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SMALLPOX.

beginning of the fifth day, when the eruption is smallpox occupies about three weeks. In the conflugenerally completed, the fever has entirely dis- ent form of the disease, the eruptive fever is more appeared. The second stage commences when the violent, the pain in the back is more severe, and eruption is fully out. Upon the second or third the sickness more obstinate, and the eruption comes day of the eruption, a little clear lymph is seen in out earlier and less regularly than in the distinct each pimple, which has increased considerably in variety which we selected for description as represize since its first appearance, and which is thus senting the more natural course of the disease. converted into a vesicle. The vesicles gradually Moreover, the pustules do not fill so completely, increase in breadth, and become converted into nor are they of the norinal yellow purulent hue, being pustules, which are at first depressed in the centre, whitish, brown, or even purple. But the most but by the fifth day of the eruption become turgid important difference between the two forms is in and hemispherical; the suppuration on the face the secondary fever, which sets in when the pustuler being complete by about the eighth day from the are mature. This fever, which is slightly marked commencement of the fever, and the same process in distinct smallpox, is usually intense, and highly rapidly following in the other parts of the body in dangerous in the confluent form; and it is at this the same order of succession as that in which the period of the disease that death most commonly cruption originally appeared. The pustules then occurs. Statistics shew that the eighth day of the break, and scabs or crusts form over them, which eruption is the most perilous day, and the second usually fall off after four or five days' existence. week the most perilous week. The early occurrence The number of pustules in any special case and the of death-that is to say, during the first weekseverity of the disease, stand in a direct ratio to denotes a peculiar malignancy in the disease. "The one another; for the number of pustules indicates, nervous system,' says Dr Watson, 'appears to be in the first place, the quantity of the variolous overwhelmed by the force of the poison. During poison which has been reproduced in the blood; the second week, the disorder proves fatal chiefly in and, in the second place, it is also a direct measure the way of apnoea ; from some affection of the of the extent to which the skin suffers inflamma- respiratory passages. After that period, the chartion. Sometimes there are not more than half-a-dozen acters of asthenia commonly predominate, the pustules; sometimes there are many thousands. If patient sinks under some casual complication, or all these were collected into one, it would be an the powers of life are gradually worn out by so enormous phlegmon. For both these reasons, the much irritation of the surface, and so large an system suffers commotion, distress, and peril, in amount of suppuration.'Op. cit., vol. ii. p. 860. proportion to the quantity of the eruption.'- The above are the essential symptoms of smallWatson's Lectures, &c., 4th ed. vol, ii. p. 857. The pox, both in the distinct and confluent form. This progress of the pustules is usually accompanied disease is, however, often accompanied by other with swelling of the skin of the face, with a painful symptoms, which we have merely space to name; sensation of heat and tension; the scalp is often such as sore throat (which often depends upon swollen; soreness of the mouth and salivation pustules situated there), salivation, and (in the conusually supervene; and the patient exhales a pecu- fluent form, during the secondary fever) erysipeliar and disagreeable odour. About the eighth or latous inflammation, leading to the formation of ninth day of the disease, a recurrence of the fever, abscesses, glandular swellings, sloughing sores on known as 'the fever of maturation,' sets in with the sacrum, &c. In pregnant women, the disease varying degrees of intensity, according to the often causes abortion, which is most commonly number and arrangement of the pustules. When followed by death. The dead child occasionally, the pustules are numerous, they run together; when but not often, is covered with pustules. they are few, they keep separate. Hence the The cause of smallpox is universally allowed to division of smallpox into the two great varieties of be a specific contagion, of whose nature we are in distinct and confluent, or variola discreta and variola the most profound ignorance. There is probably no confluens; and this division is of the highest import disease so contagious as this. Dr Haygarth stated ance, because the distinct form of the disease, in (in 1793) that, during his long attention to this subwhich the pustules are isolated, is scarcely ever ject, not a single instance has occurred to prove dangerous ; while the conflueut form, in which they that persons liable to smallpox could associate in coalesce, is never free from danger. The third or the same chamber with a patient in the distemper declining stage is, in the distinct variety, little more without receiving the infection; and he was in. than a period of convalescence. About the eleventh formed by an American physician of an instance in or twelfth day, the pustules on the face become which the poisonous effluvium crossed a river 1500 brown and dry at the top, or some of them break, feet wide, and affected ten out of twelve carpenters and the fluid which oozes out solidifies into a who were working on the other side. The contagion yellowing crust; and from this time the process of acts either through the air, or by contact with the desiccation goes on, the swelling of the face sub- skin, or by inoculation; and the disease may be sides, and at last only dry scabs remain, which caused by the dead body, even when it has not been gradually fall off about the fourteenth day. It is touched." What products of the diseased body are not till three or four days after the scabs have contagious, is not exactly known, but the contents formed on the face, that the same process is com- of the pustules and the dried scabs certainly are so. pleted over the whole body. The scabs are usually Opinions are divided as to the period at which the completely gone by the twenty-first day, leaving disease begins and ceases to be contagious. It is behind them blotches of a reddish brown colour, safest to maintain that it is capable of self-propagawhich sometimes continue for some months before tion as soon as the febrile symptoms have exhibited they quite disappear; and some of the pustules, in themselves. How soon the patient ceases to be consequence of ulceration of the true skin, leave dangerous, cannot be decided with accuracy; but pits, especially on the face, which remain per- the stability of the contagious principle may be manently. The period of scabbing is accompanied inferred from the fact, that clothing will retain it by various symptoms of improvement: the tongue for months, and it is said for years, when confined. becomes clean, the appetite returns, and by the Like all the contagious exanthemata, smallpox time that the scabs have fallen off, the patient appears in an epidemic form, at irregular, and, in may be regarded as restored to health; so that our ignorance, it would almost seem capricious interthe entire course of a case of distinct or discrete va ls. After an extraordinary exempticn, perhaps SMALLPOX_SMALLPOX IN SHEEP.

