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The B. I. is easily reduced. It does not, however, , spinning-jenny in 1767. He was driven out of the yield a first-class iron when smelted by itself, and country, and it was more than forty years before B. is therefore generally mixed with a small quantity followed in the general track of improvement intro. of hematite (red iron ore), which communicates duced by his invention. Pop. in 1861, 63,126. B. strength and hardness to the iron obtained.

returns two members to parliament. It has plenty BLACK BEETLE. See BLAPS and COCKROACH.

of schools, but they are little used, and in 1853 the

great majority of the population could neither read BLACKBERRY. See BRAMBLE. BLACKBIRD, or MERLE (Turdus Merula of | Grammar-school, with fifty governors, a master, and

nor write. Some years ago, the Elizabethan Free some naturalists, Merula vulgaris of others), a well- an income from endowment of £120 per annum, had known species of Thrush (q. v.), coninion in all not a single pupil ! parts of Britain, and throughout Europe generally ; found also in the north of Africa and in the Azores.

BLACKCAP, BLACKCAP WARBLER, or in Asia, it gives place to a closely allied species, BLACKCAP FAUVETTE (Curruca atricapilla), Turdus pæcilopterus. In size, the B. is inter a bird of the great family of the Sylviado, or mediate between the missel-thrush and the song. Warblers, and of the same genus to which the tlırush or mavis. The plumage of the adult male is nightingale is commonly referred. See FAUVETTE, wholly of a deep black colour, the bill and orbits of WARBLER, and SYLVIADÆ. It is regarded as the the eyes yellow; the female and the young are of a

sweetest song-bird in Britain, or indeed in Europe, dark rusty brown, with dusky bill and eyelids. The except the nightingale, to which it is said to be B. frequents hedges, thickets, and woods; is shy, even superior in its shake or trilling note.' Very restless, and vigilant, keeping much under cover of often, however, the strain is desultory, and of short evergreens or shrubs; and when disturbed, takes continuance; but it is loud, rich in tone, and has a wing with a vociferous chattering of alarm, seeking great variety of sweet and gentle modulations. refuge in some neighboring thicket. Its food White says, in his Natural History of selborne, that consists of worms, snails, insects, berries, &c. Its fondness for fruit makes it often annoying to the gardener; but probably it would in general be better to protect cherries and pears by nets than to shoot the B. which is of great use as a destroyer of insect larvæ. Like some of the other thrushes, it also devours great numbers of small snails, dexterously breaking the shell against a stone.

It is not usually a gregarious bird, although great flocks sometimes appear on the British coasts in winter, on their passage from more northerly to more southerly countries (Selby, quoted by Yarrell). Otherwise, the B. is not in Britain a bird of passage. It pairs very early in spring; the male and female are indeed very often seen together during winter; it builds its

nests early, and generally has two broods in the year. The nest is generally placed in some thick bush; it is of ruder workmanship than that of the song-thrush, which,

Blackcap (Curruca atricapilla). however, it resembles, and is usually formed of strong stems of grass, with a finer lining of dry grass inside, and a massive plastering of clay out. while the B. warbles, its throat is wonderfully side. The eggs are four or five in number, of a

distended. It is a rather smaller bird than the pale blue colour, generally speckled with brown. nightingale ; the female is larger than the male. The voice of the B. is very powerful, and its The back, wings, and tail are of an ash-brown song more mellow than that of the thrush, but with colour; the chin, throat, and breast are gray; the * much less variety, compass, or execution. The B. is belly, white. The upper part of the head in the often kept as a cage-bird, and would be much more male is jet-black; in the female, of a dull rust frequently so, but for the too great loudness of its colour. The feathers of the head, both in the song: it is very susceptible of being trained, exhibits male and female, are somewhat erected, giving the considerable powers of imitation, and has even been bird a hooded appearance, on account of which taught to speak.-The Ring OuZeL (q. v.) a bird it is called, in Germany, the monk. In Britain, very nearly allied to the B., is sometimes called the the B. is a bird of passage, arriving early in spring, Ring Blackbird.—The Crow BLACKBIRDS (q. v.) of and retiring in September. The males, as in the America are entirely different.—The SAVANYA B. of case of the nightingale, arrive a few days before the West Indies is also of a different family. See the females. The B. is not a common bird in (ROTOPHAGA. A fuller account is given in Supp't. Britain : it is most frequent in the southern counties BLACKBURN, a manufacturing town in the

