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the Vosges, about 16 miles east-south-east of BITO'NTO (ancient Butuntum), a town of Naples, Sarreguemines. Its citadel, which is built on a in the province of Bari, and 10 miles west-southprecipitous and isolated rock, in the middle of the west of the city of Bari. It is situated in a fruitful town, is well supplied with water, defended by plain about 5 miles from the sea, is well built, is, con80 cannons, has accommodation for a garrison of jointly with Ruvo, the see of a bishop, and has a fine 1000 men, and is considered all but impregnable. cathedral, monasteries, and a nunnery: Pop. 16,000, The Prussians under the Duke of Brunswick who carry on an extensive trade in a wine called attempted to surprise it in 1793, but failed. Pop. of Zagarello, which is largely cultivated in the environs. town, 2456, who are engaged in the manufacture of. B. is the birthplace of Giordani, the mathemapaper, glass, and porcelain.


In its vicinity, the Spaniards, under Count BITHOO'R, a town in India in the district of Austrians on the 25th of May 1734, the result of

de Montemar, gained a splendid victory over the Cawnpore and sub-presidency of North-west Provinces, stands on the right bank of the Ganges, about which was that Spain re-obtained possession of the 12 miles to the north-west of Cawnpore itself. B.,

kingdom of Naples. particularly devoted to the worship of Brahma, has

BITTER CRESS. See CRESS. numerous pagodas. It is, of course, a favourite resort BITTER KING (Soulaurea ama'ra), a shrub or for pilgrims, who here, as at Benares and Bindraban, small tree of the natural order Polygalacece (q. v.), a have access to the sacred stream for purposes of native of the Indian Archipelago, which has received ablution, by means of elaborately constructed ghauts. its name from its intense bitterness. The genus During the mutiny of 1857, B. acquired an unenvi- differs from the usual structure of the order, in its able notoriety as the stronghold of Nena Sahib. regular flowers. The B. K. has large oval leaves and Here also Havelock more than once exacted retri- axillary racemes of flowers. It is used medicinally bution, however inadequate, defeating the Nena in in fevers and other diseases. the field, and burning his fort. B. is said to contain

BITTER SPAR, a name given to Dolomite 8217 inhabitants.

(q. v.), from the magnesia contained in it, which the BITHY'NIA, an ancient division of Asia Minor, Germans call Bitter Šalt. was separated from Europe by the Propontis (Sea of BITTER VETCH. See OROBUS. Marmora) and the Thracian Bosporus (Strait of Constantinople), and was bounded N. by the Euxine, ornithologists, a genus 'of the Heron (q. v.) family

BITTERN (Botaurus), according to some modern and S. by Galatia, Phrygia, and Mysia. eastern limits were not very clearly defined, but (Ardeidce); but regarded by others as a mere subthey at least extended as far aš Paphlagonia. genus of Heron (Ardea), and not a very well defined It contained the famous Greek cities or colonies herons by the long, loose plumage of the neck,

Bitterns are indeed chiefly distinguished from of Chalcedon, Heraclea, &c.; and at later periods, which they have the power of erecting at pleasure, Nicomedia, Nicæa, and Prusa, were flourishing along with the rest of their clothing feathers, so as cities of Bithynia. The inhabitants of B. were supposed to be of Thracian origin. The country the neck, however, is merely downy, or almost bare,

greatly to increase their apparent size. The back of was subdued (560 B. c.) by Cræsus of Lydia, and the long feathers being on the front and sides. Biiterns five years later, fell under the Persian dominion. But about 440 or 430 B. C., it became an inde: also differ from herons on the greater length of their pendent kingdom under a dynasty of native princes, toes, the middle toe being as long as the shank. They made Nicoinedia their capital.

