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the compound is poured into a mould. Authorities Benedict, Abbot of Wearmouth, brought one from differ as to the best proportions of the copper Italy for his church about 680. Pope Sabinian (600) and tin. Some give 80 parts of copper to 20 of ordained that every hour.should be announced by tin, or 4 to l; others state the proportions as sound of bell, that the people might be warned of the being 3 to 1. In the reign of Henry III., of approach of the horo canonico, or hours of devotion. England, it would seem to have been 2 to l; and Bells came into use in the East in the 9th c., and in the small bronze bells discovered by Mr. Layard Switzerland and Germany in the 11th. Most of in the palace of Nimroud, are found to contain 10 the bells first used in Western Christendom seem of copper to 1 of tin. Hand-bells are often made of to have been hand-bells. Several examples, some brass, antimony alloyed with tin, German silver, of them, it is believed, as old as the 6th c., are still

preserved in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. They are made of thin plates of hammered iron, bent into a four-sided form, fastened with rivets, and brazed or bronzed. Perhaps the most remarkable is that which is said to have belonged to St. Patrick, called the Clog-an-eadhachta Phatriac, or "The bell of Patrick's Will.' It is 6 inches high, 5 inches broad, and 4 inches deep, and is kept in a case or shrine of brass, enriched with gems and with gold and silver filigree, and made (as an inscription in Irish shews) between the years 1091 and 1105. The bell itself is believed to be mentioned in the Annals of Ulster as early as the year 552. Engravings as well of the bell as of its shrine, with a history of both, by the Rev. Dr. Reeves of Lusk, were published at Belfast (where the relic is preserved) in 1850. Some of the Scotch bells, of the same primitive type, are figured and described in the Illustrated Cata

logue of the Archæological Museum at Edinburgh in Queen Mary's silver-gilt Hand-bell.

1856 (Edin. 1859). The four-sided bell of St. Gall, an

Irish missionary, who died about 646, is still shewn real silver, and gold.

The notion that in old times silver was mixed with bell-metal to sweeten the tone, is a mistake. Silver, in any quantity, would injure the tone. The quality of depends not only on the composition of the metal it is made of, but very much also on its shape, and on the proportions between its height, width, and thickness ; for which the bell-founder has rules derived from experience, and confirmed by science. The pitch of a bell is higher the smaller it is. For a peal of four bells to give the pure chord of ground tone (key-note), third, fifth, and octave, the diameters require to be as 30, 24, 20, 15, and the weights as 80, 41, 24, 10. tity of metal than is due to the calibre of the bell though giving the same note, produces a meagre harsh sound, and the real or fancied superiority in dignity of tone of some old bells, is ascribed to a greater weight of metal having been allowed for the

St. Ninian's Bell, as figured in the above work. same note than modern economy would dictate. Bells have been cast of steel, some of which have in the monastery of the city which bears his mame in had a tone nearly equal in fineness to that of Switzerland. Church-bells were suspended either in the best bell-metal but deficient in length, having the steeples or church-towers, or in special bellless vibration. Some have also been cast of glass, towers. They were long of comparatively small with a considerable thickness of the material; and size : the bell which a king presented to the church these give an extremely fine sound, but are too of Orleans in the 11th c., and which was remarkbrittle to stand the continued use of a clapper. able in its age, weighed only 2600 pounds. In the

