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at the back of the head are two crescent-shaped colour, ornamented with checkered irregular patches bright yellow spots, forming a kind of ring or of black; a yellow mark on the back and sides of collar; immediately behind these are two broad the head ; the lower parts yellowish, with square black spots, sometimes confluent. Two rows of black spots. The head is not flattened, as in the small black spots are arranged alternately down the viper, but is narrowed in a similar way towards the back, and larger ones at the sides ; but these vary neck; there is much difference in the plates of the much in size and other particulars. The belly is head; the yellow mark on the head is a very charpale load colour, often marbled with black. The acteristic distinction, and the back does not exhibit outer skin is changed at intervals varying according a broad zigzag pattern, as in the viper. Unlike the to the weather and other circumstances. Mr Bell | Common S., the Coronella lovis is ovoviviparous, the says : •I have known the skin shed four or five eggs being hatched within the mother. For at times during the year. It is always thrown off by illustration of the Coronella lævis, see SERPENTS. reversing it; so that the transparent covering of the
SNAKE-BIRD. See DARTER: eyes, and that of the scales also, are always found moncave in the exuviæ. Previously to this curious SNAKE-EEL, the popular name of the fishes circumstance taking place," the whole cuticle forming the family Ophisurido of some naturalists, becomes soinewhat opaque, the eyes are dim, and included by others, with all the eels, in the family the animal is evidently blind. It also becomes more | Muronida, and distinguished by the want of a cr less inactive, until at length, when the skin is fin, and the tail ending in a conical point like that ready to be removed, being everywhere detached, of a serpent. They are inhabitants of the seas of and the new skin perfectly hard underneath, the warm climates. One species, Ophisurus serpens, is animal bursts it at the neck, and creening through found in the Mediterranean. It attains the length some dense herbage, or low brushwood, leaves it of about six feet, and the thickness of a man's arm; attached, and comes forth in far brighter and is brown above, silvery beneath, and has a slender clearer colours than before.' This snake is partial and pointed snout. to damp situations, and often enters water, in which | SNAKE RIVER, also called LEWIS' FORK, is it swims with great ease, moving with singular | the great southern branch of the Columbia (q. v.). gracefulness. It sometimes remains at the bottom for a considerable time. It sometimes climbs trees, its body, when ascending the stem, being straight | LOCHTA. and rigid as a stick.' See SERPENTS. It is very SNAKE-STONES, small rounded pieces of stone voracious; its food consists of frogs, small birds or other hard substance, popularly believed to be and quadrupeds, &c. Its teeth being incapable of efficacious in curing snake bites. A belief in their tearing, cutting, or masticating food, the prey is efficacy has been long and very widely diffused, and always swallowed entire and living. Mr Bell heard probably extended to Britain and other western a frog emit a cry some minutes after it had been parts of the world from the East. Small perforated swallowed by a snake. The S. has no poison-fangs. balls and rings of various kinds of stone, ivory, &c., It has another kind of defensive armour, in certain strung together like beads, were formerly used as glands, which emit a volatile substance of most snake-stones in Scotland, being given to cattle to offensive and penetrating odour, which, like that chew when they were bitten by vipers. Of course of the skunk, can hardly be removed from the skin they could only be expected to act as a kind of or clothes. No such odour is emitted except in charm. Many of the snake-stones used in India and moments of irritation or other passion. The Com- the further east seem to be of no greater value. mon S. is oviparous : its eggs-usually about fifteen Some of them, however, appear to be really efficaor twenty in number, whitish, with a parchment-like cious, being applied to the wound and absorbing skin, and united into a string by a glutinous sub- blood from it with the poison before it has entered stance-are deposited in moist and warm situations, the system. Remarkable instances are related of often in dunghills. The mother is said sometimes speedy cures thus effected. The snake-stone to coil herself around them, but generally leaves adheres for a short time to the wound, and them unregarded. This snake is capable of being then falls off. The wounded limb is meanwhile tamed, and becomes familiar with those who are rubbed downwards. Two small snake-stones, each kind to it, whilst the approach of a stranger, or of a the size of a large pea, brought from India, and dog or cat, alarms it, and causes an emission of which were known to have cured a man bitten by a stench. In winter, it seeks some refuge from severe cobra, were found by Mr Quekett to be composed cold, and becomes lethargic or dormant. Large of some vegetable matter. Another, also known to numbers of snakes often take refuge in one hole; have cured a cobra's bite, having been brought from but seldom so many as in an instance recorded by Ceylon by Sir James E. Tennent, was examined by Dr Carpenter, in which about 1300 were found in an Mr Faraday, and was deemed by him to be a piece old lime-kiln.