for years, a district is suddenly invaded by it, and assume a confluent form, wakefulness and restlesscontinues to suffer for a longer or shorter period, ness are apt to come on about the eighth day, and after which the disease spontaneously disappears-opiates in free doses may be prescribed with benefits dies out, as it were--and does not reappear perhaps | If the pustules are abnormally torpid in reaching for years. Different epidemics vary very much in their maturity, it may be expedient to administer their severity, and isolated cases are usually milder strong broths, or even wine; and when the pustules than those occurring when the disease is epidemic. are livid, and intermixed with Petechiæ (q. v.), bark Race has much to do with the severity of the disease; and acids must be additionally ordered, although the constitution of the dark races, the Negro and the the patient is then too often beyond the reach of Red Indian, being singularly susceptible of the con- help. During the secondary fever, the bowels must tagion, and exhibiting very little power of resisting be kept gently open, and opiates should be prescribed the fatal tendency of the disease.

once or twice each day. A more nourishing diet is It is universally admitted that the discovery of now called for, and wine should be given if the pulse Vaccination (q. v.), by which smallpox is deprived | is very weak. The external itching is partly of its danger, is the greatest triumph of modern relieved by the opiates, but local applications are medicine. Inoculation (q. v.) protected the indi. also employed; cold cream, or a mixture of equal vidual, but increased rather than diminished the parts of olive oil and lime-water, may be thus used total number of deaths, while vaccination has the with advantage. Special methods have been devised advantage of protecting both the individual and the for the purpose of preventing the pitting or seaming community. “Although, in the great majority of of the face, which is often a hideous permanent cases, vaccination affords perfect protection against disfigurement to the patient. The best application smallpox, it not very unfrequently happens that of this kind is probably that of nitrate of silver. vaccinated persons, when exposed to the contagion Mr Higginbottom, who first suggested this applicaof smallpox, get the disease in a modified form, tion, touches each distinct papula with a solid milder and shorter even than after inoculation, and stick of lunar caustic, previously moistened; but therefore incomparably milder than in the natural when the spots are confluent, he washes the whole form. The disorder occurring under these circum- face, about the third day after the eruption, with a stances, has received the various names of modified strong solution of this salt, containing eight scruples or post-vaccinal smallpox, or the varioloid disease. to the ounce of water. In the Paris hospitals, As Dr Wood observes : ‘It is impossible to describe various mercurial preparations are employed, which minutely all the shapes which the varioloid dis- are said to cause the pustules to abort. M. Briquet ease assumes. There is every shade between the recommends mercurial ointment simply thickened slightest symptoms, scarcely recognisable as having with powdered starch. Dr Wood of Philadelphia affinity with sinallpox, and the nearest possible remarks, that as the ointment sometimes salivates, approach to the regular disease.'-Practice of it should be diluted with an equal quantity of lard Medicine, 4th ed., vol. i. p. 380. In whatever before the starch is added. Professor Bennett of form the varioloid disease appears, it wants the Edinburgh recommends the application of calamine peculiar odour of smallpox, and secondary fever is (carbonate of zinc) mixed with olive oil; it forms a very rare. The constitutional disturbance which, coherent crust, and thus excludes the air. for the first week, may have been as severe as in During the period of desquamation, an occasional the true disease, usually subsides entirely when the warm bath may be prescribed with advantage ; and eruption has reached its height, and the patient is the patient should always resort to this measure, as convalescent at the period when, if he had not been a precaution against carrying the contagion about vaccinated, he would have been in the greatest with him, before again mixing in society. danger.