are almost all solitary birds, inhabiting reedy and king, Nicomedes III., made the Romans his heirs, and will almost allow themselves to be trodden

marshy places, where they lie hid during the day, and with a large addition from the Pontic kingdom, B. became a province of the empire (74 upon ere they take wing; they feed during the

night, and then, also, often rise spirally to a great B. C.). Under Trajan, B. was governed by Pliny height into the air, and emit loud resounding cries. the Younger, whose letters to the emperor. on Their food consists chiefly of frogs, and partly, also, the administration and condition of the province of fish, lizards, water-insects, &c., and even of small

passage respecting the Christians. The Emperor Diocletian made Nicomedia is serrated on the inner edge, probably to aid in

birds and quadrupeds. The claw of the middle toe his habitual residence. In 1298, Osman the Turk securing slippery prey.-The Common B. (B. stelbroke into the country; and in 1328, Prusa, or Brusa, then the chief town of B., became the capital diffused over the old world, being found in almost

laris, or Ardea stellaris) is a bird very widely of the kingdom of the Osmanli.

all, at least of the temperate, parts of Europe, Asia, BITLI'S, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the and Africa, which are sufficiently marshy for its pashalic of West Van, in lat. 38° 24' N., and long. manner of life. It is now rare in Britain, owing to 42° 5' E., about 120 miles south-east from Erzrum. drainage ; but was formerly more common, and in It is situated at an elevation of 5156 feet above the days of falconry, was carefully protected by the level of the sea, in a deep ravine traversed by law in England, on account of the sport which it the river Bitlis, one of the head streams of the afforded. Its flesh also was in high esteem, and is Tigris. B. is a straggling, irregular place, covering not rank and fishy, like that of the Herons generally. a large surface of ground, and surrounded by bare In size, it is rather less than the common heron; limestone mountains, rising to a height of about the bill is about four inches long, the feathers on 2000 feet above the valley, which is filled with the crown of the head are greenish black, and the orchards and gardens, and watered by numerous plumage in general of a dull yellow colour, beautistreams and springs. It has 3 mosques, about 12 fully and irregularly marked and mottled with black. convents belonging to the howling dervishes, who The B. makes a rude nest of sticks, reeds, &c., in its appear to have made B. their head-quarters, several marshy haunts, and lays four or five greenish-brown well-stocked bazaars, and extensive manufactures of eggs. It has a peculiar bellowing cry, which has cotton cloths, which are celebrated for their bright obtained for it such English provincial names as red dye. It has also a very extensive trade. The Mire-drum, Bull of the Bog, &c., and many of its import of British goods is small. The population appellations in other languages, perhaps even its consists of about 2000 Mohammedan, and 1000 name B. (Bitour, Botur, Botaurus). Some natuArmenian families. The Persians defeated Solyman ralists used to assert that the booming cry of the B. the Magnificent near B. in 1554.

was produced by the bird inserting its bill iato a


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rced ; that notion, however, has long since been BITTERS are prepared from an infusion of exploded. When assailed, it fights desperately with herbs containing bitter principles. The plant generbill and claws; and it is dangerous to approach ally used for the purpose is Archangelica officinalis, + incautiously when wounded, as it strikes with or the Garden Angelica. See ANGELICA. The roots

or seeds, or both, are placed in water, and the whole
is left to simmer for several days, when the infu-
sion will be strong enough. The B. from Angelica
are not much used by physicians, having been
superseded very much by infusions of gentian, &c.;
but they are still used as a household medicine in
town and country by elderly people. The chemical
composition of the root is :
Bitter extractive,

27.06 Volatile oil,

0.70 Acrid soft resin,

6.02 Gum and common salt,

31.75 Starch,

5.40 Woody fibre,

8.60 Albumen,

0.97 Water and loss,


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100.00 The medicinal properties of B. are mainly those of a mild tonic and pungent aromatic stimulant, and hence they are serviceable as a stomachic, in cases of weakness of the digestive organs. The taste is at first sweetish, rapidly becoming hot, aro

matic, and bitter, and the odour is rather pleasant. ma

The Angelica root yields a larger amount of the bitter principle than Angelica seeds. Camomile flowers, coriander-seeds, and other vegetable tonics and stimulants, are occasionally employed in the preparation of bitters.

BI'TTERSWEET, or WOODY NIGHTSHADE Common bittern (Botaurus stellaris).

(Solanum Dulcamara), a plant found in hedges and thickets in Britain, and in most parts of Europe,

The root is its long sharp bill, if possible, at the eye. The also in Asia and in North America. LIFTLE B. (B. minutus, or Ardea minuta) is com- perennial ; the animal stems climbing and shrubby, mon in some parts of Europe, but rare in Britain. Its whole length is only about thirteen inches.The AMERICAN B. (B. lentiginosus, or A. lentiginosa), a species almost equal in size to the common B., and very similar to

similar to it in habits and voice, has occasionally been shot in Britain.