Much interest was excited in 1862 by the dis- perhaps several times, and then carefully charred covery in England of a species of snake, Coronela | again.'--See Buckland's Curiosities of Natural Hislaevis (see CORONELLA and SERPENTS), previously tory, and Tennent's Ceylon, vol. i. unobserved in Britain, but common in the middle and
| SNAKE-WEED, another name of BISTORT (9. v.). south of Europe, and sometimes distinguished by the name of AUSTRIAN S., sometimes by that of SMOOTH SNAKE-WOOD, another name of LETTER-WOOD S., none of the scales being ridged or keeled, as in the (q. V.). Common Snake. It inhabits much drier situationsSNAPDRAGON (Antirrhinum), a genus of than those affected by the Common S., where it is plants of the natural order Scrophulariacece, consistoften found in company with the Sand Lizard, ing of annual and perennial herbaceous plants, situations more resembling those in which the viper chiefly natives of the temperate parts of the northis found. This snake is also more similar to the ern hemisphere. They have the calyx 5-parted: viper in form and appearance than the Common S., the corolla swollen at the base, but without a spur, and these circumstances have probably led to its and personate (Lat. persona, a mask), i. e., its inouth being often mistaken for the viper, and its existence closed by the pressure of the lower against the in England remaining unnoticed so long. It attains upper lip; and the fruit is a 2-celled oblique capa length of about two feet; is of a shining brown sule, opening by three pores at the apex. 160
English name refers to a peculiarity of the corolla, scholarships which now bear his name. The exhibi. the lower lip of which, if forcibly parted from the tions have been the subject of much litigation in upper, so as to open the mouth, shuts with an elastic the court of Chancery, and are now administered
under a scheme settled in 1861. The exhibi. tioners are nominated by the college of Glasgow, and receive about £108 annually each during five years. Candidates for these scholarships must have been born in Scotland, or must be sons of fatherg born in Scotland, and must have resided for two years at least in Glasgow College, or for one year in that college, and two at least in some other college in Scotland. None are admitted to examination who have completed their 21st year, or have been members of the university of Oxford of more than two years' standing from the day of their matriculation inclusive. Two exhibitioners are nominated annually after public competition. The list of Snell exhibitioners includes not a few well-known names, such as J. G. Lockhart, Sir W. Hamilton, the late Bishop of London (Tait), &c.
SNIA'TYN, a town of Galicia, in Austrian Poland, is situated on the Pruth, and was formerly a frontier stronghold. It has tanneries, and a considerable trade in cattle and horses. Pop. 10,598, among whom are many members of the Armenian Church.
SNIPE (Scolapax), a genus of birds of the family Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus).
Scolapacido (q. v.), having a very long straight hill,
with nasal grooves extending almost to the tip, spring or snap. Some of the species have very
which expands a little, the upper mandible slightly
exceeding the lower in length, the whole bill soft and pretty flowers. A. majus has long been a favourite
very sensitive, smooth and shining in the living bird, in our gardens, in which there are many fine varie.
but soon after death becoming pitted like the end ties of it.
of a thimble by drying. The head is compressed; SNAPHAUNCE, an old musket of the 17th and
the eyes large, and placed far back in the head, an first half of the 18th c., called also Asnaphan. See evident adaptation to the mode of life, enabling the LOCK.
bird to guard against danger, whilst its bill is SNEF'HÄTTEN. See NORWAY.