The history of this remarkable disease is clothed With regard to prognosis, it may be stated in considerable obscurity. There is no evidence generally, it is a very fatal, and was formerly an that it was known to the Greek or Arabian writers extremely destructive disease-one death occurring of the 6th c., and the first accurate description of it in every four cases. Modified smallpox is very is that of Rhazes, an Arabian physician, who seldom fatal, although instances of death are flourished early in the 10th century. It appears to occasionally reported. Smallpox is more fatal at have reached England towards the close of the 9th the two extremes of life than in the intervening century. After the Crusades, it prevailed in most period, and, as has been already noticed, is especially of the temperate countries of Europe, but did not dangerous in pregnancy. In olden times, it was reach the northern countries of Norway, Lapland, &c. believed that the eruption was an effort of nature for some time later. In 1517, it was carried from to get rid of the noxious matter, and hence heating Europe to St Domingo; and three years later, it and stimulating measures were adopted with the reached Mexico, where it committed fearful devastaview of promoting the eruption. To Sydenham tions, and whence it spread with intense virulence (q. v.) belongs the credit of first recommending an throughout the New World. (According to Robertentirely opposite or cooling mode of treatment; but son, three millions and a half of people were de. his suggestions met with the most severe opposition, stroyed in Mexico alone.) In 1707, it was introand it was not till long after his death that the duced into Iceland, when more than a fourth part cooling treatment was fairly established. In mild of the whole population fell victims to it; and it cases, and in cases of varioloid disease, the physician reached Greenland still later (in 1733), when it

spread so fatally as almost to depopulate the country. influences, such as stimulating foods or drinks, too These cases are striking illustrations of the law that hot a room, or improper exposure to cold, and to seems universally true, that a contagious disease is prescribe cooling drinks during the fever, and always most virulent on its first introduction to a occasional laxatives if they shall be required. In new scene of action. more severe cases, the fever may be combated by SMALLPOX IN SHEEP (Variola ovina), saline purgatives, prescribed so as to produce two or although resembling the smallpox of men, is ä three liquid stools daily, and by free ventilation of distinct disease, not communicable either by con. the surface of the body. When the eruption is all tagion or inoculation to men or children, or even to put, if the pimples on the face are few and distinct, dogs or goats. Although common on the continent the danger may be regarded as over, and no further of Europe, it was unknown in Great Britain for at treatment is required. If, however, the disease least a century, until in 1847 it appeared in Norfolk

SMALT-SMEW.

and the eastern counties, and in the summer of Scotland, together with an immense amount of mill1862 in Wiltshire, near Devizes. Variolous sheep machinery. He also greatly improved Newcomen's or infected skins appear in both cases to have steam-engine, but the mighty achievements of imported the disease from abroad. About ten days Watt in the same field threw his labours completely after exposure to contagion, the infected sheep into the shade. He is said to have prevented the become feverish, have a muco-purulent nasal dis. fall of the old London Bridge for many years by charge, and a hot tender skin. The red pimples sinking a great quantity of stones around one of the which first appear, in about three days become piers, which had become undermined by the strength whi:e, and afterwards leave scabs or ulcers. The of the Thames current. In 1783, his health began weakness is great, and the mortality varies from 25 to decline, and he retired from active business, to 90 per cent. Good food and nursing are the dying at Austhorpe of paralysis, 28th October 1792. appropriate remedies. Promptly and carefully must He was one of the chief promoters of the 'Society the sick be separated from the sound; but if the of Civil Engineers, which was started in 1771, and spread of the disorder be not thus immediately after S.'s death published (1797) in three 4to volumes checked, the whole of the sound flock should be his numerous professional Reports, which were reinoculated. The disease thus artificially produced garded by his successors as a mine of wealth for appears in ten days, runs a mild course, occasions a the sound principles which they unfold, and the loss of from two to five per cent., and in three able practice they exemplify.' For a large portion weeks the disorder is got rid of, and all risk of con- of his life S. was in constant attendance on parliatagion over.--Further details will be found in Pro- ment, which, in difficult or important engineering fessor Simmonds' “Report on Smallpox,' in vol. schemes, invariably demanded, and almost always 25 of the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society followed, his advice-a proof not only of his emi. of England.