It is common in many parts of North America, migrating northward and southward, according to the season. The crown of the head is reddish brown, and the colours and markings of the plumage differ considerably from those of the common B.--The LEAST B. (B. or A. exilis) is another North American species, of very small size, which is also migratory, and somewhat

2 social in its habits. The AUSTRALIAN B. (B. or A. australis) is generally diffused throughout Australia, wherever marshes or sedgy rivers occur. In habits it closely resembles the B. of Europe. The head and upper parts generally are purplish brown, except the wings, which are buff, conspicuously freckled with brown; the throat, breast, and belly mottled brown and buff.

BI'TTERN, BITTER LIQUID, or SALT OIL, is an oily liquid obtained during the preparation of common salt (q. v.). When the mother-liquor of the evaporating pans ceases to deposit crystals of common salt, there is left behind in the boilers the material called bittern. It consists principally of a

Bittersweet (Solanum Dulcamara): strong solution of common salt, along with Epsom a, branchlet with flowers and fruit, reduced; b, a flower, reduced. salts, and other compounds of magnesia.

The B. at our salt-works is generally run into many feet in length; the leaves ovate-heart-shaped, tanks, and during winter, it is employed as a source the upper ones spear-shaped; the flowers purple, in of Epsom salts. The B. is treated with a little drooping corymbs, much resembling those of its sulphuric acid, which converts the chloride of mag. congener, the potato, but much smaller, followed nesium (MgCl) into sulphate of magnesia (MgOSOs), by ovate red berries of tempting appearance, which, and on the liquid being allowed to cool, the crystals being poisonous, are not unfrequently, the cause of Epsom salts (or sulphate of magnesia) separate. of serious accidents, particularly to children. The



twigs, collected in antumn after the leaves are knife. Its colour is blackislı

, reddish, or yellowishfallen, are used in medicine as a diaphoretic and brown; and its specific gravity is sometimes a little diuretic, and as a remedy for leprosy and other less, and sometimes a little more than that of water. cutaneous disorders. See SOLANUM.

It has a strong bituminous odour, and burns with a BI'TTERWOOD, a name given to certain species

sooty flame. of the genus Xylopia, trees and shrubs remarkable BITU'MINOUS COAL, is a term applied to the for the bitterness of the wood, particularly the varieties of coal which contain a large percentage of West Indian X. glabra.

Furniture made of this volatile matter. They field, on their destructive wood is safe from the attacks of insects. The genus distillation, a considerable quantity of gas, remarkXylopia belongs to the natural order Anonacece ably pure, and with good illuminating qualities, and (q. v.). The fruit of some of the species, particularly are consequently largely used for that purpose. See X. sericea, is highly aromatic and pungent like pepper.

Coal. X. sericea is a large tree, a native of Brazil; its bark BITUMINOUS LIMESTONES are limestones imis used for making cordage, which is excellent. pregnated and sometimes deeply coloured with bitu

B. is also the name of Pierona excelsa (formerly minous matter, obtained from decaying vegetables, or, Quassia excelsa), a tree of the natural order Simaru- more probably, from the decomposed remains of bacece (q. v.), a native of Jamaica, the wood of which those animals, the hard parts of which form so large is used in medicine for the same purposes as Quassia an amount of the rock. (q. v.), and often under that name; indeed, it is BITU'MINOUS SHALES are indurated beds of probable that all the present quassia of the shops clay occurring in the coal-measures, and containing is really this wood. It is, botanically, very nearly such an amount of carbon and volatile matter that allied to the true quassia, and possesses very similar they are able to keep up combustion when mixed properties, containing the crystallisable bitter prin- with but little coal. They are indeed impure coal, ciple called Quassite or Quassin. The wood, which with a large percentage of ash or earthy matter, is intensely bitter, is a very useful stomachic and which after burning retains the original form. See tonic; an infusion of it is a well-known and useful COAL. fly-poison; and it appears to act as a powerful narcotic on many quadrupeds.