plunged in the mud. The feet have three toes SNEEK, a prosperous trading and manufacturing before, divided to the base or very nearly so, not town in the Netherlands, province of Friesland, 13 edged by membrane, the hind-toe short. The tail miles south-south-west of Leeuwarden. It is is short. The genus naturally divides itself into built in the form of an irregular triangle, has three two sections, sometimes regarded as distinct genera, canals, and good water-way to the sea. Rich mea- the first consisting of the Woodcocks (q. v.), to dow-lands, in some places tending to be marshy, which the generic name Scolapax is appropriated; surround the town, and in the neighbourhood is a the second containing the species popularly known considerable lake called the Sneekermeer. Pop. as Snipes, which receive the generic name Gallinago, 9395, of whom about one-sixth are Roman Catholics, the remainder, except about 150 Jews, Protestants. S. is the largest butter and cheese market in the province; in 1863, the quantity sold reaching 4,887,025 Ibs. of butter, and 2,001,828 lbs. of cheese. The principal buildings are the Reformed Church, Town-house, Baptist Church, and Jewish synagogue.'
SNEEZE-WOOD (Ptæroxylon utile), a tree of the natural order Sapindaceæ, a native of South Africa, common in the eastern districts of Cape Colony. The timber rivals mahogany in beauty, takes a fine polish, is very solid, strong, and durable. It receives its English name, and its Dutch name, Nieshout, from the sternutatory properties of its sawdust, by which workmen are often much annoyed.
SNELL EXHIBITIONS. These exhibitions were founded in the year 1677 by John Snell of Ufeton, in the county of Warwick, for the purpose cf educating Scottish students at the university of Oxford. Snell was born in the parish of Colmonell, in Ayrshire, in 1629, and entered the university | 1, Solitary Snipe (Gallinago major); 2, Commok Snipe of Glasgow in 1644. He afterwards removed to (Gallinago media); 3, Jack Snipe (Gallinago galli. England, where, after holding several offices of al nula). legal nature, he was appointed seal-bearer to the Court of Chancery. He died at Holywell, near and are distinguished by their lighter form, by their Oxford, in 1679, leaving his estate of Uffeton, near longer legs, and by having a little of the lower part Leamington, to trustees (the Vice-chancellor of the of the tibia bare.—The COMMON S. (S. gallinago, or university of Oxford, the Provost of Queen's College, Gallinago media) is about 11 inches in entire length, the Master of Baliol College, and the President of the bill almost 3 inches. The sexes are alike in St John's College), for the foundation of the ten plumage, but the female is rather larger than the
male. The general colour of the upper parts is history, mythology, and poetry of the North, as blackish brown, finely mixed with pale brown und well as in classical literature. By his marriage, at with a rich buff colour; three pale brown streaks the age of 26, with a rich heiress, and the speedy along the head; the neck and breast pale rust death of his father, S. S. early attained a position of colour mottled with black; the belly white. The wealth and influence, and by the free choice of the tail consists of 14 feathers. The S., when flushed, people, was elected supreme judge, or chief magischanges its course several times in a zigzag manner trate of the island. In this post, he was distinin the air, and then darts off very swiftly, so that guished for his profound knowledge of the laws and young sportsmen find it a very difficult bird to civil institutions of his native country; but his shoot. The S. makes a very inartificial nest of ambition, avarice, and love of intrigue embrciled a little dry herbage, in a depression of the ground, him personally in sanguinary feuds, and contributed or sometimes in a tuft of grass or rushes. Thé to hasten the destruction of Icelandic independeggs are four in number, pale yellowish or greenish ence. His love of intrigue led him to take part in white, the larger end spotted with brown. This the intestine troubles of Norway, and thus drew species of S. is plentiful in all the moory and marshy upon him the suspicion and ill-will of the Norwegian parts of Britain, and generally throughout Europe, king, Hakon, who sent secret instructions to Iceland also in some parts of Asia, and