From a remote antiquity, cymbals and hand- 13th c., much larger bells began to be cast, but bells were used in religious ceremonies. In Egypt, it was not until the 15th c. that they reached it is certain that the feast of Osiris was announced really considerable dimensions. The bell Jacqueline' by ringing bells; Aaron, and other Jewish high of Paris, cast in 1300, weighed 15,000 pounds; priests, wore golden bells attached to their vest- another Paris bell, cast in 1472, weighed 25,000; the ments; and in Athens, the priests of Cybele used famous bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, weighed 36,364 bells in their rites. The Greeks employed them pounds. The largest bell in the world is the Great (koda) in camps and garrison; and the Romans Bell or Monarch of Moscow, above 21 feet in height announced the hour of bathing and of business by and diameter, and weighing 193 tons. It was cast the tintinnabulum. The introduction of bells into in 1734, but fell down during a fire in 1737, was Christian churches is usually ascribed to Paulinus, injured, and remained sunk in the earth till 1837, Bishop of Nola in Campania (400 A. D.); but there when it was raised, and now forms the dome of a is no evidence of their existence for a century later. chapel made by excavating the space below it. That they were first made in Campania, is inferred Another Moscow bell, cast in 1819, weighs 80 tons. from the name given to them-campance; hence The Great Bell at Pekin, 14 feet high, with a diamecampanile, the bell-tower. Their use in churches ter of 13 feet, weighs 534 tons; those of Olmütz, and monasteries soon spread through Christendom. Rouen, and Vienna, nearly 18 tons; that first cast They were introduced into France about 550; and for the New Palace at Westminster (but cracked);


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14 tons; that of the Roman Catholic cathedral | the body.'.. The tolling of the passing-bell was at Montreal (cast 1847) 131 tons; "Great Peter,' retained at the Reformation; and the people were

instructed that its use was to admonish the living, and excite them to pray for the dying. But by the beginning of the 18th c., the passing-bell, in the proper sense of the term, had almost ceased to be heard. The tolling, indeed, continued in the old fashion; but it took place after the death, instead of before. The practice of slowly and solemnly tolling church-bells at deaths, or while funerals are being conducted, is still a usage in various parts of the country, more particularly as a mark of respect for the deceased. There is another use of the bell in religion, called the pardon or ave bell, abolished among Protestants. The pardon-bell was tolled before and after divine service, for some time prior to the Reformation, to call the worshippers to a preparatory prayer to the Virgin Mary before engaging in the solemnity, and an invocation for pardon at its close. Bishop Burnet has recorded the order of a bishop of Sarum, in 1538, concerning

the discontinuance of the custom. It runs thus: Great Bell at Moscow.

That the bell called the pardon or ave bell, which

of longe tyme hathe been used to be tolled three placed in York Minster 1845, 104 tons; “Great tymes after and before divine service, be not hereTom'at Lincoln, 57 tons; Great Bell of St Paul's, after in any part of my diocesse any more tollyd.' 5 jo tons.-See an interesting article on Bells in The ringing of the curfew-bell, supposed to have the Quarterly Review for September 1854.

been introduced into England by William the ConFrom old usage, bells are intimately connected queror, was a custom of a civil or political nature, with the services of the Christian church--so much and only strictly observed till the end of the reign so, that apparently from a spirit of opposition, the of William Rufus. Its object was to warn the public Mohammedans reject the use of bells, and substitute to extinguish their fires and lights at eight o'clock for them the cry of the Imaum from the top of the in the evening. The eight o'clock ringing is still mosques. Associated in various ways with the continued in many parts of England and Scotland. ancient ritual of the church, bells acquired a kind of As the liberty of public worship in places of sacred character. They were founded with religious meeting by theniselves was yielded to dissenters, ceremonies (see Schiller's ode), and consecrated by by the various governments of Europe, only with å complete baptismal service; received names, had reluctance, the use of bells in chapels as a summons sponsors, were sprinkled with water, anointed, and to divine service is not allowed except in the more finally covered with the white garment or chrisom, enlightened countries. Speaking on this subject as like infants. This usage is as old as the time of referring to England, Lord Chief-justice Jervis, in Alcuin, and is still practised in Roman Catholic giving judgment on a case tried at the Croydon countries. Bells had mostly pious inscriptions, often assizes in 1851, says: "With regard to the right of indicative of the wide-spread belief in the mysterious using bells in places of worship at all, by the comvirtue of their sound. They were beliered to

beliered to mon law, churches of every denomination have a full disperse storms and pestilence, drive away enemies, right to use bells, and it is a vulgar error to suppose extinguish fire, &c. A coinmon inscription in the that there is any distinction at the present time in middle ages was:

this respect.' Throughout England and Scotland, Funera plango, fulgura frango, Sabbata pango,

however, comparatively few dissenting places of Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos.

