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is attached to those of the gigantic Dinornis (q. v.) of Sandpiper and Heron. In Eocene and Miocene beds New Zealand. See next article.

they are more abundant, and chiefly so in those of BIRDS, Fossil

While the animal and vege- France. In both hemispheres remains of the Gannett table kingdoms of the palæontologist extend to as occur, and in France a genus allied to the Flaminwide, or rather a wider, range than those of the goes. . The largest species of these birds is the Gashistorian of modern life, yet several divisions are tornis parisiensis, a wader, which stood 24 times as scantily represented in the petrified remains pre- high as the European Heron. served in the stony records of the earth's crust. No true fossil remains of B. have been discovered This was to be expected from the conditions under in rocks older than the Eocene-gypseous deposits of which these fossiliferous strata were deposited. As | Montmartre, where ten species have been found. these rocks are aqueous, chiefly marine, the relics Seven species have been described from strata of of plants and animals whose natural habitats were the Miocene period, the most important of which in or near the water, must be common in a fossil have been found in the Sewalik' beds, associated state, whilst the remains of others with different with the remains of huge proboscidea. But the habits will be comparatively rare, if present at all. Pleistocene deposits have supplied more than half Birds belong to this latter class. Their power of of the known fossil birds. The most remarkable of flight would save them from numerous casualties these are the bones of huge struthious B. of the which would prove fatal to quadrupeds ; and even if genera Dinornis (q. v.), Palapteryx (q. v.), and they did perish in water, the lightness of their Aptornis

. Dr. Mantell mentions the fossil eggs and bodies, produced by their internal cavities and the bones of a bird still larger, called the Æpyornis, quantity of their feathers, would keep them floating from Madagascar. until they decomposed, or beeame the food of preda- BIRD-TRACKS, footprints resembling those of ceous animals.

birds are found on red argillaceous sandstones in the The earliest traces of birds consist of bones found valley of Connecticut river, North America. These in the cretaceous beds of Europe and North America. sandstones, though long considered of a much older They are rare in the former region ; in the latter, six date, were referred by the brothers Rogers to the species have been found which are allied to the Goose, colitic period. They are, however, finally referred to

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the Trias by Cope, approximating the horizon of BIRD'S EYE LIMESTONE is a division of the the Bristol conglomerate of England. The beds had Trenton group of the Lower Silurians of North formed an ancient sea-beach, and over it, during the America, apparently equivalent to the Llandeilo recession of the tide, had marched the animals which flags, and containing, besides the remains of brachiohave left on them their footsteps. The tracks were pods, many enormous orthoceratites. formerly supposed to be those of birds, but have been shown by Cope and Huxley to be those of a form of

BIRD'S-EYE VIEW is a term applied generally Reptilia which had been known as Dinosauria. This to modes of perspective in which the eye is supposed conclusion was in consequence of the discovery of the

to look down upon the objects from a considerable gigantic carnivorous Lælaps in the cretaceous of New height. If the eye is considered as looking perpenJersey, which was a biped or Kangaroo-like reptile dicularly down while it sweeps over each point of whose footprints would have closely resembled those the scene in succession, we have an exact groundof a bird. The bones of only one of the species of the plan; no object covers another, horizontal angles

and distances are exactly represented; while, on lus polyzelus (Hitchcock), but other genera have left the other hand, no vertical angles or side views remains in lower strata of the same series in Nova appear. In sketching or drawing a locality for Scotia, Pennsylvania and North Carolina. Thus in military or economical purposes, this kind of perPennsylvania the Clepsysaurus of Lea, and in Prince spective is always used. The great difficulty is to Edward's Island Bathygnathus of Leidy, both Dino- represent at the same time the relative heights of sauria, were probably · bird-track’ makers, while the mountains and steepness of acclivities. But the more more abundant Belodonts were more quadrupedal. usual kind of bird's-eye views differ from common Tracks of forty-three species have been found, and perspective only in the horizontal line being placed those of various other forms of reptiles and batra- considerably above the picture. In the 16th c., the chians associated. In one species, the imprint of the only kind of views known were of the nature of foot measures fifteen inches in length and ten inches in ground-plans, and the artists of the 17th c. tried to hreadth, excluding the hind claw, which is two inches combine this method with side views. long. The distance of the impressions from each other BIRD'S FOOT (Ornithopus), a genus of plants of varies from four to six feet. The measurements in the natural order Leguminosce