of England, but it is found even in Scotland ; on the middle of Lancashire, on the B. stream now called continent, it extends its migrations as far north as simply the Brook,' 21 miles north-north-west from in summer and winter. As a cage-bird, it is pleasing Manchester. It is much improved of late years, not only on account of its song—which, however, and has a very beautiful Gothic parish church. is sometimes partly spoiled by its too successful Coal and lime abound in the vicinity. The great imitation of other birds—but also on account of its business of the town is the manufacture of cotton stuffs, chiefly coarse calicoes, valued at more than manners, the intelligence which it displays, and its £2,000,000 yearly, and employing 10,000 persons. feed and caress it.

strong attachment to those who are accustomed to Above two hundred years ago, a kind of linseywoolsey was well known as the “B. Checks,' BLACKCAP TITMOUSE, or CHICKADEE', afterwards superseded by the ‘B. Grays,' so called a North American bird. See TITMOUSE. The from their being printed unbleached. Here James Marsh Titmouse, a British bird, is sometimes called. Hargreaves (q. v.), a native of the town, invented the Blackcap, or Blackcap Titmouse.

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BLACK CHALK is a variety of Clay-slate (q. v.), , the like, placed together among tall heath, or under containing a considerable proportion of carbon. Ít the shelter of a low thick bush. The eggs, six to is used for drawing, and is also ground down to form eight in number, are yellowish-white, speckled with a black paint. It is found as a rock of a slaty orange-brown, and about two inches long. The food texture and bluish-black colour in the island of of the B. consists of the seeds of rushes and other Islay and in Caernarvonshire, also in Spain, and plants, berries, insects, the tender shoots of beath, other parts of the world.

leaves, &c.; it sometimes visits cornfields and BLACKCOCK, HEA'TH.FOWL, or BLACK stubbles to feed on corn; is frequently to be found GROUSE (Tetrao Tetrix), a species of Grouse (q.v.), in turnip-fields in the neighbourhood of plantations abundant in Britain wherever there are moors of con- in hilly districts; and, at least in winter, eats the siderable extent, and more particularly where there young shoots of pines, firs, birches, and alders. It are bogs and morasses with rank herbage, or, adja- is highly esteemed for the table. cent to the moors, natural woods or young plantations

It seems to be well established that hybrids are of pine and fir. Comparatively rare in the south of occasionally produced between the B. and other England, the B. becomes more common towards the species of grouse; and also between the B. and the north, and is very plentiful in the mountainous pheasant; but this subject, although regarded with parts of Scotland. It is found in some of the much interest by some of the greatest naturalists, Hebrides, but not in the Orkney or Shetland Isles. has not yet received the investigation which it On the continent of Europe, it occurs both in moun- deserves, and nothing appears to be known concerntainous and marshy countries, as on the Alps and in ing any offspring of such hybrids. See Yarrell's Holland; it is found as far south as the Apennines, British Birds, ii. 289—314. It can only be deemed and as far north as the forests of Lapland; it probable, not certain, that the bird called Tetrao abounds in most parts of Scandinavia, where it is hybridus, sometimes found in the Scandinavian carefully protected, the males only being killed, peninsula and other parts of Europe, is a hybrid great numbers of which are sent to the London between the B. and the Capercailzie (q. v.). market; it is diffused over almost all parts of BLACK DEATH was one of the names given Russia, and is found in Siberia. The male is much to an oriental plague marked by inflammatory boils larger than the female, sometimes weighing as much and tumours, which in the 14th c. desolated the as four pounds, whilst the female weighs only about world. It took this name from the black spots, two pounds; they also differ very much in plumage. symptomatic of a putrid decomposition, which, at The male is of a shining bluish-black colour, with a one of its stages, appeared upon the skin. conspicuous white bar on the wings below the ends Our information as to the symptoms and course of the great wing-covers, and a mixture of black of this terrible malady is far from perfect. So much and white on the legs; there is a piece of bare is clear, that they varied somewhat from case to scarlet skin over the eye; the outer feathers on case, and in

case, and in different countries, and greatly changed each side of the tail are elongated and curve out- towards the close of the period of its ravages in wards, giving it a very peculiar appearance. The Europe (1348—1351). Among them may be noticed fernale, called the Gray Ilen, is of a rust colour, great imposthumes on the thighs and arms—what