worship possess bells-still fewer have steeples. In

towns and villages, the places of worship connected Among the superstitious usages recorded to have with the established church are commonly distintaken place in old St Paul's Church in London, guished by some kind of belfry or bell-cote with was the ‘ringinge the hallowed belle in great bells. The ringing of these for divine service on tempestes or lightninges' (Brand's Popular Anti- Sundays, and on other occasions, forms the theme quities, vol. i.). From this superstition possibly of many poetical allusions. The lines of Cowper sprang the later notion, that when the great will occur to recollection : bell of St Paul's tolled (which it does only on the death of a member of the royal family, or a distin

How soft the music of those village bells, guished personage in the city) it turned all the

Falling at interval, upon the ear,

In cadence sweet! now dying all away, beer sour in the neighbourhood-a fancy facetiously

Now pealing loud again, and louder still, referred to by Washington Irving in the Sketch- Clear and sonorous as the gale comes on. Book. It would seem that the strange notion that bells are efficacious in dispelling storms, is by no On all that belongs to the playing of bells in means extinct. In 1852, the Bishop of Malta belfries, the inventive genius of the Netherlands ordered the church-bells to be rung for an hour to long since arrived at proficiency. In some of allay a gale.

the church-towers of that country, the striking, Church-bells were at one time tolled for those chiming, and playing of bells is incessant; the passing out of the world. It was a prevailing tinkling called chimes usually accompanies the superstition that bells had the power to terrify evil striking of the hours, half-hours, and quarters; spirits, no less than to dispel storms; and the while the playing of 'tunes comes in as a special custom of ringing what was called the passing-bell, divertisement. In some instances, these tune

grew (we quote the writer in the Quarterly Řeview playing bells are sounded by means of a cylinder, above referred to] out of the belief that devils on the principle of a barrel-organ; but in others, troubled the expiring patient, and lay in wait to they are played with keys by a musician. The afflict the soul the moment when it escaped from | French apply the term carillons to the tunes played BELL-BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE.



on bells; but in England, it is more usual to in the dark; and hung on cows, goats, or sheep, give the term carillons to the suites of bells which these animals can be easily found in the woods, or yield this kind of music. In this last sense, the on the mountains. The charming poetical allusion tower of Les Halles, a large building at Bruges, of Gray-is allowed to contain the finest carillons in Europe. There is a set of music bells of this kind in the

And drowsy tinklings lull the distant foldssteeple of St Giles's Church, Edinburgh. On these, will be called to remembrance. In some parts of tunes are played for an hour daily at certain seasons England, as many as eight small bells, forming an by a musician, who has a small salary from the octave, are attached to the harness of wagon-horses; civic corporation.

and the sounds produced are very pleasant. The Many of the church-towers in London are pro-attaching of bells in a fanciful manner to riding and vided with peals of bells, the ringing of which sleigh-horses is common in some parts of Europe and is a well-known practice. Eight bells, which form America. an octave or diatonic scale, make the most perfect