, sub-order Papiliondicate reptiles from a small size up to those exceed- aceæ, deriving both its popular and its botanical

, ing the great Dinornis of New Zealand.

name from the resemblance of the curved rods to BIRD'S FOOT TREFOIL-BIRDS OF PASSAGE.

birds' claws; the leaves are pinnate, with a terminal cultivation in every variety of soil and situation.leaflet. One species (O. perpusillus) is a native of A species called the Winged Pea (L. tetragonolobus), Britain, growing on dry, sandy, or gravelly soils-a remarkable for four membranous wings which run small plant of little importance, the flowers of which along its pods, a native of the south of Europe, is are white, striated with red. But 0. sativus, an frequently cultivated in gardens in Britain amongst annual growing to the height of two or three feet, other annual flowers ; but in some parts of Europe a native of Portugal, is cultivated in that country it is cultivated for its seeds, which are used as a as green food for cattle, and is very succulent and substitue for coffee. nutritious. Like its British congener, it grows BIRDS OF PASSAGE are those birds which well on very poor soils. Its Portuguese name is spend one part of the year in one country or climate Serradilla.

and another part in another, migrating according to BIRD'S FOOT TRE FOIL (Lotus), a genus of the season. No species of bird is known to hybernate plants of the natural order Leguminoso, sub-order (see HYBERNATION); and although many naturalists Papilionacece. The pods are cylindrical, somewhat were at one time inclined to believe in the hybernaspongy within, and in perfectly divided into many tion of swallows, this opinion has been entirely cells. The name B. F. T. is derived from the relinquished, and their annual migrations are fully resemblance of the clusters of pods to a bird's foot. ascertained. Birds avail themselves of their powers It has received the name Lotus from botanists, of wing to seek situations adapted for them in because a species of this genus is supposed to have respect of temperature and supply of food, and even been one of the plants so named by the Greeks. within the tropics there are birds which migrate See Lotus. The species, which are pretty numerous, as the seasons change from wet to dry, or from dry are natives of the temperate and colder regions of to wet. See Bird OF PARADISE. The migration of the old world. The Common B. F. T. (L. cornicu- birds, however, is more generally from north to latus) is very abundant everywhere in Britain in south, or from south to north, in the temperate and pastures. It has a stem 6-12 inches in length, colder regions of the globe, as winter passes into

summer, or sunimer into winter; and B. of P. are commonly distinguished into Summer B. of P. and Winter B. of P., as they are summer or winter visitauts; but, of course, those which are Summer B. of P. in one country are Winter B. of P. in another. They breed in the countries in which they are Summer B. of P. The arrival of Summer B. of P. is always among the welcome signs of advancing spring, and is associated with all that is cheerful and delightful. In winter, flocks of swans, geese, and other waterfowl seek the British coasts and inland lakes and marshes from the frozen north; and at the same time, woodcocks, fieldfares, redwings, and many other birds which breed in more northern regions, regularly appear. Some birds come almost at the same date annually; others are more influenced by the character of the season, as mild or severe. Many sea-fowl are migratory, and the inhabitants of St Kilda and other isles, to whoin they are of the greatest importance, depend with confidence upon their return

almost at a particular day. The migrations of f

pigeons in North America are extraordinary, from the vast numbers of which the migrating flocks consist. See Pigeon. The whole subject of the migration of birds is one of great interest, particu

larly in reference to the instinct by which they 7

appear to be guided. Birds of migratory species, which have been reared in confinement, become restless when the season for migration arrives, and

in many species the migration seems to be little Bird's Foot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus).

influenced by the state of the weather. It would

seem that the youngest swallows are left behind, n, a stem with leaves, flowers, and pods ; b, calyx ; C, of flower; d, keel of flower ; ē, style ; fg, stamens.

to follow the first migrating hosts of their species.

