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raraphernalia of quite modern production. For two 2. For the lead and choice of balls, the players centuries, B. was played with only two balls: and string--that is to say, placing their balls within the when the third or red ball was imported from semicircle, they strike them against the furthermost France, the red winning hazard--that is to say, the cushion, in order to see which will return nearest holing of the red ball—was almost the sole object of the cushion next to them: the owner of the ball so the performers. The cushions also, now universally placed, provided it does not strike the other ball, constructed of india-rubber, up to a recent date has then the option: but after the first match, the were lined with felt. In no game are knowledge winner of each game leads. and manual dexterity so combined as in B., nor 3. The red ball on the spot at the upper end is can the spectacle of first-rate play be appreciated, replaced there on being put into a pocket, knocked or the difficulties which it overcomes be understood, off the table, or when the balls are 'broken '(sce 1:) except by those who have a scientific as well as after a foul stroke; but should any ball be on thić practical acquaintance with the game.
spot, or so near to it as to prevent the red being A billiard-table varies in size, but it is generally placed there without touching the ball, the red must about 12 feet long and 6 feet wide. It is covered be placed in the centre of the table. with fine green cloth, and set round with cushions, 4. The points of the game are these : 1 for a misz, to keep the balls upon the table and make them 2 for a cannon, 2 for a white hazard, 3 for a reni rebound. The six holes or pockets are placed at hazard, and 3 for “running a coo; ' but the miss and the four corners and in the middle, opposite to each the coo count for the adversary. other, to hold the balls, which, when played into 5. A white winning hazard is made when you play them, are called "hazards.' The cues are long at the white ball and pocket it; a white losing smooth sticks, with one end thick, and the other hazard, when you pocket your own ball off the pointed; and the small end is covered with leather. white. These names of winning' and 'losing' were The maces-slender sticks with a club at one end, used in the old game of B. with two balls, but their adapted for pushing-are rarely taken in hand except meaning is now reversed, it now being commonly a by tyros and ladies, the but-end of the cue, when disadvantage to make a winning hazard ; and vice the point cannot conveniently be used, being com- versâ. monly employed instead. The thiri e balls are of 6. A red winning hazard is when you pocket the ivory, ranging from an inch to an inch and a half red; a red losing hazard, when you pocket your in diameter, and two of them are white, and one is own ball off the red. red. One of the former las a spot upon it; and 7. A cannon is when your ball strikes the other when two persons are playing, he who uses the two. spot ball is called Spot, and he who uses the 8. A miss is when your ball strikes no other. plain ball, Plain. The cue is held in the right 9. A coo is when your ball goes into a pocket, or
jumps off the table without striking another.
10. A four-stroke is made by playing at the white, making a cannon, and pocketing your own or adversary's ball; or by pocketing his and your
own without the cannon, or by playing at the red, Bridge.
making a cannon, and pocketing your opponent's
ball. hand, and supported in playing, by the forefinger 11. A five-stroke is made by playing at the red, and thumb of the left so placed as to forin a making a cannon, and pocketing your own or the 'bridge ;' and the ball is struck with the point of red; or by pocketing the red and your adversary's the cue, which is chalked, to prevent its slipping. ball without the cannon; or by pocketing your own On a certain mark on the cloth, at the distance and adversary's ball off the red; or by playing of about a foot from one end of the table, and at the white, making a cannon, and pocketing the exactly in its centre, the red ball is placed before red; or by playing at the white, and pocketing your commencing the game. At the other or lower end, own and the red. and at the distance of about two feet from it, a line 12. A six-stroke is made by playing at the red, is drawn across the table; and from the centre of and pocketing it and your own; or by striking the this line a semicircle is described between it and the white first, making a cannon, and pocketing your lower end, of about 20 inches diameter. The space own and adversary's ball. within this semicircle is called baulk.