The term bell is infused in much of our con

onverpeal. The variety of changes or permutations of order tional phraseology. "To bear the bell,' is a phrase that can be rung on a peal, increases enormously which we previously attempted to explain. At one with the number of bells : 3 bells allow 6 changes; period, a silver bell was the prize in horse-races in 4 bells, 24 12 bells give as many as 479,001,600 England, and the winning horse was said to bear changes. The ringing of peals differs entirely from away the bell. A less probable explanation is, tolling--a distinction not sufficiently recognised in that the phrase originated in the custom of one of those places where an ordinary ringing of bells is the most forward sheep in a flock carrying a bell. made to suffice alike for solemin and festive occa- Hence at least, “bell-wether of the flock,' a phrase sions. The merry peal almost amounts to an English applied disparagingly to the leader of a party. The national institution. It consists in ringing the peal old fable, in which a sagacious mouse proposes that in moderately quick time, and in a certain order, a bell shall be hung on the neck of the cat, so that without interruption, for the space of an hour. all the mice may be duly warned of her approach, Merry peals are rung at marriages (if ordered), and has given rise to the well-known phrase of 'belling at other festive events, the ringers being properly the cat.' Any one who openly and courageously paid, according to use and wont. The English appear does something to lower the offensive pretensions to be fond of these peals, and the associations which of a powerful and dangerous person, is said “to bell they call up. They actually make bequests to the cat.' endow periodical peals in their parish church-towers; The hanging of bells in dwelling-houses, and leaving, for example, so much money to ring a merry ringing them by means of wires from the different peal for an hour on a certain evening of the week, or apartments, is quite a modern invention; for it was to commemorate victories, or some other subjects of not known in England in the reign of Queen Anne. national rejoicing, in all time coming. One of the Now the use of room-bells is universal. Lately, most celebrated peals of bells in London is that of there has been a great improvement in domestic St Mary-Le-Bow, Cheapside, which form the basis of bell-hanging. Instead of traversing the apartments, a proverbial expression meant to mark emphatically and turning and winding by means of cranks, the a London nativity-Born within the sound of wires are carried directly upward in small tubes in Bow-bells.' Brand speaks of a substantial endow- the walls to the garret: thence from a row of ment by a citizen for the ringing of Bow-bells early cranks, they descend together to their respective every morning to wake up the London apprentices. bells, which are hung in one of the lower passages. The ringing of bells in token of merriment is an old In the larger hotels of the United States, wires usage in England, as we learn from Shakspeare:

from the several apartments operate on a single

bell, at the same time developing a number on a Get thee gone, and dig my grave thyself, And bid the merry bells ring to thy ear,

board corresponding to the number of the room

where attendance is required. This ingenious conThat thou art crowned, not that I am dead.

trivance, which has been introduced into one of the Sometimes, in compliment to a newly

a newly opened large hotels in Paris, saves the perplexity which church, efforts are made to furnish its belfry with would ensue from some hundreds of bells. the proper number of bells, and to endow it at BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE.

The excomonce for a weekly merry peal. It is common for munication by B., B., and C. is a solenınity belonging some of the humbler class of parishioners to form to the Church of Rome. The officiating minister proa company of bell-ringers, acting under the authority nounces the formula of excommunication, consisting of the church-wardens. Some endowments for peals of maledictions on the head of the person anatheembrace a supper, as well as a money-payment to matised, and closes the pronouncing of the sentence the ringers; and of course, in such circumstances, there is little risk of the merry peal falling into a lighted candle and casting it to the ground, and desuetude. The consequence is, that what with tolling the bell as for the dead. This mode of marriages, and other festive celebrations, and as a excommunication appears to have existed in the result of endowments, merry peals are almost con- western churches as early as the 8th c. stantly going on somewhere in the metropolis-a bolism may be explained by quoting two or three fine proof, it may be said, of the naturally cheerful sentences from the conclusion of the form of exconiand generous temperament of the English, and of munication used in the Scottish Church before the their respect for old customs. In Lancashire, the Reformation : Cursed be they from the crown of art of playing on bells is cultivated with much the head to the sole of the foot. Out be they taken enthusiasm and success. The bells are small, and of the book of life. And as this candle is cast from arranged on a movable stand; they are struck by the sight of men, so be their souls cast from the a small instrument which is held in each hand of sight of God into the deepest pit of hell. Amen.' the performer, and produce a sweet tinkling kind The rubric adds: “And then the candle being dashed of music.

on the ground and quenched, let the bell be rung.' The custom of hanging bells on the necks of So, also, the sentence of excommunication against horses, cows, and other animals, was in use by the the murderers of the Archbishop of Dublin in 1534:

Its sym

Romans, and survives till our own day. Hung on · And to the terror and fear of the said damnable

the necks of horses, the bells give notice of approach persons, in sign and figure that they be accursed of BELL OF A CAPITAL-BELL, SIR C.