The number of B. of P. is very considerable, nor decumbent, and bearing umbellate heads of 8–10 are they all or mostly birds of long wing and yellow flowers, which have a rich honey-like smell. powerful flight, but many short-winged birds are The leaves have three obovate leaflets, like those of included among them. Some B. of P., as woodthe true Trefoils or Clovers, but at the base of each cocks, have, however, been found in a very exhausted leaf-stalk there are also two large leaf-like ovate state after their arrival; and it is to be considered stipules. The plant is by some regarded as the sham- that both in the old and new world, distant migrarock (q. v.) of Ireland. It is eaten with great avidity tions are possible without long flights. Some birds by cattle, and its deeply penetrating roots adapt possess such powers of wing, that they may easily it well for very dry situations. ---A larger species, pass over wide seas; and the rapidity of the flight otherwise very similar, by many regarded as merely of birds--from 50 to 150 miles an hour,partly a more luxuriant variety of this, with stem nearly explains the possibility of their migrations between erect, more compact heads of smaller flowers, and distant parts of the world. It is believed that B. much smaller seeds, is the GREATER or NARROW- of P. habitually return to the same localities which LEATED B. F. T. (L. major), which also is a common they have inhabited in former years, and this seems native of Britain, generally found in moist, bushy to have been sufficiently established by proof, at places. The characteristic differences remain under least in regard to swallows.





BIRDS OF PREY, a common English appella- ; merchants, are continually springing up. In St. tion of the order of birds called Accipitres (q. v.) Aidan's College, founded 1846, candidates are trained by Linnæus. Some birds, however, which do not for the English Church. B. communicates with belong to this order, frequently pursue and prey Chester (16 miles) by rail, and with Liverpool by upon other birds.

If those which make fishes, small steamers, which leave each side at least every insects, and worms their food, were also reckoned, fifteen minutes, from an early hour in the morning great part of the whole class of birds must be con- up to a late hour at night. sidered predaceons. B. of P. are very commonly

BIÄRKIE, a simple game at cards usually played divided into two sections--Diurnal and Nocturnal ; by two persons, between whom the cards are divided. the latter consisting exclusively of owls.

Holding their cards with the backs upwards, the BIRIOU'TCHÉ, or BIRIU'TCH, a town in the players lay down a card alternately, and when a government of Voronej, Russia, on the left bank of card is played of the same suit as that which prethe Sosna, a tributary of the Don. It is surrounded ceded it, it wins the trick. B. is an old game iu with earthen ramparts and a ditch, and has four Scotland, but is now played only by children. annual fairs. Pop. 5500. A stream of the same BI'RLEY-MAN, a person who acted as petty name in its immediate vicinity is noted for its pearl- officer on an estate, or in a village, in Scotland, and oysters ; and the teeth of elephants are often found who was inferior in importance to a baron-bailie. exposed on its banks.

The duty of the B. was to keep order, and attend to BIRKBECK, GEORGE, M.D., distinguished for the interests of the proprietor. The office, at least the leading part he took in founding mechanics' in name, is now extinct or nearly so. Formerly, institutions, and for his general interest in the educa- there were Birley Courts for determining petty tion of the working-classes, was born at Settie, in cases. The term Birley, or Burlaw, is traced to byr, Yorkshire, January 10, 1776. He commenced his Icelandic, signifying a villager or husbandman. See medical studies at Leeds, and afterwards pursued Jameson's Scot. Dict. them at Edinburgh, where he made the acquaintance,

BI'RMAH. See BURMAH. among others, of Sidney Smith, Brougham, Jeffrey,

BIRMINGHAM, the chief town in Britain for and Horner. Appointed to the chair of the metallic manufactures, and supplying much of the Andersonian Institution in Glasgow, he delivered world with hardwares, stands near the centre of his first course of lectures on Natural and Experi. England, in the north-west of Warwickshire, with mental Philosophy in the winter of 1799. There suburbs extending into Staffordshire and Worcesterbeing at that time no philosophical instrument- shire, 112 miles north-west of London.