nence in his profession, but of his caution, judgment, SMALT, a name applied to the coloured glass and integrity. See the biography prefixed to his compositions used for making the tesseræ employed

od Reports. in forming mosaics. See also COBALT.

SMELL. See NOSE. SMART-MONEY. See RECRUITING.

SMELT (Osmerus), a genus of the Salmon or SMEATON, JOHN, an eminent civil engineer,

Trout family (Salmonido), of which only a few was born at Austhorpe, near Leeds, in 1724, and

species are known, differing from the salmon, trout,

&c. in having long conical teeth on the jaws and early shewed a bent towards mechanical pursuits.

tongue, and on the tip of the vomer, the rest of the At the age of 15, he had constructed a machine for

vomer being destitute of teeth; two distinct rows of rose-engine turning. About 1750, he removed to

teeth on each palatine bone. -The COMMON S. (0. London, to commence business as a mathematical

eperlanus), called Spirling or Sparling in Scotland, and instrument maker; but we find him in the follow

viridescens) is a fish of 8 or 10 inches (rarely 12 ing year resuming his desultory experiments in

in inches) in length. The form is very trout-likemechanical invention, an odometer for ships, a

rather more slender-the tail larger in proportion, compass, and improvements in water and wind mill-machinery being the chief products of his

and more forked. The lower jaw is much longer than inventive genius. His improvements on mill-work

the upper. The scales are small; the back is whitish, were found on trial to be of great value, increasing

tinged with green; the upper part of the sides shews the effective force by one-third, and gained

,

bluish tints, the lower part of the sides and the belly

Š. the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1759.

are of a bright silvery colour. The S. has a peculiar, In 1753, he was chosen a member of the Royal

cucumber-like smell, and a delicious flavour, on acSociety; and in the following year, to extend

count of which it is highly esteemed for the table, his practical acquaintance with engineering, he

| where it often appears as an accompaniment of other visited the Netherlands, and inspected the embank

fish. The S. is partly an inhabitant of fresh water, ments, canals, and other remarkable works of

and partly of the sea. It ascends rivers to no great that country. In 1755, an event occurred which

distance from the sea in autumn, and descends in was to afford him the opportunity of attaining the spring. Great numbers of smelt are taken in estuavery summit of his profession—the second wooden

on ries, and near the mouths of rivers, by small-meshed light-house on Eddystone rock was destroyed by

nets. They are also taken on the open sea-coasts, fire in December. The speedy re-erection of another

other chiefly in New England. Two species of fresh-water beacon was of the utmost importance, and the

smelt occur in the lakes of Maine, which are smaller execution of the work was intrusted to Smeaton.

than the marine S.; they are 0. spectrum and 0. The new light-house was built of stone; the cut

abbottii, Cope. The common smelt is known as ting of the rock for the foundations commenced in

Spirling or Sparling in Scotland, and Eperlan in August 1756, the building was executed between

France, and though found both on the eastern and June 1757 and October 1759, and the lantern lighted

western coasts of Britain, the S. is unknown on the on 16th October of the latter year. This great

south coast of England, where the name S. or SAND work, the greatest of its kind hitherto undertaken,

S. is given to the Atherine (q. v.). ---Another British ren,ains to this day a stable monument of S's species, the HEBRIDEAN (0. Hebridicus), discovered engineering skill. Yet he seems to have had little near Rothesay in 1837, is rare and unimportant. — employment for some time subsequently, as he