13. A seven-stroke is made by playing at the red, of the player is, by striking his own bal} against making a cannon, and pocketing your own and the red ball or his adversary's, to drive either it or adversary's ball; or by playing at the white first, them into the pockets, or else to make "a cannon'- making a cannon, and pocketing your own that is to say, to strike both balls with his own. The adversary's and the red; or by striking the white, score is usually recorded by a third person, by means and pocketing all the balls without a cannon. of a marking-board. The game of B. can be played 14. An eight-stroke is made by playing at the by two, three, or four persons, and in a great many red ball, making a cannon, and pocketing your own different fashions; but it is most commonly played and. the red; or by striking the red, and pocketing by two, and the ordinary game is that called all the balls without the cannon. Carambole, which was introduced from France at 15. A nine-stroke is made when you cannon by the same time with the third or red ball. The striking the white first, and pocket all the balls. technical term 'cannoning' may perhaps have 16. A ten-stroke is made when you cannon by arisen from 'caramboling,' which was the old word playing at the red first, and pocket all the balls. for striking both balls with your own. The method This is the greatest number that can be made. of play is as follows:
17. If the striker, in making a cannon or hazard, 1. The limit of the game is properly 21, though should by accident touch either of the balls withi it is sometimes made 24, 50, 63 and 100, as may be his cue, hand, or otherwise, the adversary can, if agreed upon before commencing. The shorter games he thinks proper, claim the stroke as foul, and 'hare were probably used when billiard tables were rarer, the balls broken; in which case, the points made so that persons waiting for the use of them might by such stroke are not scored, and the person sooner have their turn; 50, or 50 up,' as it is claiming the foul stroke leads off. called, is now the most usual limit.
18. Foul strokes are made as follows_namels,
by the striker's ball touching either of the others; , has a right to interfere until appealed to by one or by touching any ball while rolling; by moving both players. another ball in any way while taking aim or in 35. It is called a love-game when no hazard has the act of striking ; by pushing the balls together been made by the loser. when playing with the butt of the cue; by playing As evidence of what may be done in the way with both feet off the floor; by playing at a ball of swift and sure performance by masters of this before it has done rolling; or by playing with the art, we may mention that two of them (one of wrong ball : in this last case, should a hazard or whom was the celebrated Kentfield) actually played cannon be made, the adversary can have the balls thirty games of '24 up'-that is to say, supposing broken and lead off; or should no score be made they were well-contested matches, they scored about by such stroke, he can take his choice of balls and 720 each—within an hour. The greatest achievement play.
of the player above mentioned, and perhaps of any 19. In 'breaking 'the balls, you take them all off player, was the making a hazard off the red ball from the table, place the red on the spot, and both parties three different cushions. play from the baulk as at commencing.
The only other game played upon a billiard-table 20. If the balls have been changed, and it cannot which it seems necessary for us to notice, is that be ascertained by whom, the game must be played called Pool. It is quite different from that above out with them as they then are ; or even if two described, nor is it necessary that a good player at strokes have been made before the mistake is dis- the one should greatly distinguish himself at the covered, it must still be played out in the same way. other. Pool is the game pursued at all the public
21. Should the striker, in making a cannon or billiard-rooms, and is the sole profession of many hazard, knock his own or either of the balls off the persons who might otherwise employ themselves to table, he cannot score the points made by such more advantage, if not to greater profit, since the stroke, and the opponent plays, but the balls are not requisites for forming a first-rate player are really broken.
high-_namely, steadiness of hand and eye, imper22. If a ball stops on the edge of a pocket, and turbable temper, and exact dynamical calculation. afterwards falls in, either through the shaking of Pool is played by ny number of persons when the room, or table, or by any other accident, it between two only, it is called "single pool,' and is must be replaced as near the original place as nothing else than the old game at B. before the possible.
introduction of the red ball--and after various 23. Should the striker, when in hand (i. e., when methods, such as playing at the last player, playing his ball is off the table), play at a ball in baulk, his at the nearest ball, and playing at any ball whatadversary has the option of scoring a miss, or of ever. The most common is that of playing at the having the balls replaced, and the stroke played last player, the rules of which game are to be found, again, or of breaking the balls.
by those whom they concern, upon the walls of 24. If the striker's ball touch another, he must every room where it is played. The best billiardplay, and should he make a cannon or hazard, the tables, furnished with slate bed and India-rubber adversary can claim it as foul, or he can allow points cushions, cost from £70 to £80. to be scored and the person to play on; but should the striker not score, it is at the option of the oppo- ket, a little below London Bridge, to the west of the
BI'LLINGSGATE, a gate, wharf, and fish-marnent to break them or not.