Built on maker in Glasgow, B. was forced to fall back on the east slope of three undulating hills, on the Rea ordinary mechanics for the apparatus he needed for and the Tame, on a gravelly foundation overlying his illustrations; and their ignorance of the articles clay and new red sandstone, and supplied with they constructed appears to have suggested to him plenty of water, it is one of the best drained the desirableness of a gratuitous series of scientific towns in England, but the smoke and dust of a lectures, divested, as far as possible, of all techni- thousand forges gire it a grimy aspect. The cality, for persons engaged in the practical exercise lower part of B. is old and crowded with workof the mechanical arts.' He commenced these shops and warehouses, and the upper is new and lectures in 1801 ; and though the first one was but regular. B. began very early to be the seat of iron thinly attended, when he had reached the fifth, the manufactures, from its vicinity to a forest and hall was filled to orerflowing by an audience intensely extensive iron-mines; but its industry and trade interested in what they heard; and who, on the were long small. Its high commercial importance termination of the course, shewed their appreciation dates from the 17th c., when the restoration of of B.'s thoughtful interest in them by presenting Charles II. brought from France a fashionable rage him with a silver cup. B. continued these gratui- for metal ornaments, and B. supplied the demand tous lectures through two other seasons, when he with unexampled vigour. From being the 'toyresigned his professorship; and in 1806, settled in shop of Europe' of Burke's time, B. now conLondon as a physician. What leisure an extensive structs steam-engines, hydraulic-presses, and Crystal practice in his profession left him, was devoted to Palaces, and its hardwares are unequalled for the promotion of the spread of education among variety and value. Pop. 1801, 60,822; 1851, 232,those who in youth had had few or no opportunites 841; 1861, 296,076; 1871, 343,696. B. returns two of acquiring knowledge. He took a leading and members to parliament. It produces upwards of active part, along with Brougham, and others, in the £4,000,000 worth of goods yearly, chiefly of articles formation of the London Mechanics’ Institution--the made of gold, silver, iron, brass, steel, mixed metal, first of its kind in the kingdom—and was chosen its plated metal

, glass, papier-maché, japanned and president for life. He died in London, December 1, electrotyped articles ; including firearms, swords,

metal ornaments, toys, jewellery, buttons, buckles, BI'RKENHEAD, a seaport town in the north- lamps, pins, steel-pens, tools, locks, steam-engines, west of Cheshire, on the left bank and near the and all sorts of machinery. In B. 1000 ounces of mouth of the Mersey, opposite Liverpool. B. owes gold are made into chains weekly; at least 70 ounces its origin to a Benedictine priory founded here in of gold-leaf are used weekly ; 30,000 gold rings are the 12th c., of which some remains still exist, but it made yearly ; 150,000 ounces of silver are used was for centuries nothing but a fishing-village, and yearly; a billion of steel.pens are made yearly, 90 its rapid growth as a town has been due to the tons of iron being used ; above 80,000 copper coins important public works executed within the last are struck daily ; 20,000,000 nails are made weekly few years.

Pop. 1821, 236; 1841, 8223 ; 1851, at one work; 5,000,000 firearms were made between 24,285 ; 1861, 51,649. Of the works the chief are 1804 and 1818; and during the Crimean war the the docks, begun in 1824, and greatly extended government were supplied with 3000 muskets since 1844, the largest of which covers a space of weekly. The button manufacture of B. is very

The town is governed by twenty-one large. The steam-engines employed in B. in 1859 cominissioners. It has wide streets, good sanitary were equal to 9000 horse-power, or to the labour regulations, respectable buildings, a fine public of 144,000 men, and they consumed 520 tons of park of 226 acres, and an elevated cemetery near coal daily. Most of the work is done not in it. Handsome villas, built by Liverpool and B. factories, but in independent workshops, the owners



120 acres.



three years.