BITZIUS, ALBERT, better known under the nom

de plume of Jeremias Gotthelf, a swiss author, BITU’MEN, a mineral substance, remarkable for was born at Morat, in the canton of Freiburg, 4th its inflammability and its strong' peculiar odour; October 1797. He was educated for the church; generally, however, supposed to be of vegetable and after holding several cures, was appointed, in origin. The name, which was in use among the 1832, pastor of Lützelflüh, in Emmenthal, canton of ancient Romans, is variously employed, sometimes Bern, which office he retained till his death. Iris to include a number of the substances called Mineral first work was entitled The Mirror of Peasants Resins (see Resins, MINERAL), particularly the liquid (Burgsdorf, 1836). It is the touching history of a mineral substances called Naphtha (q. v.) and Petro-poor villager, Jeremias Gotthelf, which pseudonym leum (q. v.) or Mineral Oil, and the solid ones called B. ever after retained. In 1838 appeared his Sorrows Mineral Pitch, Asphalt (q. v.) Mineral Caoutchouc,&c. and Joys of a Schoolmaster ; in 1839, Dursli, the -sometimes in a more restricted sense it is applied Brandy-drinker, and How Five Maidens miserably by mineralogists only to some of these, and by some perished in Brandy; in 1841-1846, Scenes and Tradimineralogists to the solid, by others to the liquid tions of the Swiss, in six vols., in which B. narrates,

All these substances are, however, closely with great art, the old national legends, among allied to each other. Naphtha and petroleum consist which the most remarkable is the Reconciliation. essentially of carbon and hydrogen alone, 84–88 The best and most popular of his stories, however, per cent. being carbon ; the others contain also are Grandmother Katy (Berlin, 1848);Uli, the Farma little oxygen, which is particularly the case in servant (Berlin, 2 edition, 1850); its continuation, asphalt, the degree of their solidity appearing to Uli, the Farmer (2d edition, Berlin, 1850); and depend upon the proportion of oxygen which they Stories and Pictures of Popular Life in Switzerland contain, which amounts in some specimens of (Berlin, 185i). Subsequently, he wrote several asphalt to 10 per cent. Asphalt also contains a pamphlets against the German democrats, without, little nitrogen. Bituminous substances are generally however, violating those popular sympathies and found in connection with carboniferous rocks, in dis- liberal convictions which pervade his writings, and tricts where there is, or evidently has been, volcanic which at an earlier period led him vehemently to agency. See the articles already referred to. oppose the family government of the Bernese ärisIndeed, most kinds of coal contain B., and a sub- tocracy. His last work was The Clergyman's Wifc, stance essentially the same is produced from all which appeared in 1854. Its author died on the 224 kinds of coal by distillation; and whether before October of the same year. B.'s writings are greatly existing actually formed in the coal, or produced at relished in Switzerland. They are characterised the bubbling from pieces of coal after they have begun the delineation of manners and habits, great vigour to burn on an ordinary fire. Some of the shales of of description, and raciness of humour, while their the coal-measures are very bituminous, as is also a

tone is strictly moral and Christian. kind of marl-slate abundant in some part of the con- BI'VALVE SHELLS, or BIVALVES, are those tinent of Europe. See SHALE and Marl.—One of the testaceous coverings of mollusks which consist of most interesting of the bituminous minerals is that two concave plates or valves, united by a binge. So called Mineral Caoutchouc or Elastic B., and for which long as molluscous animals, provided with shells, the new name of Elaterite has been devised, as if to were considered by naturalists almost exclusively support the dignity of its exaltation to the rank of a with respect to these, the order of B. S., originally distinct mineral species. It is a very rare mineral, established by Aristotle, retained its place (see Cox. only three localities being known for it in the world chology); and indeed the external character upon -the Odin lead-mine in Derbyshire; a coal-mine at which it is founded is closely connected with some Montrelais, near Angers, in France; and a coal-mine of the important structural characters according to near Southbury, in Massachusetts. It is elastic which mollusks are now classified. See MOLLUSCA. and flexible like caoutchouc, and may be used, like A vast majority of recent B. S. belong to Cuvier's it, for effacing pencil-marks. It is easily cut with a Testaceous order of Acephalous Mollusca, the Lamel