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God, and their bodies committed into the hands of published a tractate on education, recommending Satan, we have rung these bells, erected this cross the monitorial system, as it was now called, and with the figure of Christ; and as ye see this candle's admitting B. to be the original inventor of it, light taken from the cross and the light quenched, an admission which he afterwards discreditably so be the said cursed murderers excluded from the retracted. Lancasterian schools now began to spread light of heaven, the fellowship of angels, and all over the country. The church grew alarmed at Christian people, and sent to the low darkness of the successful results of the efforts made by disfiends and damned creatures, among whom ever- senters to educate the poor, and resolved to be lasting pains do endure.'

philanthropical ere it was too late.

B. was put BELL OF A CAPITAL is the capital of a pillar up against Lancaster. Money was collected, and

an immense amount of emulation was excited in denuded of the foliage, in which case it resembles the bosoms of churchmen. Fortunately, however, the form of a bell reversed.

this rivalry produced only beneficial effects, and BELL ROCK, or INCH CAPE, a reef of old the motives which induced it may therefore be

red sandstone rocks in the forgotten. Later in life, B. was made a pre-
German Ocean, 12 miles south- bendary of Westminster, and Master of Sherborn
east of Arbroath, and nearly Hospital, Durham. He was also a member of
opposite the mouth of the various learned societies. He died at Cheltenham,
Tay. The reef is 2,000 feet January 28, 1832. He left (besides a valual estate)
long; at spring-tides, part of £120,000 of three per-cent. stocks for the purpose
it is uncovered to the height of founding various educational institutions in
of four feet; and for 100 yards Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, Inverness,
around, the sea is only three Cupar, and St. Andrews.
fathoms deep. It was formerly BELL, SIR CHARLES, an eminent surgeon, whose
a fruitful cause of shipwreck, discoveries in the nervous system have given him a
and, according to tradition, European fame, was born at Edinburgh in 1778,
the abbot of Aberbrothwick and while a mere youth, assisted his brother John
(Arbroath) placed a bell on it, (afterwards noticed) in his anatomical lectures
fixed upon a tree or timber, and demonstrations. In 1797, he was admitted
which rang continually, being a member of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons,
moved by the sea, giving and soon after appointed one of the surgeons of
notice to the saylers of the the Royal Infirmary. In 1806, he proceeded to
danger.' This tradition has London, and for some years lectured with great
been embodied by Southey in success on anatomy and surgery at the academy
his well-known ballad of The in Great Windmill Street. Admitted in 1812, a
Inchcape Rock. A light-house, member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London,

on the plan of the Eddystone he was elected one of the surgeons of the Middlesex Section of Bell Rock one, and a fine example of Hospital, in which institution he delivered clinical Light House, engineering skill, was com- lectures, and raised it to the highest repute. To

pleted on the reef in 1811, and obtain a knowledge of gunshot wounds, he twice a revolving light exhibited. The structure is 115 feet relinquished his London engagements the first time high, is 42 feet in diameter at base, and 23 at top, is after the battle of Corunna in 1809, when he visited solid for the first 30 feet upwards, 15 feet of which the wounded landed on the southern coasts of Eng. is under water at high tide, and cost upwards of land; the other, after the battle of Waterloo, when £60,000.

he repaired to Brussels, and was put in charge of a BELL, ANDREW, D.D., author of the “Madras hospital with 300 men. In 1824, he was appointed System of Education,' was born at St. Andrews in senior Professor of Anatomy and Surgery to the Royal 1753, and educated at the university of that place. College of Surgeons, London, and subsequently a Subsequently, he took orders in the Church of Eng- member of the council. On the establishment of the land ; and after residing for some time in British London University, now University College, in 1826, America, was appointed one of the chaplains at Fort B. was placed at the head of their new medical St. George, Madras. While here, he was intrusted school. He delivered the general opening lecture by the directors of the East India Company with in his own section, and followed it by a regular the management of an institution for the education course of characteristic lectures on physiology ; but of the orphan children of the European military. soon resigned, and confined himself to his extensive The arduous character of his new duties compelled practice, which was chiefly in nervous affections. him to reflect seriously on the best means of fulfilling In 1831, he was one of the five eminent men in them. As he found it impossible to obtain the science knighted on the accession of William IV., services of properly qualified ushers, he at length the others being Sir John Herschel, Sir David resorted to the expedient of conducting the school Brewster, Sir John Leslie, and Sir James Ivory. In by the aid of the scholars themselves. Hence origi- 1836, he was elected Professor of Surgery in the nated the far-famed system of Mutual Instruction' university of Edinburgh. He was a fellow of the (q. v.). After superintending the institution for Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh, and a seven years, the state of his health forced him to member of some other learned bodies. Author of return to Europe. On his departure, he received various works on surgery and the nervous system, a most flattering testimonial from the directors and editor, jointly with Lord Brougham, of Paley's of the school. În 1797, after his arrival in Eng. Evidences of Natural Religion, B. was one of the eight land, B. published a pamphlet entitled An Experi- distinguished men selected to write the celebrated ment in Education, made at the Male Asylum of Bridgewater Treatises, his contribution being on Madras ; suggesting a System by which à School The Hand, its Mechanism and Vital Endowments, or Family may teach itself under the Superintend- as evincing Design (1834).