being workmen themselves. In B. above 20,000 introduced vigour and power into every branch of families are engaged in trade, manufactures, and the public administration throughout Russia. handicraft. B. is well provided with religious, the year 1722, he married a Courland lady, and in educational, and charitable institutions. It has 100 1737, the Courlanders were compelled to choose him churches, 30 belonging to the Establishment; a as their ducal ruler. By his desire the empress, on grammar-school, founded in 1552, with a yearly her death-bed, appointed him guardian and regent revenue of £11,000; a Queen's College connected during the minority of her presumptive heir, Prince with the London University; a well-conducted Ivan. On the death of the empress (28th October literary and scientific institute (chiefly for the 1740), Biron assumed the regency, and acted with working-classes); a free public library; a Roman great prudence and moderation. A secret conspiracy Catholic college and cathedral; a botanic garden ; was, however, soon formed against him, and on and several public parks. The town hall is seated the night of the 19th November he was arrested, for 4000 persons, and has a magnificent organ, | by the orders of Field-marshal Münnich, and conand a musical festival is held in it once every vered to the fortress of Schlüsselburg, where he was

Of the many ways of spelling the tried and sentenced to death. His sentence was name of this city, the oldest is that given in afterwards commuted to imprisonnient for life, and Doomsday Book--namely, Bermingeham. This after- confiscation of his property. He was now, along wards became Brummagem, a term of reproach, with his family, conveyed to Pelim, in Siberia. implying pinchheck, or hinting at fraudulent pro- When, in the following year, Elizabeth ascended the cesses to make things glitter like gold. B. took throne of Russia, B. was recalled, and Münnich sent the Parliament side in 1643, supplying swords, to occupy his prison in Siberia. The sledges met at and using them well against Prince Rupert and bis Kasan; the two enemies looked at each other, but lancers. In 1791, a B. inob denounced the distin- continued their journeys without exchanging a word. guished Dr. Priestley as an atheist and Jacobin, During the remainder of Elizabeth's reign, B. conand destroyed his house, library, and apparatus, tinued to reside with his family at Jaroslaw. The besides much other property. Near Handsworth, a Empress Catharine II. restored to him the Duchy little to the south of B., are the famous Soho and of Courland, and he died 28th September 1772. Smethwick Works, founded by Watt and Boulton, BIRR. See PARSONSTOWN. where steam-engines were first made. Handsworth church has a statue of Watt by Chantrey, and one of It rises in the canton of Bern, Switzerland, near

BIRR, a small but famous affluent of the Rhine. Boulton by Flaxman. Darwin, author of Zoonomia, the pass of the Jura called Pierre Pertuis, flows in and Withering the botanist, lived in Birmingham. Thomas Attwood originated the Political Union a north-easterly direction through the Münsterthal, here, which greatly hastened the passing of the and enters the Rhine near Basel

. In a narrow Reform Act of 1832, and the enfranchisement of gorge though which the stream breaks, at a little

distance from that city, 500 confederate Swiss died Birmingham.

heroically, on the 26th August 1444, in battlse against BI'RNAM, a hill 1580 feet high, in the east of the French army under the Dauphin Louis. On Perthshire, near Dunkeld, and 12 miles west-north- the same river, near the village of Dornbach, about west of Dunsinnan hill, one of the Sidlaws. It com

a mile and a half south of Basel, 6000 confederate mands a fine view of the valley of the Tar. It was Swiss gained a splendid victory over 15,000 Austrians, formerly covered by part of an ancient royal forest. under Fürstenberg, on the 22d of July 1499 ; in conShakspeare has immortalised B. wood in his tragedy sequence of which, the Emperor Maximilian signed a of Macbeth

peace at Basel on the 21st of September following. BI'RNEE, Old and New, the name of two BIRTH. The act of coming into life has an towns of Bornu, central Africa. Old B., which important legal bearing in regard to the evidence of was formerly the chief city of the empire, walled its legitimacy or illegitimacy. These qualities are and of vast extent, is situated on the banks of the variously determined by the regulations of different Yeu, about 70 miles north-west of the modern capital systems of jurisprudence. The ancient Roman law, Kuka, or Kukawa, and about 75 miles west of Lake as well as the modern Prussian and French codes, in Tsad, in lat. 13° N., and long. 13° 15' E. It is now particular, contain anxious provisions on the subject. greatly deserted and decayed, but it has still a In England, no precise time appears to be prescribed population estimated at 10,000, and considerable for fixing legitimacy or illegitimacy of birth. Forty markets. New B. is about 20 miles south of Kuka, weeks is considered, in practice, the more usual time is walled, and has a large mud palace. Pop. about for legitimate births ; but a discretion to allow the same as that of Old Birnee.

