings, I furred tongue, loss of appetite. pain in the pit of the houses are almost entirely of wood. Por. 8226. the stomach. with nausea, vomiting. headache and
SMACK is a generic term for small decked or often pains in the back and limbs. The violenco half-decked vessels employed in the coasting and of the pains in the back, and the obstinacy of the fishing trade. The majority of smacks are, however, vomiting, are frequently very well marked and rigged as cutters, sloops, or yawls. According to characteristic symptoms. In children, the disease Wedgewood, the m in this word is a corruption of is often ushered in by convulsions; while delirium n; the Anglo-Saxon has snakk, a small vessel, and sometimes attends its outset in adults. On the there is a corresponding form in the other Teutonic third day, minute red specks begin to come out first and Scandinavian tongues.
on the face, then on the neck and wrists, and on
consist of the weapons actually carried by a man. extremities. The fever usually begins to subside They have been described under their respective as soon as the eruption appears, and by the