libranchiate (q. v.) Mollusca of Owen, although with , was afterwards imitated by the other armies of them are classed some which were placed among Europe, though less by the English. Soldiers in B., Multivalves (q. v.) by conchologists, on account of light fires, and improvise, where it is possible, huts of accessory valves which they possess, and some which straw, branches, &c. But this mode of encampment, have a calcareous tube superadded to the true though favourable to celerity of movement, is purvalves, or even taking their place as the chief chased at the expense of the soldiers' health, besides covering of the animal. There are also mollusks of being destructive of discipline, by leading to plunthe class Brachiopoda (q. v.), or Palliobranchiata, dering and destroying of houses, fruit-trees, &c., in which possess B. S., as the Terebratulæ, or Lamp-shells the vicinity. Accordingly, the tent is again coming (q. v.), &c. The structure of the shell, however, | into use, and for permanent encampments, regularly when closely examined, is found to be different in constructed wooden huts have been introduced. these two classes (see SHELL), although its general There are still, however, many cases where the B. appearance is much the same. A very large propor- is the only resource. tion of the B. S. of the older fossiliferous rocks

BIXA. See ARNOTTO. belong to the class Brachiopoda.


BENZE'RTA (ancient Hippo , other dorsal ; in the Lamellibranchiata, the one is Diarrhytus, or Zaritus), a seaport town of Tunis, at applied to the right side, and the other to the the bottom of a deep gulf or bay of the Mediterleft side of the animal. The valves of ordinary B. S. ranean, and at the mouth of a lagoon, united to the consist of layers, of which the outermost is always town in Africa, being about 38 miles north-west of

gulf by a narrow channel. It is the most northerly the smallest; and each inner one extends a little beyond it, so that the shell becomes thicker and Tunis, in lat. 37° 17' N., and long. 9° 51' E. It is stronger as it increases in length and breadth. The surrounded by walls, and defended by two castles; valves are connected at the hinge by an elastic liga- neighbouring heigh:s, are quite useless against a ment; and in general this consists of two parts, land-attack." Its port, formerly one of the best in more or less distinct-one on the outside, to which the Mediterranean, has been suffered to fill up, until the name ligament is sometimes restricted, and which is stretched by the closing of the valves; now only small vessels can be admitted, though very another, sometimes called the spring, more internal, 5 or 6 fathoms to the channel leading to the inner

little labour is required to give a uniform depth of which is compressed by the closing of the valves, harbour or lagoon, which has a depth varying from and tends to open them when the compressing force 10 to 50 fathoms, and is extensive enough to afford of the adductor muscle or muscles is removed, the 10 to 50 fathoms, and is extensive enough to afford

effect of which is to be accommodation to the largest navies. The adjacent seen in the gaping of the country is remarkably fertile, but its cultivation is shell when the auimal is neglected. Pop. variously estimated at from 8,000

to 14,000. Agathocles, between the years 310 and dead. The hinge is often

307 B. C., fortified and provided B. with a new furnished with teeth which

harbour; and under the Romans, it was a free city. lock into each other; sometimes it is quite desti

BIZIU'RA. See MUSK DUCK. tute of them; sometimes BJÖRNSTJERNA,


FRIEDRICH FERthe hinge-line is curved, DINAND, Count, a Swedish statesman and author, sometimes straight. Con- was born 10th October 1779 at Dresden, where his chological classification has father then resided as secretary to the Swedish been much founded upon legation. He received his education in Germany, characters taken from this and entered Sweden for the first time in 1793 to part. The valves of some join the army. In 1813 he was appointed lieutenant B. S. are equal and sym- in the Swedish army that went to aid the allies in

metrical, in others they Germany; took part in the conflicts at Grossbeeren are different from one ar.other, particularly in those and Dennewitz; was present at Leipsic, and conmollusks which, like the oyster, attach themselves cluded the formularies of capitulation with the permanently by one valve to some fixed substance, French at Lübeck and Maestricht. Subsequently, as a rock.

Sometimes the valves of B. S. close he fought in Holstein, and in Norway, where he completely at the pleasure of the animal; those concluded the treaty that united that country with of others always gape somewhere.