The EUROPEAN S. (O. eperlanus) is regarded as applied for and obtained in 1764 the post of receiver

distinct from the Common Smelt. It has a shorter of the Derwentwater estate,' the funds of which

body and a whiter back. The attempt has been sucwere applied for the behoof of Greenwich Hospital : cessfully made to keep the S. continually in freshand this situation he held till 1777, by which time water ponds, in which it not only throve well, withhe was in full professional employment. The chief | out loss of flavour, but propagated abundantly. No of his other engineering works were, the construc

effort has yet been made to turn this discovery--not a tion of the greater portion of Ramsgate harbour very recent one-to any economical account. (1774); the laying out of the line of the Forth SMELTING. See IRON. and Clyde Canal, and the superintendence of the SMEW (Mergellans albellus), a bird of the family excavation of most of it; the rendering of the Anatidae, very nearly allied to the goosander and Calder (Yorkshire) navigable; the erection of Spurn me

1 Spurn mergansers, but having a shorter bill. The whole light-house, and of several important bridges in length of the male is not quite 18 inches; that of

778

SMILACEÆ-SMITH.

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the female, not quite 15. The S. is only known in that he was intended for the English Church, but if Britain as a winter visitant, appearing in greatest so, his own convictions crossed the designs of his numbers in severe winters, and sometimes on friends. He returned to Kirkcaldy, and lived for a

while with his mother there in undisturbed seclu. sion and study. It was said to be his practice to stand ruminating, with his back to the fire, and his head leaning against the chimney-piece--and over an old fireplace in Kirkcaldy it used to be shewn how he had thus worn a piece off the paint. In 1748 he came to Edinburgh, where silently and unostentatiously he became one of the brilliant little circle of men of letters who were then rising to im. portance. In 1751, he got the chair of Logic in the university of Glasgow, and this was changed a year afterwards for that of Moral Philosophy. In 1759, appeared his Theory of Moral Sentiments, celebrated for its reference of the mental emotions to the one source of sympathy. The Dissertation on the Origin of Languages was published along with the later editions of this book. Both had a great repu. tation in their day, and although they are now

among obscure books in comparison with that other Smew (Mergellus albellus).

by which the author's name is remembered, the

position they held with respectable thinkers gave a inland lakes and ponds, as well as on the sea-coast, hearing to his doctrines on political economy which

In It abounds on the northern coasts of Asia, and in they would hardly have otherwise obtained. some parts of continental Europe.

1762, the university of Glasgow gave him the degree

of Doctor of Laws. In the following year he under. SMILA'CEÆ, a natural order of exogenous took a task, which might at first seem very unconplants, ranked by Lindley in his class Dictyogens

genial to a mind like his, given to retired study (q. V.), and consisting of herbaceous or half-shrubby and independent thought and action. He became plants, generally more or less climbing, with reticu.

governor' or travelling tutor to the young Duke of lated leaves, and bisexual or polygamous flowers, Buccleuch. He was then sedulously collecting à 6-parted perianth, six stamens, a free 3-celled materials for his great work, and no doubt the inovary, with cells one or many seeded, three stigmas, ) ducement to accept of the office was the opportunity and a roundish berry. There are about 120 known it gave him for travelling and seeing for himself. species, mostly of the genus Sinilax, scattered over | He had the opportunity of being nearly a year in the globe, but most numerous in the temperate and Paris, and of mixing in the circle of renowned wits tropical parts of Asia and America. The root- and philosophers of the reign of Louis XV. In 1766. stocks (rhizomes) of many species yield Sarsaparilla his function came to an end, and he returned to (q. V.). But some species have tleshy tubers, parti- Kirkcaldy to live in the old house with his mother. cularlySmilax China, a native of China and Japan, The year 1776 was an era in the history of the tious, and used for food. Smilax pseudo-China, an the appearance of the Inquiry into the Nature and American species, has similar tubers. The roots Causes of the Wealth of Nations. If there was any of Roxburghia viridiflora, after being boiled and living man to whose works he was indebted for the soaked in lime-water, to remove their acridity, | leading principles of this book. it was David Hume. are preserved in syrup as an article of food in and it was from him, as best understanding the ful. the Eastern Peninsula and Malayan Islands. The

ness and completeness of the exposition, that it had stems of this plant are sometimes 100 fathoms its first emphatic welcome. He wrote immediately long.