a longer time is exercised, when, in the opinion of BI'RON, or BI'REN, ERNEST JOHN DE, Duke medical men, or under the peculiar circumstances of of Courland, born 1687, was the son of a landed the case, protracted gestation may be anticipated, or proprietor in Courland, of the name of Bühren. He is likely to occur. In Scotland, the law is more studied at Königsberg, and in 1714 visited St Peters- distinct. There, in order to fix bastardy on a child, burg, where his handsome person and cultivated the husband's absence must continue till within six mind soon gained him the favour of Anna Ivanovna, lunar months of the birth, and a child born after niece of Peter the Great. When Anna ascended the the tenth month is accounted a bastard. The fact throne of Russia in 1730, Biron repaired to court, of legitimacy or illegitimacy may be judicially and was loaded with honour. He assumed the determined by an Action of Declarator in the Court name and arms of the French dukes De Biron, and of Session, which concludes, according to the nature soon swayed all Russia through his royal mistress of the case, for the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the Proud and despotic by nature, he hated every one party whose birth is the subject of the legal inquiry. who stood in the way of his ambition. The princes In England, legitimacy may be ascertained by proDolgorucki and their friends were his first victims. ceedings in the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial More than a thousand persons were executed by his Causes, under the 21 and 22 Vict. c. 93, called the orders, and a still greater number sent into banish- Legitiinacy Declaration Act; 1858;' but there the

The empress is said to have often thrown remedy is not so complete as that afforded by the herself at his feet to induce him to relent, but her Scotch declarator, which may decree not only legiprayers and tears were of no avail. It is, however, timacy, but also illegitimacy. See BASTARDY, HEIR, undeniable, that by the strength of his character le INHERITANCE.





BIRTH, CONCEALMENT OF, is an offence against, or persons in charge of children after their birth, are the public economy, and punishable as a misde- required to give information of such births, and to

By the 9 Geo. IV. c. 31, s. 14, it is sign the register; and after the expiration of three enacted, that any woman endeavouring to conceal months following the day of birth, it shall not be the birth of a child, shall be liable to be imprisoned, lawful for the registrar to register the same, except with or without hard labour, for any term not more as provided by the act. The act declares that the than two years; and it shall not be necessary to sheriff of the county shall have the care and superprove whether the child died before, at, or after its intendence of the parochial registrars; and, as in birth. It is also provided, that if any woman tried England, the registrar general is directed to furnish for the murder of her child shall be acquitted strong iron-boxes to hold the registers and other thereof, it shall be lawful for the jury, so acquit- documents, such box to have a lock with two keys, ting her, to find her guilty (if the case be so) of one of which shall be kept by the registrar, and the concealing the birth : upon which the court may other by the sheriff. The 36th section contains the pass the same sentence as if she had been com- noticeable provision, that in the case of children mitted upon an indictment for the concealment. legitimated by subsequent marriage of the parents,

In Scotland, the law on this subject appears to but who were originally registered as illegitimate, be regulated by the 49 Geo. III. c. 14, by which it such registration shall be corrected by an entry of is enacted, that if a woman shall conceal her being the marriage on the margin. The act contains other with child during the whole period of her pregnancy, provisions, more or less corresponding to the enactand shall not call for, or make use of help or assist- | ments of the above English statutes, and generally ance in the birth; and if the child shall be found the practice in the two countries may be said to be dead, or be amissing, she shall be imprisoned for a assimilated. See REGISTRATION. period not exceeding two years. It has however,

BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES. See been decided, that disclosure by the mother to the

Vital SRATISTICS. putative father is a sufficient defence. The punish

BI'RTHWORT. See ARISTOLOCHIA. ment usually awarded for this offence in Scotland, is imprisonment from three to six, and in aggravated BIRU' BEEROO', or BEROO', a kingdom of cases, from nine to eighteen months. See PREG- Sudan, Western Africa, in lat. 15° -16° N., long. 5° NANCY, CONCEALMENT OF.