25. Should the marker, whilst marking for the Custom-house. It was opened in 1558 as a landingplayers, by accident touch either of the balls, while place for provisions; and in 1699 was made a free rolling or not, it must be put as near as possible to only wholesale fishmarket in London ; and fish of
and open market for all sorts . is the the place it would have otherwise occupied. the balls while rolling, with cue, hand, or otherwise, vessels. Lobsters and turbot, also, are admitted free, 26. If the last player should alter the direction of every kind, fresh or cured, is admitted free of duty,
if taken by British subjects and imported in British the striker may place it where he thinks proper.
All fish are sold by tale, 27. A line-ball is when either the white or red is though in foreign vessels. exactly on the line of the baulk, in which case it can- except salmon and eels, which are sold by weight; not be played at by a person whose ball is in hand, and oysters and other small shell-fish, which are
sold by measure.
The influx of salmon about the it being considered in baulk.
28. If the striker's ball is over the pocket, and he beginning of autumn is sometimes above 1000 boxes should, in the act of striking, miss it, but in drawing per day. The market opens daily at 5 A.m.; no fish his cue back knock it into the pocket, he will lose is sold on Sunday, except mackerel
. The fishermen three points, it being a coo.
consign their cargoes to the dealers, or 'salesmen,' 29. If the red bail has been put into a pocket, it who occupy stalls in the market; and these supply must not be placed on the spot till the other balls the general superintendence of the market
, and the
An officer called the clerk has have done roiling, should there be a probability of either of them touching it again, as the stroke is not quality of all fish offered for sale is tested by inspecfinished till the balls stop.
The unpolished phraseology native, though 30. If the striker should touch his ball by accident not peculiar, to this quarter of London, has given
rise to the proverbial use of the name. wben taking aim, it is not a stroke, and the ball is to be replaced; but should he touch it in the act of BILLINGTON, ELIZABETH, the most celebrated striking, then it is a stroke.
English female singer of her day, was the daughter 31. If either of the balls lodge on a cushion, it is of a German musician named Weichsel, and born in off the table, and should a cannon or hazard be London, 1769. She early came forward as a permade, it does not score, and the ball must be placed former on the piano and as a composer; and having on the spot, or played from the baulk, according to married her music-master, Thomas B., appeared whether it is white or red.
with brilliant success on the Opera stage in Dublin 32. Any person refusing to play the game out in 1786. Returning to London, she was engaged at after he has played one stroke, loses it.
Covent Garden at the then unheard-of salary of 33. In a match of four, each person is at liberty £1000 for the season. She perfected her musical to offer his partner advice.
education under Sacchini in Paris, who wrote for her 31. All disputes in the game to be decided by the his opera, Inez de Castro, while she was singing in marker or majority of the company, but no person! Naples 1794. She appeared subsequently in Venice
and Rome with the greatest applause. In 1799, her the north coast, being 100 miles to the cast of first husband being dead, not without suspicion of Sumbawa, a town feudally dependent on its sultan. poison, she married a Frenchman of the name of Its chief exports are horses and timber. Florissant, and returned to London, 1801, where she
BI'MANA (Lat. two-handed), in some zoological received £4000 for six months, playing alternately systems, the first order of Mammalia (q. v.), an at Covent Garden and Drury Lane. She retired order containing the human species alone. See from the stage in 1809, and died (1818) at her villa, Man. Others reject this order altogether, declaimnear Venice.
Her character as a wife was the ing against this classification of man with brutes, reverse of exemplary; but as a singer she was and maintaining that the distance between him and unrivalled. To a voice of the largest compass and them is too great to be represented as that between richest tone, trained in all the art of the Italian two orders in one class, or even between two classes school, she added a fascinating personal beauty and of a zoological system. In assigning a place in this grace. In illustration of her spirit, it is told that manner to man among animals, naturalists of course Catharine II. proposing, through her London ambas- consider exclusively or chiefly his animal nature and sador, to engage Mrs.B. for the theatre of St. Peters- bodily frame. The name B. has reference to the burg, the vocalist demanded a sum that seemed to hands (q. v.) which terminate his anterior limbs; the ambassador exorbitant. * The Empress of all monkeys and lemurs, which, having opposable the Russias does not give more to her ministers.' thumbs in all the four extremities, may be regarded • Then let her make her ministers sing,' was the
as having four hands, although much less perfect reply.