on receiving it: 'EUGE BELLE.--DEAR MR SMITH SMITH, ADAM, the founder of political economy -I am much pleased with your performance; and as a separate branch of human knowledge, was born the perusal of it has taken me from a state of great in the town of Kirkcaldy, in Fifeshire, on the 5th | anxiety. It was a work of so much expectation by of June 1723. His family belonged to the respect yourself, by your friends, and by the public, that I able middle class of Scotch life ; his father was trembled for its appearance, but am now much comptroller of the customs at the port of Kirkcaldy, relieved. Not but that the reading of it necessarily and his mother, Margaret Douglas, was the daughter requires so much attention, and the public is disof a small Fifeshire laird. His father died a short posed to give so little, that I shall still doubt, for time before his birth, and he was the object of the some time, of its being at first very popular. But care and solicitude of a widowed mother, to whom it has depth, and solidity, and acuteness, and is so he was closely attached, and who long lived to be much illustrated by curious facts, that it must at proud of his attainments. When he was no more | last take the public attention.' This was not desthan three years old, the poor woman got a sad tined to be exactly the literary history of this great fright, from à calamity hardly known at the present work. Its startling doctrines, fine clear style, and day-the child was stolen by gipsies; but he was abundant illustration from curious facts took at tracked and recovered by his uncle as they were first; but counteracting influences arose when people seeking a hiding-place in the neighbouring wood of saw how far the new doctrines went in playing Leslie. This was the only adventure in his quiet havoc with old prejudices. The French revolution life. After getting the usual burgh-school education set the mind of this country bigoted against everyin Kirkcaldy, he was sent, in 1737, to the univer- thing that breathed of innovation. It was known sity of Glasgow. He there secured an exhibition that the younger Pitt participated at first in on the Snell foundation, which took him to Balliol | Si's free-trade notions, but he had afterwards, College, Oxford. He studied there for seven years, whether from permanent connection or temporary and left traditions as of a man of large acquirements policy, to put himself in the foremost ranks of the and peculiar independence of thought. It is said enemies. of innovation. It was not until long after

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SMITH.

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the terrors of that epoch and the nervous vicissi- Brighton. Both were popular and accomplished tudes of the war had passed over, that S.'s work men-James remarkable for his conversational had an opportunity to revolutionise the public mind powers and gaiety, and Horace (the wealthier of the on matters of trade and finance. It came up, as it two) distinguished for true liberality and benevowere, the leader of a great literary host, for ex. lence. The work by which they are best known is pounders had crowded in numbers round The a small volume of poetical parodies or imitations, Wealth of Vations as the text-book of sound perhaps the best in the language. On the opening economy. Of a book so well known and so much of the new Drury Lane Theatre in October 1812, the read, it is needless to speak. The only reproach Committee of Management advertised for an address brought against it is, that it is not systematic in its to be spoken on the occasion, and the brothers form, and that its nomenclature is not exact. But Smith adopted a suggestion made to them, that they its author was not arranging the results of estab- should write a series of supposed • Rejected lished knowledge-he was rather pulling down ex- Addresses. They accomplished their task in the igting structures, compounded of ignorance and pre- 1 course of a few weeks-James furnishing imitations judice. Nor, indeed, have those who have attempted of Wordsworth, Southey, Coleridge, Crabbe, Cobbett, to make an exact science out of political economy, &c. ; while Horace contributed imitations of Scott, practically vindicated the reproach they have cast Byron (all but the first stanza), Monk Lewis, on him of being unmethodical. Whatever we may Moore, and others. In point of talent, the authors

economy admit of being treated as exact science. It had the greater number of successful imitations, the is too closely connected with human passions and one by Horace of Scott, is the most felicitous of the energies, and consequently with special results and whole. · It is a curious fact in literary history that changes, to be so treated ; and the best books on the a work so exceedingly popular should have had great subject are still characterised by the discursiveness difficulty in finding a publisher; and that the copyand mixed philosophy and fact of the Wealth of right, which had been originally offered to Murray Nations. In 1778, S. was made a Commissioner of for £20, and refused, was purchased by him in 1819, Customs. The only effect of this was to bring him after the book had run through 16 editions, for to Edinburgh, and increase his means for indulging £131. The authors received above £1000 from the in his favourite weakness, the collection of a tine sale of the work. James was afterwards an library; for he was, as he called himself, a 'beau in occasional contributor to the periodical literature of his books.' In 1784, he suffered that affliction which the day, and author of the humorous theatrical was sure to come if he lived long enough for it--the entertainments of Charles Mathews (for which he loss of his worthy mother. He followed her six received £1000). Horace S. wrote several novels years afterwards, dying in July 1790.