Sweden. In 1826, he received the title of count; The point at the hinge, from which the formation and in 1828 was appointed ambassador to the of each valve has proceeded, is called the uinbo. On court of Great Britain, which office he held till the side of the umbo opposite to the ligament there 1846, when he returned to Stockholm, where he is usually a small depression called the lunule. The dicd, 6th October 1847. As a politician, B.'s opinions marks, familiar to every one, upon the inside of a were liberal. In addition to some political writings, bivalve shell, are the impressions of the mantle of he published a work on the Theogony, Philosophy, the (lamellibranchiate) mollusk, and of the adductor and Cosmogony of the Hindus in 1843. muscle or muscles.

BLACK may be considered as the negation BI'VOUAC (from the

German beiwucht, or of colour, resulting from the absorption of the bewachen, to watch over) is the encampment of rays of light by certain substances. Painters prosoldiers in the open air, without tents, where every duce it by an unequal combination of the three one remains dressed, and with his weapons by him. primary colours. In medieval art, B. was symbolical Even during the Seven Years' War it was no uncom- of evil, error, and woe; thus we find Christ, when mon thing for the whole army, when in the vicinity the old illuminators wished to represent him as of the enemy, to pass the night in their ranks, each wrestling against the Spirit of Evil, arrayed in black lying down in his place, in order to be ready to drapery; and Byzantine painters, to express the stand to their arms at a moment's notice. But the sorrow of the Virgin Mary, gave her a black comFrench revolutionary armies introduced the practice plexion. All faces shall gather blackness,' is the of dispensing with tents altogether, and regularly expression of Joel, when he wishes to convey the passing the night en bivouac. Hence in a great idea of the t'ouble of the people when the calamimeasure that rapidity in their motions which long ties which, with prophetic eye, he sees brooding made thein uniformly successful; and the practice over Jerusalem, should come to pass. B. clothing


Pecten, A bivalve shell.


among some oriental nations was regarded as a Watt. In 1766, Cullen was appointed to the chair badge of servitude, slavery, or low birth: among of theoretical medicine in Edinburgh, and B. sucthe Moors, it has several significations--obscurity, ceeded him in the chair of chemistry. Thencegrief, despair, constancy. B. in blazonry, under the forth he devoted himself chiefly to the elaboration name of sable, denotes constancy, wisdom, and pru- of his lectures, in which he aimed at the utmost dence. For B. as a funeral colour, see FUNERALS, and degree of perspicuity, and with perfect success. MOURNING.

His class became one of the most popular in the BLACK PIGMENTS, used in painting, are derived university; it occasioned, however, some disappoint, principally from animal and vegetable substances. ment that one so capable of enlarging its territory They are very nuinerous, and of different hues and made no further contributions to chemistry. Though degrees of transparency; but the most important of an extremely delicate constitution, he prolonged are vegetable blue-black-obtained from beech-wood his life, by care and temperance, to the age of 71. burned in close vessels-ivory-black, cork-black, He died on the 26th November 1789. His lectures and lamp-black, the principal constituent of all were published in 1803 (Edin. 2 vols. 4to), edited, being charcoal or carbon. A fine-toned B. pigment with a biogrophical and critical preface, by Professor is obtained by burning German or French Prussian Robinson. blue. Combined with white, B. P., which are slow

BLACK ACTS are the acts of the Scottish parlia. driers, yield grays of several tints.

ment of the first five Jameses, those of Queen BLACK, John, an eminent newspaper editor, Mary's reign, and of James VI., down to 1586 or and classical scholar of some reputation, was a 1587. They were called the B. A. because they were native of Berwickshire, his father being a shepherd, all printed in the black or Saxon characters