BÍLLITOʻN, an island in the Dutch East Indies, but none of the inferior animals are two-handed, as between the south-east of Banca and the south-west
man is. of Borneo. It is separated from the former by Clement's Strait, and from the latter by the Care- BINA'B, a town of Persia, in the province of mata or B. Passage. Its north-west point is in lat. Azerbijan, charmingly situated on the banks of the 3° 13' S., and long. 108° 7' E. It is said to contain Sofi Chai (a feeder of Lake Urumiyah), in the midst 1150 square miles and 6000 inhabitants. It is rich of orchards and vineyards, about 55 miles southin iron and timber, and imports rice, trepang, edible south-west of Tabriz. B. contains about 1500 houses; birds' nests, sea-weed, tortoise-shell, and wax. Its the streets are very clean, many of them having a coasts are beset with rocks and islets.
stream of pure water, which is here very plentiful,
B. forms a dependency BILLOM, a town of France, in the department of flowing down the centre. Puy-de-Dôme, situated on a hill 14 miles east-south- of Marághah, paying 4000 tómáns of revenue, aní east of Clermont. It is one of the most ancient towns furnishing a quota of 400 men to the Azerbijan of Auvergne, and was formerly surrounded by walls, which have now disappeared; its commerce and
BI’NARY COMPOUND. See BINARY THEORY. manufactures have also declined. So early as 1455, BI'NARY THEORY, in Chemistry, takes cogo a university was founded at B., which a century later nizance of the mode of construction of salts. It passed into the hands of the Jesuits, and was assumes that all salts contain merely two subgoverned by them until the suppression of their stances, which either are both simple, or of which order. Pop. 3500, chiefly engaged in the manufac- one is simple, and the other a compound playing the ture of earthenware.
part of a simple body. The best and most familiar BI'LLON (see Bullion) is an alloy of copper and illustration of the B. T. is common salt or chloride silver, in which the copper predominates, and which of sodium (NaCl), which is constructed of the metal is used in some countries for the smaller denomina- sodium (Na) and the non-metal chlorine (CI), and is tions of money. The Groschen of North Germany, at a glance seen to be a binary compound (a come. g., corresponding nearly to an English penny—is pound of two). In like manner, fluor-spar, or the of B., and is about the size of an English fourpenny fluoride of calcium (CaF), consists of the metal silver-piece. The object is to avoid the bulkiness of calcium (Ca) and the non-metal fluorine (F); iodide copper coin; but B., besides affording facilities for of potassium (KI), largely employed in photography, counterfeits, is dirty and inelegant.
of potassium (K) and iodide (1); and bromide of BI’LMA, a town of the Sahara, Central Africa, silver (AgBr), also useful in photography, of silver situated in lat. 18° 40' N., long. 14° E., on an oasis (Ag) and bromine (Br). Considerable difficulty is called the Wady Kawas, on the route between experienced in including all salts under the B. T., Murzuk and Lake Tsad.' It is the capital of the but in many cases the apparent difficulty may be
Thus, saltpetre, or the nitrate of potash Tibu country, and important as of caravans crossing the desert. Dates grow abun- (KO:NOs), according to the ordinary mode of repredantly here; and large quantities of salt are col- senting its composition in symbols, naturally breaks lected from lakes in the vicinity for export to Bornu up into potash (KO) and nitric acid (NO3); but in
this form it cannot be correctly included in the and Sudan.
binary theory. If, however, the same elements BI'LSTON, a town in South Staffordshire, situated be arranged differently, as when the nitrate of on a rising-ground about 3 miles south-east of Wol- potash (KNO.) is represented as containing the verhampton. Pop. 23,527. It forms a part of the metal potassium (K) and the compound non-metal parliamentary borough of Wolverhampton. It has nitrationide (NO), the latter playing the part of extensive iron and coal mines, iron smelting-works, chlorine or other simple substance, the apparent iron-foundries for making machinery, besides works barrier to the introduction of such salts into the for manufacturing tinplate goods, japanned and list of those comprehended under the B. T. to a enamelled wares, nails, wire, screws, and coarse pottery. It is the centre, indeed, of the hardware great extent disappears. The following table will trade, and consequently a very busy place. Fine represent this more clearly: sand, adapted for metal-casting, is found here.
Ordinary Upwards of 700 persons died of cholera here both in
Theory. 1832 and 1849.