it is found in the for his arrest; or, if need be, his assassination. The north of Africa. It breeds in Britain, even in the king's intentions were carried out to their fullest south of England, although many of the spipes extent; and his numerous enemies joining together which spend the winter in Britain migrate north- in a plot against him, S. S. was attacked in his own wards in spring. The S. is capable of being house, and murdered in the year 1211. S. S. was a tamed, and becomes very familiar, but is difficult poet of no mean order, and composed numerous to keep from the prodigious quantity of worms drapas, or laudatory poems, on the kings and jarls and other such food which it requires. A tame at whose courts he sojourned. His great work is S. has been known to eat nearly twice its own the Heimskringla, or Mythic Ring of the World, in weight of worms in 12 hours. The S. is in high which he records the history of the kings of Norway esteem for the table, and is included amongst game from the earliest tinies to the death of Magnus in Britain.-The habits of all the other species of S. Erlingsson, in 1177; and which he compiled from correspond very nearly with those of the Common ancient genealogical tables and other documents. Snipe. The GREAT S., or SOLITARY S. (S. or G. major), It was translated into Danish about 1559 by Peder is comparatively a rare bird in Britain, but abounds Clauson, and published first by Olaf Worm (Cop. in the extensive marshes of continental Europe, and 1633). This translation has been republished in is found also in `Asia. Its entire length is about more recent times by Gruntvig (3 vols., Cop. 1818124 inches, the bill not quite so long in proportion 1822) and others. German, Swedish, and Latin as that of the Common Snipe. There are 16 versions have also been executed. S. S. is believed feathers in the tail.—The JACK S., or JUDCOCK (S. or to have had a share in collecting and arranging the G. gallinula), the smallest of the British species, is songs of the elder or poetic Edda (q. v.), and to have like the Common S. in plumage. It is common in contributed very materially towards the compilaBritain, but mostly as a winter visitant, and is tion of the Skalda and other parts of the younger found also, during summer or winter, in most or prose Edda. parts of Europe and of the north of Asia.--North SNOW is the frozen moisture which falls from America has a number of species. The COMMON the atmosphere when the temperature is 32° or AMERICAN S. (S. or G. Wilsoni) is about equal in size lower. It is composed of crystals, usually in the to the Common S. of Europe, and much resembles form of six-pointed stars, of which about 1000 it also in plumage. The tail has 16 feathers. This different kinds have been already observed, and species is abundant in summer in the northern parts many of them figured, by Scoresby, Glaisher, and of the United States and in Canada, in the more others. These numerous forms have been reduced southern states in winter. It is in much request for to the following five principal varieties 1. Thin the table, and is often caught in snares.--Snipes are plates, the inost numerous class, containing several found also in other parts of the world. The name hundred forms of the rarest and most exquisite S. is extended in popular usage to include the beauty (tigs. 1 to 6). 2. A spherical nucleus or genus Macrorhamphus, in which the outer toes are connected at the base by a membrane. In other characters, as well as in piumage and habits, the similarity to the true snipes is very great. The RED-BREASTED S., or BROWN S. (M. griseus), of North America has been occasionally seen in Britain and in Scandinavia. In size it is nearly equal to the Common Snipe. SNIPE-FISH. See TRUMPET-FISH.
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. SNI'ZORT, LOCH, a large and picturesque inlet plane figure studded with needle-shaped crristals of the sea, in the north-west of Skye (q. v.), between ifis 8)
1 (fig. 8). 3. Six or more rarely three sided pris. Trotternish Point and Vaternish Point. At its im
| matic crystals. 4. Pyramids of six sides (fig. 9). head, the loch is only a few furlongs broad; but it
5. Prismatic crystals, having at the ends and gradually expands and at its entrance the breadth
middle thin plates perpendicular to their length is over 7 miles. It is 13 miles long.