He died suddenly, ence of the Master or Parent. This pamphlet April 30, 1842. Among his principal works are: attracted little attention, until Joseph Lancaster, The Anatomy of the Brain Explained, in a Series a dissenter, commenced to work upon the system, of Engravings, 12 plates (Lond. 1802, 4to); A and succeeded in obtaining for it à large measure Series of Engravings, explaining the Course of the of public recognition. In 1803, Lancaster also Nerves (Lond. 1804, 4to); Essays on the Anatomy




of Expression in Painting, plates (Lond. 1806, BELL, JOHN, of Antermony, a celebrated Asiatic 4t0); posthumous edition, much enlarged, entitled traveller, born in the west of Scotland in 1691, The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression as studied for the medical profession. In 1714, he connected with the Fine Arts (Lond. 1844, 8vo); went to St. Petersburg, and soon after was appointed A System of Operative Surgery, 2 vols. (Lond. 1807 physician to an embassy from Russia to Persia. In -1809; 2d ed. 1814); Vissertation on Gunshot 1719, he was sent upon another to China, through Wounds (Lond. 1814, 2 vols. 8vo); Anatomy and Siberia. In 1737, he was sent on an embassy to Physiology of the Human Body, 3 vols. (1816); Constantinople, and afterwards settled for some various papers on the nervous system, which origi- years in the Turkish capital as a merchant. In nally appeared in the Philosophical Transactions ; 1747, he returned to Scotland, and died at AnterExposition of the Natural System of the Nerves of mony, July 1, 1780. His Travels from St. Petersburg the Human Body (1824); Institutes of Surgery to various parts in Asia, in 2 vols. 4to, were pub(Edin. 2 vols. 1838, 12mo); Animal Mechanics, lished by subscription at Glasgow in 1763. From contributed to the Library for the Diffusion of its simplicity of style, the work has been described Useful Knowledge (1828); Nervous System of the as 'the best model, perhaps, for travel-writing in Human Body, 1830, 4to complete edition (Edin. the English language.' 1836, 8vo).