Chloride of Sodium, Na,CI Na,ci BI'MA, a seaport in Sumbawa, one of the Sunda Nitrate of Potash, KO,NO. K,VOR Isles, and capital of a state of the same name, Sulphate of Soda, Na0,80, Na, S04 lat. 8° 30' S., and long. 119° E. It is on a bay of Carbonate of Limne, Cao,CO Ca, CO,
à resting place got over.
Much, however, remains to be cleared up, and in , was devoured by rats in the year 969. History, howvery many cases the B. T. does not answer the ever, fixes the date of the erection of the tower purpose of including all salts under one class. See in the 13th c., as a toll-house for the collection of SALTS.
duties on goods passing this point in the river. BINA'SCO, a town of Lombardy, about 11 miles BI'NGLEY, a town in the West Riding, Yorkshire, north-west of Pavia. It is defended by a castle, 15 miles west-north-west of Leeds, situated on an where, in September 1418, Beatrice di Tenda, wife eminence in a well-wooded district, on the west of the Duke Filippo Maria, was beheaded by order bank of the Aire, between that river and the Leeds of her husband, who unjustly suspected her of and Liverpool Canal. It chiefly consists of one long infidelity. Pop. 5000.
street. It has considerable worsted manufactures. BIN - BIR - KILISA' (One Thousand and One Pop. (1851) 5019. Churches), the name of extensive ruins in the
BI'NNACLE, formerly called Bittacle (Fr. habi pashalic of Karamania, Asia Minor, and 20 miles tacle), is a wooden box or case north-north-west of the town of Karama. The
for containing a ship's compass, ruins consist chiefly of the remains of Byzantine together with other apparatus churches, evidently of great antiquity, and some of (especially a lamp) essential to very considerable size. B. is supposed to be the its use. In large ships, there are ancient Lystra, where the cripple was healed by generally two binnacles, one for St. Paul.
the steersinan, and one for the BI’NCHÉ, a town of Belgium, province of officer or seaman who cons' or Hainaut, on the Haine, about 10 miles east-south- superintends the steering. Someeast of Mons. It is well built and walled, with a fine times a lamp is so placed as to square, ornamented with a fountain, and has manu- illuminate two compasses at night, factures of leather, cutlery, pottery, glass, &c., and a sometimes only one. Many imconsiderable trade in lace, paper, marble, and coal. provements have recently been Pop, about 5,500.
made in binnacles. See COMPASS, BINDRABA'N, a town on the right bank of Mariner's. the Jumna, is situated in the district of Muttra and BINNEY, REV. THOMAS, one sub-presidency of the North-west Provinces. It is of the most distinguished preachin lat. 27° 34' N., and long. 77° 45' E., being 823 ers of the Independent body in Usual form of miles to the north-west of Calcutta, and 92 to the England, is a native of Newcastle- Binnacle. south of Delhi. The population of B., almost exclu- on-Tyne. After officiating as a sively Hindu, has been returned at 19,776 inhabit- elergyman in Newport, Isle of Wight, he, in 1829,
Superstition appears to be the principal removed to London, where he soon acquired extenbusiness of the place. Crowds of pilgrims come sive popularity. The hall in which he preached from all parts of Iudia, more particularly in honour becoming too small for his congregation, Weighof Krishna; and, through the munificence of wealthy house Chapel, near London Bridge, was erected devotees, sacred edifices are constantly becoming for him by his hearers in 1833. Here he continued more numerous and costly. Here, as at Benares, to labour with great success for about a quarter the immediate margin of the river is occupied by of a century, attracting around him a large numflights of steps, or ghauts, as they are called. These ber of the more intelligent class of young men extend for about a mile along the bank, being con- in the metropolis. An address delivered at the structed of red stone, which is brought from Jeypore, inauguration of the new chapel, in which certain nearly 150 miles distant.
expressions rather derogatory of the influence of BI'NDWEED. See CONVOLVULUS.