. or farm-laborer, in the Lammermoors, near Dunse. Several of these acts were afterwards left out in the Born in 1783, and left an orphan at twelve years of later additions, most of them because they were age, B. commenced life in the office of a Dunse private acts, and a few from reasons of state. writer, but he soon left that place for Edinburgh, In English law-books, the expression black act where he was engaged for several years as a writer's is applied to the 9 Geo. I. c. 22, because it was occa. clerk. While in this capacity, B. was assiduous in sioned by the outrages committed by persons with the work of self-education ; and besides considerable their faces blackened or otherwise disguised, and progress made in classical studies at this time, he associated, as we are told in the preamble of the act, acquired German from a German musician in an under the name of Blacks, who appeared in Epping Edinburgh band, and Italian from a refugee. Find- Forest, near Waltham in Essex, and destroyed the ing Edinburgh too limited a sphere for his energies, deer there, and committed other enormities. This act he went to London about the year 1810, and was was, however, along with numerous other statutes, immediately engaged as a parliamentary reporter repealed, in 1827, by the 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 27. for the Morning Chronicle, of which paper he after- BLACK ART. See Magic. wards became editor. Under his management the BLACK ASSI'ZE, the popular name commemoMorning Chronicle was celebrated for its independ- | rative of an extraordinary and fatal pestilence which ence and fearless advocacy of progress, and that at a broke out at Oxford at the close of the assizes, time when subserviency was so common that it was July 6, 1577. The contemporary accounts describe regarded as little or no disgrace. He retired from it as having broken out in the court-house, immethe editorship in 1843, and continued to reside, until diately after the passing of sentence on Richard his death, which took place June 25, 1855, in a Jencks, a bookbinder, condemned for alleged sedition pleasant cottage on the Kentish estate of one of his to lose his ears. It was popularly interpreted as a friends. Among those who acted on the Morning divine judgment on the cruelty of the sentence, but Chronicle under Mr. Black was Mr. Charles Dickens, the phenomenon is satisfactorily explained by the the eminent novelist. B. was author of a Life of pestilential atmosphere of the adjoining jail, then, as Tasso, with a Historical and Critical Account of his it was until long after, a seat of misery, filth, and Writings, 2 vols. (Edin. 1810), and the translator of disease. From the 6th of July to the 12th of August, the lectures of the brothers Schlegel on Dramatic Art 510 persons are said to have died in Oxford and the and Literature (since republished by Bohn), and on neighbourhood of this terrible malady, among whom the History of Literature Ancient and Modern, as well were the chief officials who sat on the assize, most as of one or two works from the French and Italian. of the jury, and many members of the university.

BLACK, JOSEPII, an eminent chemist, was born Women, poor people, physicians, visitors, and childin 1728, at Bordeaux, where his father was engaged ren are said to have escaped the infection. A similar in the wine-trade. Both his parents were of Scotch event is recorded as having taken place at Camdescent, but natives of Belfast, to which their son bridge at the Lent Assizes in 1521 (Holinshed's was sent for his education in 1740. In 1746 he Chron., Stow's Annals, Wood's Athen. Oxon. &e.). entered the university of Glasgow, and studied BLACK-BAND I'RONSTONE is an ore of iron chemistry under Dr. Cullen. In 1751 he went to found very extensively in Scotland and elsewhere. Edinburgh to complete his medical course, and in It occurs in the carboniferous system of geologists, 1754 took his degree. His thesis, on the nature of in regular bands, layers, or strata, and generally the causticity of lime and the alkalis, which he associated with coal and limestone. It is mainly a shewed to be owing to the absence of the carbonic carbonate of iron accompanied by much coaly matter. acid (called by him fixed air) present in limestone The following is the composition of several samples : and in what are now called the carbonates of the alkalis, contained his first contribution to chemical science, and excited considerable attention. In Carbonate of Iron, * 1756, on the removal of Cullen to Edinburgh, B. Carbonate of Mag

of anatomy (which nesia, branch he afterwards exchanged for medicine) and Alumina,

Silica, lecturer on chemistry in Glasgow. Between 1759

Coaly Matter, and 1763, he evolved that theory of 'latent heat' Water and Loss, on which his scientific fame chiefly rests, and which formed the immediate preliminary to the next great * Metallic Iron, stride in discovery by his pupil and assistant James



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C. 51-53 50 40 40.62 29 14 53-39 63.80 3.76 3.12 1.68 1.52 144 1.64

Carbonate of Lime,








0.82 trace trace trace trace 20.96 26.56 8:48 19.84 2.76 4:43 22-64 18.64 49 16 49.46 42.39 30.03 0.21 0:37

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

25 20 25.79 19.61 14.06 25.77 80,00

per cent.

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