BELL, John, an eminent surgeon, second son of BELL, GEORGE Joseph, an eminent lawyer, the Rev. William Bell, an Episcopal minister in brother to the above, was born at Edinburgh 26th Edinburgh, was born in that city, May 12, 1763. March 1770, and passed advocate in 1791. Acknow. He studied under the celebrated Black, Cullen, and ledged one of the greatest masters of commercial Monro secundus ; and while attending the anatomy jurisprudence of his time, and in particular of that classes of Dr. Monro, first conceived the idea of department of it which relates to the laws of bank- teaching the application of the science of anatomy to ruptcy, he was, in 1822, appointed Professor of Scots practical surgery. He commenced, in 1786, lecturLaw in Edinburgh University; and in 1823, a mem- ing at Edinburgh on surgery and anatomy, and in ber of the commission for inquiring into Scottish 1793 published the first volume of his Anatomy judicial proceedings. Subsequently, he was member of the Human Body ; in 1797, appeared the second of a commission to examine into and simplify the volume; and in 1802, the third. A volume of anamode of procedure in the Court of Session. On tomical drawings by himself, illustrative of the structhe report, drawn up by B., was founded the ture of the bones, muscles, and joints, was published Scottish Judicature Act, prepared by him, which in 1794 ; and another volume, illustrative of the effected many important changes in the forms of arteries, with drawings by his brother, afterwards process in the superior courts of Scotland; the jury Sir Charles Bell, appeared in 1801. In 1798, B. court being abolished as a separate judicature, and passed some weeks at Yarmouth among the seamen conjoined with the Court of Session. Appointed in of Lord Duncan's feet wounded at Camperdown; 1831 one of the clerks of the Court of Session, he and in 1800 he published a Memorial concerning the was, in 1833, chairman of the Royal Commission to Present State of Military Surgery. His System of examine into the state of the law in general. He the Anatomy of the Human Body, and his Disn also prepared a bill for the establishment of a Court courses on the Nature and Cure of Wounds (Edin. of Bankruptcy in Scotland. His principal works 1793-1795), were translated into German. are--Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland, and on classical scholar, he was distinguished alike for the Principles of Mercantile Jurisprudence (Edin. his great conversational powers and general infor1810, 4to; 5th ed. 1826, 2 vols. 4to); Principles of mation. Early in 1816, he was thrown from his the Law of Scotland (Edin. 1829, 8vo; 4th ed. 1839, horse, and, his health declining, he went to Paris, 8vo); and Commentaries on the Recent Statutes Rela- and thence proceeded to Italy. He died at Rome, tive to Diligence or Execution against the movable of dropsy, April 15, 1820. Besides the works Estate, Imprisonment, Cessio Bonorum, and Seques- mentioned, he was the author of The Principles of tration in Mercantile Bankruptcy (Edin. 1840, 4to). Surgery, 3 vols. 4to, 1801-1807 ; new edition, Died 23d September 1843.

edited by his brother, Sir Charles Bell, 1826. A BELL, HENRY, the successful introducer of steam- edited by Bishop Sandford of Edinburgh, was

posthumous work entitled Observations on Italy, navigation into Europe, fifth son of Patrick Bell, a mechanic

, was born at Torphichen, Linlithgowshire, published by his widow. Scotland, April 7, 1767. After working three years BELL, John, an eminent sculptor, remarkable as a stone-mason, he was, in 1783, apprenticed to for rejecting the classical antique model, and followhis uncle, a mill-wright. He was instructed in ship- ing nature only in his works, born in Norfolk in modelling at Borrowstounness, and completed his 1812, first exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, knowledge of mechanics with an engineer at Bell's in 1832, a religious group. His works are numerous Hill. Repairing to London, he was employed by and of high and original merit. B.'s statues of Lord the celebrated Mr. Rennie. About 1790 he returned Falkland, exhibited in model at Westminster Hall, to Glasgow, and in 1808 removed to Helensburgh, 1847, and Sir Robert Walpole, 1854, were commiswhere he kept the principal inn, and devoted him sioned for the new Houses of Parliament. One of self to mechanical experiments. How far B. was his latest designs is a monument to the Guards anticipated by Fulton and others, in his application who fell in the Crimea, executed in 1858. In of steam to navigation, will be considered under the decorative art, he has also distinguished himself, head of STEAM NavigaTION. In January 1812, a having modelled many objects for the drawingsmall vessel, 40 feet in length, called the Comet, room table, combining the practical with the ornabuilt under his directions, and with an engine mental. B. is the author of a Free Hand Drawingconstructed by himself, was launched on the Clyde book, for the Use of Artisans. with success—the first on European waters. Five BELL, ROBERT, an industrious and versatile years previously, on October 3, 1807, Mr. Fulton, literary writer, the son of a magistrate, was born at an American inventor and engineer, had placed the Cork, 10th January 1800, and when very young, first steam-boat on the Hudson. B. died at Helens- obtained an appointment in a government departburgh, November 14, 1830. A monument was ment in Dublin. He was for a time editor of erected to his memory at Dunglass Point on the the government journal, The Patriot. In 1828, Clyde.

he removed to London, and was appointed editor

A good

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