the English Church were used, brought B. into BI'NGEN (the ancient Vincum or Bingium), notoriety from the replies it called forth from
town in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, many of the English clergy, including the Bishop of Germany, is situated in a charming country on London. Within recent years, he took the more the left bank of the Rhine, and on the right of liberal side in the Rivulet controversy, as it has been the Nahe, here crossed by a bridge, generally called, regarding the orthodoxy of certain hymns of supposed to have been built by the Romans, and a high order of poetic merit, written by the Rev. T. called the bridge of Drusus. Pop. about 7000, Lynch of London; and the malignant attacks to who are chiefly engaged in the manufacture of which he was in consequence subjected, are generally fustian, leather, flannel, and tobacco. The vine is understood to have injured his health, to recruit extensively cultivated in the surrounding country. which he went to Australia in 1858. He has since The celebrated Scharlachberger wine is produced returned to this country and resumed his pastoral in the vineyard of the same name, near the village duties. He has since published Lights and Shadows of Rüdesheim. In the vicinity of the town is of Church Life in Australia, and Micah the Priest the Rochusberg, with a chapel, to which annual Maker, a hand-book of Ritualism. Among his former pilgrimages are made. On the declivity of the works, How to Make the Most of Both Worlds is .he hill are still to be seen the ruins of the old castle most popular. (blown up by the French in 1689), in which the BINOMIAL, in Algebra, is a quantity consisting Èmperor Henry IV. was detained a prisoner by of two terms or parts-e. g., a + b, or 9--5; a his son in the year 1105. On the other side of the trinomial consists of three terms, as a + b + c, or Nahe is the Rupertsberg, with the ruins of a monas- 10 +5 -- 8. The BINOMIAL THEOREM is that tery, in which St. Hildegarde resided in the 12th c. remarkable series or analytical formula by which Below the town is the celebrated Bingerloch, formerly any power of a B. can be expressed and developed. a very dangerous point in the navigation of the Thus, the 8th or any other power of a + b can be Rhine, on account of the sunk rocks which, with at once written down without going through the the exception of a narrow passage through which actual multiplication of a tb by itself for the the waters rushed loud and furious, stretched across given number of times. The older mathematicians the river; but in the year 1834, these rocks were were acquainted with this theorem in the case of partially blown up, so that there is no longer any integral exponents, though the actual discoverer is great danger. In the middle of the river stands the unknown. Newton as the first to demonstrate its tower, in which, according to the legend, Bishop Hatto I truth for all exponents—fractional and negative, as
well as integral. It is one of the finest of his dis- | Lives of the Fathers; while biographies, more or coveries, and is engraved on his tomb. Among its less complete, of saints, martyrs, bishops, &c., are many applications, it affords the means of finding scattered profusely through primitive ecclesiastical any root of any number much more conveniently | literature. The monks of the middle ages also than by the usual method of extraction.
worked hard at the manufacture of absurd and BINTANG, an island of the Dutch East Indies, superstitious legendary biographies, in which the about 40 miles south-east of Singapore, and in lat. hunger for the marvellous characteristic of that 1° 5' N., long. 104° 29' E. Area, 600 square miles. credulous time was hugely gratified. Modern bioPop., including that of small adjacent isles, 13,000. graphical literature may be said to date from the It is calculated that not less than 4000 tons of 17th c., and has since developed itself to the astringent gum called gambir are obtained here unmanageable extent. Among the most valuable annually. This, along with rice and pepper, forms works belonging to this class, written since the its chief exports. .
Reformation, may be mentioned Vasari's Lives of BI'NTURONG (Ictides), a genus of quadrupeds
the Painters (Florence, 1550); the Acta Sanctorum nearly allied to Racoons (q. v.), from which the chief (9. y); Tillemont's Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire distinction is in the smaller and less tuberculated Ecclésiastique des six Premières Siècles de l'Eglise
in 16 vols. 4to (Paris, 1693); Thomas Stanley's back molar (grinder) teeth. Only two species are known, natives of Malacca, Java, Sumatra, &c.