are called buboes, and smaller boils on the arms and face; in many cases, black spots all over the body; and in some, affection of the head, stupor, and palsy of the tongue, which became black as if suffused with blood ; burning and unslakable thirst; putrid inflammation of the lungs, attended by acute pains in the chest, the expectoration of blood, and à fetid pestiferous breath. On the first appearance of the plague in Europe, fever, the evacuation of blood, and carbuncular affection of the lungs, brought death before the other symptoms could be developed ; afterwards, boils and buboes characterised its fatal course in Europe as in the East. In almost all cases its victims perished in two or three days after being attacked. Its spots and tumours were the seals of a doom which medicine had no power to avert, and which in despair many anticipated by self-slaughter.

If the symptoms of the B. D. have been only

imperfectly handed down to us, the history of its Blackcock (Tetrao Tetrix).

rise and progress is still more obscure. But while

fable enters largely into its history, it would seem to darkest on the upper parts, everywhere barred and be safe to assign its birth-place to China ; and there mottled with a darker colour; the tail is straight is a strong concurrence of testimony, that the causes and even at the end. The young males resemble which co-operated to produce it are to be sought for the females in plumage. The shank in this species as far back as 1333—15 years before its outbreak is feathered, but not the toes. It is a gregarious in Europe—in a series of great convulsions of the bird, the different sexes, however, in winter, gener- earth's structure, which commenced in that year, ally keeping in flocks by themselves. In spring, the and which, for 26 years thereafter, continued powermales resort to elerated and open spots, where they fully to affect the conditions of animal and vegetable crow, and also make a sound which has been likened life. The precise date of the appearance of the to the whetting of a scythe, thus inviting the females plague in China is unknown, but from 1333 till to repair to them; they strut and trail their wings 1348, that great country suffered a terrible morlike turkey-cocks, and fierce contests often take tality from droughts, famines, floods, earthquakes place among them. They are polygamous, and pay which swallowed mountains, and swarms of innuno attention to the females during incubation, nor merable locusts; and in the last few years of that do they take any part in rearing the young. The period, from the plagne. During the same time nest is of the simplest construction, a few straws or Europe manifested sympathy with the changes

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which affected the East. The order of the seasons I shores on which winds or the tide chanced to cast seemed at various times to be inverted; storms them. of thunder and lightning were frequent in the dead The mortality caused by the plague was, however, of winter, and there occurred great earthquakes only one of the evils to which it gave rise. Its and eruptions of volcanoes conceived to have become moral effects on the survivors and the frame of extinct. The theory is, that this great tellurian society were no less momentous. Many died of activity, accompanied by the decomposition of vast fear, which among the living dissolved the ties organic masses, myriads of bodies of men, brutes, of kindred; mothers forsook their plague-stricken and locusts, produced some change in the atmos- children; the worldly became quickened to a madphere unfavourable to life; and some writers, speak- dening sense of sin; the religious fixed their eyes ing of the established progress of the plague from more steadily on futurity; all rushed to sacrifice East to West, say that the impure air was actually their means to the church, while the ecclesiasties visible, as it approached with its burden of death. drew back from the gold showered over their walls, 'A dense and awful fog was seen in the heavens, as being tainted with death. Superstition finally rising in the East, and descending upon Italy' banded multitudes together by common (Mansfeld Chronicle in Cyriac Spangenberg, chap. to work out the common safety. In Hungary, 287, fol. 336). With this view of the plague is to and afterwards in Germany, rose the brotherhood be conjoined another regarding the causes which of the Flagellants, who undertook to expiate the produced a predisposition of the inhabitants of sins of the people, and avert the pestilence by selfEurope to become its victims, and which are referred imposed sufferings. Originally of the lower classes, to the effects on the popular health partly of they gathered to their order, as it extended, crowds scarcity, and partly of the prevalent bad habits of of the highest, both men and women, and marched living. There is much probability in the theory, from city to city, rohed in sombre garments, with that the plague was owing to an atmospheric poison red crosses on the breast, back, and cap, and with acting on the organs of respiration, which, it will be their heads covered as far as the eyes; they went recollected, were always those first attacked. But chanting in solemn procession with banners, with while impurity of the air and the state of the public down-turned faces, and bearing triple scourges health may have largely contributed to the mor- with points of iron, with which, at stated times tality, it may be doubted whether the disease did they lacerated their bodies. They at last pervaded not owe its extension almost wholly to infection nearly all Europe; Germany, Hungary, Poland, and contagion, whatever causes may have originally Bohemia, Silesia, and Flanders did them homage. produced it. It appears that the pestilence had in a This, howerer, is not the place to give their history, milder form appeared in Europe in 1342, but it had for which the reader will refer to the article under passed away, and there is little reason for holding the head FLAGELLANTS. Suffice it that the order that, in the interval, it remained merely latent. The was not suppressed till the pope, at the instigation invasion of 1348 may actually be tracked from of several crowned heads, prohibited throughout China in its advance by the various caravan routes Christendom their pilgrimages, on pain of excomtowards the West. The nothern coast of the Black munication. While the wanderings of the Flagellants Sea sent the plague by contagion to Constantinople. threw society into confusion, and helped to spread By contagion it reached the seaports of Italy, and the plague, the horrors of the time were further thence, as from so many foci of contagion it soon heightened by the fearful persecutions to which established itself over Europe. Its advance may the Jews were subjected, from a popular belief that be traced through Germany and France to England, the pestilence was owing to their poisoning the from which it was transmitted to Sweden. It was public wells. The people rose to exterminate the three years from its appearance at Constantinople, Hebrew race, of whom, in Marence alone, 12,000 before it crept, by a great circle, to the Russian were cruelly murdered. They were killed by fire territories. This fact of its spread by contagion has and hy torture wherever they could be found, led to speculations as to whether, by rigid rules of and for them, to the terrors of the plague were quarantine, it might not have been excluded from added those of a populace everywhere infuriated Europe. Such rules are now at many points in against them. In some places, the Jewish people force as securities against oriental plagues.