(fig. 7). The forms of the crystals in the same SNORRI STURLESSON, a learned historian, fall of snow are generally similar to each other. and a distinguished Icelandic politician, was born in The crystals of hoar-frost being formed on leaves 1178 at Hvamma, in Iceland, where his family, who and other bodies disturbing the temperature, traced their descent to the ancient kings of Nor- are often irregular and opaque ; and it has been way and Sweden, had been settled since the early observed that each tree or shrub has its own colonisation of the island. S. S. was placed at an peculiar crystals. Snow-flakes vary from an inch early age under the care of Jon Loptson, the grand- to 17ths of an inch iu diameter, the largest occur. son of Sæmund Sigfusson, the learned compiler of ring when the temperature is near 32°, and the the old Edda, by whom he was instructed in the smallest at very low temperatures. As air has a
smaller capacity for retaining its vapour as the from 10 to 12 times lighter than an equal bulk of temperature sinks, it follows that the aqueous water. From its loose texture, and its containing precipitation, snow or rain, is much less in polar about 10 times its bulk of air, it is a very bad
conductor of heat, and thus forms an admirable covering for the earth from the effects of radiationit not unfrequently happening, in times of great colil, that the soil is 40° warmer than the surface of the overlying snow. The flooding of rivers from the melting of the snow on mountains in summer, carries fertility into regions which would otherwise remain barren wastes.
SNOW-BALL TREE. See GUELDER ROSE.
SNOWBERRY (Symphoricarpus or Symphoria racemosa), a bushy deciduous shrub of the natural order Caprifoliaceće, a native of the northern parts of North America, and now very common in British shrubberies. It has simple leaves and small flowers; berries about the size of black currants, remaining on the bush after the leaves, quite white, but uneatable. The name SNOWBERRY is also given to Chiogenes hispidula, a native of the bogs of North America.
SNOW BUNTING, or SNOWFLECK (PlectroFig. 5.
phanes nivalis), a bird of the Bunting family (Frin
Snow Bunting (Plectrophanes nivalis). gillidce), of a genus distinguished from the true buntings by the long and nearly straight claw of the hindtoe, in this resembling the larks. There is also an approach to larks in habits; there is a similar ease and celerity in running along the ground, and the song is very different from that of any of the true buntings. The S. B. abounds in summer in all parts of the arctic regions, and in winter in more southern countries of Europe, Asia, and America. Linnæus says it is the only living creature that has been seen 2000 feet above the limits of perpetual snow on the mountains of Lapland. Great flocks are seen in New York, particularly in severe winters. The Greenlanders
kill great numbers, and dry them for winter use. Fig. 6.
SNOW BIRD (Junco hyenralis), one of the Frin
gillidce, extremely abundant in the winter in the and forming the white light out of which they had United States, but retiring to Canada in summer to been originally formed. It may be added that the breed. It breeds also on the summits of the Alleghaair contained in the crystals intensities the white-nies to Georgia. It is slate-coloured, below the middle ness of the snow. See RED SNOW. The limit of of the breast white, bill white. It has a weak, the fall of snow coincides nearly with 30° N. lat., musical note. Other species of Junco occur in the
SNOW'DON, a mountain-range in Caernarvonshire, North Wales, stretches in a north-east-by. north direction from a point 5 miles north of Cricceith, near the head of Cardigan Bay, to near Conway; but is broken up by valleys and river.
courses into four mountain groups, whose chief Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9.
peaks are Carnedd-Llewelyn, 3460 feet; Moel.
Siabod, 2878 feet; and Moel-y-Wyddfa ("the Conwhich includes nearly the whole of Europe ; on spicuous Peak'), the highest mountain in South traversing the Atlantic, it rises to 45°, but on nearing Britain, 3571 feet above sea-level. Seen from the top, America descends to near Charleston ; rises on the Moel-y-Wyddfa, the “King of Snowdonia,' appears west of America to 47°, and again falls to 40° in the to send out three ridges, which gradually divide Pacific. It corresponds nearly with the winter and subdivide, giving birth to numerous valleys and isothermal of 52° Fah. Snow is unknown at corries. The ascent of the highest peak of s. is Gibraltar; at Paris, it falls 12 days on an average effected by tourists from Llanberis on the north), annually, and at St Petersburg 170 days. It is Beddgelert (on the south), Llyn-C'wellyn (on the
west), and Capel Curig (on the east); the first is From lat. 0° to 20°, it sinks only a very little ; from shortest and easiest; the last is longest, most diffi- 20° to 70°, it continues to fall equably; but from cult, but at the same time by far the grandest. The 70° to 78°, it sinks with great rapidity. To this district of Snowdonia' was made a royal forest by general statement there are some important excep. Edward I. of England, but was disafforested in 1649. tions. It is about 4000 feet higher on the north than
SNOWDROP (Galanthus), a genus of plants of it is on the south side of the Himalaya, owing to the the natural order Amarullidece, of the same tribe greater depth of snow that falls on the south side : with Amaryllis, Snowflake, Crinum, &c. The three to the greater dryness of the climate of Tibet, which outer segments of the perianth spread, so as to
increases the evaporation and the heating power of make a bell-shaped flower; the three inner are
the sun's rays; and to the naked rocks and soil of shorter, erect, and notched at the summit. The
the north absorbing more heat than surfaces covered flowers arise from a spathe. The root is bulbous,
with vegetation. It is higher in the oentre of conand produces two leaves and one single-flowered |
tinents than near the coasts (the rain being less, and leafless stem (scape). The Common S. (G, nivalis),
the heat greater), as seen on comparing the Pyrenees
Norway, about 23°.