History of Philosophy, containing the Lives, Opinions,
Actions, and Discourses of Philosophers of every BI'OBI'O, the largest river of Chili, has a west- Sect (1655–1662); Bayle's Dictionnaire Historique north-west course from the Andes to. Concepcion on et Critique (Rotterdam, 1697); Johnson's Lives of the Pacific, being 2 miles wide at its month, and the Poets (completed in 1781); the Biographie Uninavigable for boats from the sea to the mountains. verselle (1810—1828); Conversations-Lexicon (10th Its lower stream separates the province of Concep- Ed. 1851-55); Lippincott's Univer'l Pronouncing Dict cion on the north from independent Araucania on of Biog. & Myth’y, by J. Thomas, M. D. (1870). As the south.
for individual biographies in modern times, it would BIO'GRAPHY (from the Gr. bios, life, and be endless to enumerate them. It having unhappily graphe, writing) is the term applied to that depart. been discovered that these constitute the most ment of literature which treats of the lives of attractive form of literature, the world is annually individuals. The mode of treatment, especially in inundated with an intolerable flood of lives of modern times, is far from uniform. In some cases, nobodies. At present, the most insignificant literary, B. approaches the sphere of philosophy; in others, clerical, or philanthropical personages are not perthat of history ; while in the majority it assumes, to mitted to pass quietly away. Nevertheless, amid a large extent, the character of analytic or descrip- the desert of commonplace, the, choicest oases may tive criticism.—To none of these modes, theoreti- be found; works so rich in pleasant or profound cally considered, can there be any valid objection; thought, so copious in agreeable gossip, so valuable everything depends on the judiciousness of the in unexpected glimpses and revelations of character, biographer. The great points which he must keep so abundant, in short, in everything that can perpetually in view are the personality and charac- stimulate, elevate, or enlighten, that it is not teristics of his subject. If these are buried under a wonderful they should be read and re-read with load of digressive dissertations, his book, however avidity. Chief among such in our own country is valuable or interesting, ceases to be a B., except in Boswell's Life of Johnson (1790.). During the last
Anciently, B. was more of a mere curriculum decade also appeared the Life of John Sterling, by vitae than it is now; that is to say, the leading Thomas Carlyle, a work which is considered a incidents of a man's life were narrated in their his- model of its kind ; and the Life of Goethe by G. H. torical sequence, without any elaborate attempt to Lewes, which has been universally accepted, both analyse the character from which they emanated. in Germany and England, as an adequate B. of Like ancient history, it was possessed of a simple the illustrious monarch of continental literature. greatness, a stately dignity of narrative, coloured In France, where B., at least in the shape of here and there but sparingly with grave eulogy or Memoirs,' has attained perfection, we may specify
Modern B., on the other hand, like modern among others the Life of Descartes by Baillet, of history, is full of elucidations, criticism, and dis- Charles XII. by Voltaire, of Voltaire by Condorcet, quisition; and if wanting in the severe grace of its of Fénélon and Bossuet by Cardinal de Bausset, classic predecessor, it is much more lively, acute, and of Molière and Corneille by M. Taschereau, expansive.
and of Monk by Guizot. In Germany, among Biographical literature appears to have existed others, we have the life of Heyne by Heeren, of from a very early period. The oldest historical Reinhard by Poelitz, and of Dorothea, Duchess of books of the Jews abound- with beautiful examples Courland, by Tiedge; while America has contributed of it, such as the lives of the patriarchs and the the valuable Life of Christopher Columbus by story of Ruth. But what, indeed, are the myth. Washington Irving. ologies of all ancient nations, except a chaos of An Autobiography is the life of a person written by heroic or divine biographies, written not on walls of him or her self. This branch of literature, also, has stone, or rolls of parchment, or leaves of papyrus, become superabundant in this egotistic and selfbut on the tablets of the memory ? Of purely conscious age. Unquestionably the highest work in biographical works, the most valuable that has this department of literature is Goethe's Dichtung come down to us from the Greeks is the Parallel und Wahrheit
, a kind of ideal sed autobiography, Lives of Plutarch, a composition of the 2d c. after in which the outward and inward truth, the fact Christ. Roman literature also possesses an admirable and poetry of the author's life, are strangely but specimen in the Life of Agricola by his son-in-law, beautifully interwoven. Tacitus. Besides these may be mentioned the Life
BIO'LOGY (Gr.), or the science of life, embraces of Alexander the Great (in Latin) by Curtius, and of Apollonius of Tyana (in Greek) by Philostratus, properly all knowledge regarding organised beings Lives of the Sophists in Greek) hy Philostratus, as distinguished from the inorganic world. But in and a Life of Plato (in Greek) by Olympiodorus of human physiology (q. v. and LiFE).
a narrower sense it designates much the same as Alexandria.
Coming later down, we encounter St. Jerome's! BIOT, JEAN BAPTISTE, a distinguished French