Brambletye House, Tor Hill, &c. SMITH, ALEXANDER, poet, was born at Kilo |

| SMITH, JOSEPH. See MORMONISM. marnock, in Ayrshire, December 31, 1830, received, as a boy, a fair English education, and passed from

SMITH, REV. SYDNEY, a celebrated wit and school into a Glasgow warehouse as a pattern

humorist, and the original projector of the Edindesigner. While following this occupation, he began

in burgh Review, was born at Woodford, in Essex, in to write poetry. His first volume, entitled the Life:

to 1771. His father was an eccentric English gentle. Drama, was published in 1853, and created some

man of moderate independence, his mother was the thing like a furor in literary circles. A reaction, grana-aaug

| grand-daughter of a French refugee ; and Sydney, it however, followed, and the author had scarcely

was said, fairly represented both nations. He was found himself famous when he began to be abused.

Y educated at Winchester School and New College, The faults of his book were obvious enough: every

Oxford, and having entered the church, became page contained evidence of immaturity, and its

curate of Amesbury in Wiltshire. The squire of natural result, extravagance; while a rather narrow

the parish,' he says, 'took a fancy to me, and reading having made him passionately attached to reques

to requested me to go with his son to reside at the a few modern poets, as Keats and Tennyson, their univers

air university of Weimar; before we got there, Gerpeculiar turns of expression reappeared in his verse,

many became the seat of war, and in stress of and gave colour to the charge of plagiarism, which ponues

which politics, we put into Edinburgh, where I remained was pushed to an absurd length. But impartial critics

five years. During this time, he officiated in the were not slow to perceive a richness and originality

Episcopal chapel there, and published Six Sermons, of imagery that more than atoned for all defects of

1800. In conjunction with a few accomplished taste and knowledge. In 1854, S. was appointed

literary associates--Jeffrey, Horner, Brougham, Dr Secretary to the university of Edinburgh; and in the

e Thomas Brown, Playfair, &c.--S. started the Edinfollowing year, along with Sydney Dobell.(q. v.), burgh Review, the first number of which appeared produced a volume of Sonnets on the War. Subse- l in October 1802; constituting a new era in the quently he wrote City Poems (1857), Edwin of Deira history of periodical literature, and of independent (1861). and several prose works, as Dreamthorp (1863). I thought and criticism in this country. In 1803. S. A Summer in Skye (1865), Alfred Hagart's House- removed to London, and was soon popular as a hold (1865), and Last Leaves, Sketches, and Criti- | preach

Critic preacher, as a lecturer on moral philosophy (1804-4 cisms, edited, with a memoir, by P. P. Alexander

1806), and as a brilliant conversationist, the delight (1868).—The style of his contributions to the maga

and wonder of society. Church preferment, howzines is distinguished by picturesqueness, polish, and

ever, came slowly. In 1806, during the short reign

of the Whigs, he obtained from Lord Erskine, when originality. He died in 1867.

Lord Chancellor, the rectory of Foston-le-Clay, in SMITH, JAMES AND HORACE, authors of The Yorkshire ; some 18 years afterwards, the Duke of Rejected Addresses, were sons of an eminent London Devonshire gave him the living of Londesborough, solicitor. James was born February 10, 1775, died worth £700 per annum, to hold until Mr Howard, December 24, 1839; Horace was born December son of the Earl of Carlisle, came of age. In 1828, 31, 1779, died July 12, 1849. James followed his Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst presented him to a prefather's profession, and succeeded him as solicitor to bendal stall in Bristol, and enabled him to exchange the Board of Ordnance; Horace adopted the pro- Foston for Combe Florey, a more desirable rectory fession of a stock-broker, and realised a handsome in Somersetshire. In 1831, Earl Grey appointed fortune, on which he retired with his family to him one of the Canons Residentiary of St Paul's;

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