SNOW-SHOES, a species of shoe much used by
the Esquimaux, Laplanders, and a plant too well known to need description, is al others who inhabit those regions native chiefly of the south of Europe, growing in W
in where snow prevails for a great woods and pastures. It is found apparently wild I
1. Siia 1 portion of the year. It consists in some places both in England and Scotland, but
ut of a flat frame, of a lanceolate is probably rather naturalised than native, having form (see fig.), from 8 to 14 long been much cultivated in gardens. Another
inches in breadth at its widest species of S. (G. plicatus), with much broader | part, and of great length-someleaves, is found in the south of Russia and in
times as inuch as 7, though Asiatic Turkey.
generally about 4 feet. It is SNOW-LINE. The snow-line marks that height
either wholly of wood, or is a
| wooden framne filled in with above the sea-level below which all the snow that
wicker-work or thongs, and has fails annually melts during summer ; higher than
cross-straps on the upper surface this lies the region of perpetual snow. No general
to attach it to the foot. The rule for the height of this line can be given, owing bro
ng | broad surface prevents the foot to the different causes which may determine it. If
from sinking in the snow. These are the situation of the slope in respect of
Snow-shoe. the sun's rays, and hence, other things being equal,
SNUFF. See TOBACCO.. it is higher on the south than on the north side of SNYDERS, or SNEYDERS, FRANCIS, a Belgian mountains; the situation with respect to the rain-artist, celebrated for his powers as an animal. bringing winds ; the steepness of the slope ; and painter, was born at Antwerp in 1579, and was the dryness or humidity of the region. The formed in the school of Henry van Baelen. Origifollowing are the observed heights of the snow-line nally, he confined himself exclusively to painting in English feet, in different parts of the globe :
fruits, and worked with Rubens. In his pictures,
with figures by Rubens, Jordaens, Honthorst, and
N, Lato | Height. Mierevelt, it is difficult to discover any difference Spitzbergen, i
of touch. 78
For Philip III. of Spain he executed Sulitilina, Lapland
3,835 several hunting and battle pieces. S. knew how to Kamtchatka, .
59 5 249 give expression to the passions of the lower creation, Unalaschta, W. America,
and his bear, wolf, and boar fights are scarcely · · ·
7,0.54 · Alps, . . . .
8,885 surpassable. The best specimens of the artist are Caucasus, ...
11.063 contained in the galleries of Vienna, Munich, and }'yrenees, . .
Dresden, but there are also some fine pictures of his Rocky Mountains,
12, +67 North Himalaya,
in private English collections. S. died at Antwerp South Himalaya, .
15,500) in 1657. Mountains of Abyssinia,
14.065 Purace, . . . .
21 15,381 · SOAP (Lat. sapo(n), Welsh sebon-the Romans
considered soap to be a Celtic invention). This Height.
well-known material, according to Pliny, first became Nevados of Quito,
known to the Romans by their conquest of Gaul. Arequipa, Bolivia, .
10 17,717 Paachata, Boliviil, .
There are some notices of it in the English version Portillo, Chili, .
1.473 of the Bible, but it is believed that the words borith Cordilleras Chili
6,010 and nether, there rendered into soap, really mean Magellan Strait,
potash and soda.