30-7° 15' W. It is bounded on the N. by the BIRTHRIGHT. See INHERITANCE, and PRIMO

Sahara, on the E. by the Niger, and has Bambarra on the S. Its western limits are not clearly defined.

The capital town, Walet, is about 260 miles westBIRTHS, REGISTRATION OF, as also that of south-west from Timbuctu. Burials and Marriages (q. v.), is regulated by the 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 86, amended by the 7 Will. IV. BIS, in Music, denotes that the passage over and 1 Vict. c. 82, by which a general register- which it is placed is to be played twice, or office for the whole of England is established. The repeated. Such passages generally have a slur or registrar-general shall, under the act, furnish a bow over them, and the word 'bis' written below it sufficient number of strong iron-boxes to hold the thus register-books, and every such box shall be fir

BISA'CCIA, a town of the Neapolitan province nished with a lock and two keys, one of which of Principato Ultra, situated on a hill about 30 miles shall be kept by the registrar, and the other by the east-north-east of Avellino, with a population of superintendent-registrar; and while the register- about 6000. Numerous ancient remains discovered boo's are not in use, they are to be kept in the here appear to fix B. as the site of the old Romulea, register-box, which shall always be left locked. captured by the Romans in the third Samnite war. The form for general registration of births, comprises the time of birth, name, and sex of the child; Sicily, about 27 miles south of Palermo, with a popu

BISACQUI'NO, or BUSACCHI'NO, a town of the name, surname, maiden surname, and profession of the parents; the signature, description, and resi- lation of 8000, who carry on an extensive trade in dence of the inforinant (who must be the father or

grain and oil. mother, or in case of their inability, the occupier of

BI'SCAY, or VIZCAY'A, the most northerly of the house, s. 20); the date of registration and signa- the Basque provinces (q. v.). is bounded N. by the ture of the registrar; and also the child's baptismal Bay of Biscay; E. and S. by its sister-provinces,

It name (if any be given after registration, within six Guipuzcoa and Ala; and W. by Santander. months). Searches may be made, and certified has an area of about 1300 square miles, and a popucopies obtained, at the general registrar office, or at lation, in 1864, of 177,355. the office of the superintendent-registrar of the BISCAY, BAY OF, that portion of the Atlantic district, or from the clergyman, or registrar, or any Ocean which sweeps in along the northern shores of other person who shall for the time being have the the Spanish peninsula in an almost straight line from keeping of the register-books. By 3 and 4 Vict. Cape Ortegal to St. Jean de Luz, at the western foot c. 92, provision is made for depositing with the of the Pyrenees, and thence curves northward along registrar-general a number of non parochial registers the west shores of France to the island of Ouessant. and records of births, baptisms, deaths, burials, and Its extreme width is about 400 miles, and its length marriages, which had been collected by a com- much about the same. The depth of water varies mission appointed for that purpose, and for render- from 20 to 200 fathoms, being greatest along the ing such registers and records available as evidence. north shores of Spain. The whole of the south coast For other regulations on the suhject of this article, is bold and rocky, in some places rising to a height see 21 Vict. c. 25.

of several hundred feet, and interspersed with short The Scotch law relating to the registration of inlets, some of which form safe and commodious births, is contained in the 17 and 18 Vict. c. 80, by harbours. From the mouth of the Adour to the which a registrar-general, parochial registrars, and Gironde, the shore presents a totally different aspect, other officers are appointed with suitable machinery being low and sandy, with numerous lagoons, the for carrying out the provisions of the act. It is the embouchures of these two rivers forming the only duty of the local registrar to ascertain and register harbours. For 200 miles north, the coast is still low, all births within bis parish or district, without fee but marshy instead of sandy; and from the peninsula or reward, save as provided by the act; but parents, I of Quiberon northward to Ouessant, it is moderately



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