immolated themselves in masses; in others, not a There are no proper materials for estimating the soul of them survived the assaults of their enemies. mortality which this plague produced, for it occurred No adequate notion can be conveyed of these before the value of statistics was appreciated. But horrors. To aggravate the pestilence, the poisonin China, 13,000,000 are said to have died, and panic made the people shut up their wells. With in the rest of the East nearly 24,000,000. These terror of poison and of plague in a state of society numbers appal the imagination. Coming to Europe, rude at the best, but now disorganised, what the horror is increased by the greater exactness of means

means were available to mitigate .or prevent the the details. London alone lost over 100,000 souls; sufferings of the people were rendered altogether 15 European cities lost among them about 300,000; nugatory. Germany is calculated to have lost 1,244,434; Italy, It would be useless to attempt to give any notion one half of its population. On a moderate calcu- of the effects on society of this plague; how during lation, it may be assumed that there perished in it some, like people in sieges, came to be callous, Europe 25,000,000 human beings. Africa suffered and some, like thieves under the gallows, to regard with the rest of the known world. Everywhere the desolation only as it afforded opportunities for was death. All animal life was threatened. Rivers plunder and indulgence. The whole phenomena were cousecrated to receive corpses, for which none would form a fine study for the social philosopher dared perform the rites of burial, and which in and psychologist. We must content ourselves here other places were cast in thousands into huge pits with referring the reader to the Decameron of made for their reception. Death was on the sea, Boccaccio for a description of the plague at too, as well as on the land, and the imagination is Florence, which, for vividness and particularity of quickened to the realisation of the terrible mortality observation, almost equals Thucydides's account by accounts of ships without crews—the crews dead of the plague at Athens. In Bulwer's Rienzi, also, und putrefying on the decks of the aimless hulls- an account of the plague will be found. The drifting through the Mediterranean, the Black and reader should also consult Hecker's Epidemics of the North Seas, and cursing with the contagion the the Middle Ages, translated for the Sydenham


Society. Accounts of the plague have been left prosecuted with much greater success. This and us by the physicians Guy de Chauliac and Chalin the manufacture of articles of wood, forms the chief de Vinaro. But perhaps Boccaccio's is the best of industry of the inhabitants. Above 180,000 wooden the whole. The B. D. afterwards more than once clocks alone, many of them of an ingenious antoappeared in Europe, but never with the same matical character, are made every year in the B. F. virulence or duration.

and exported to all parts of Europe and America, BLACKFISH (Centro'lophus Moris), a fish of their value being estimated at half a million gulden, the family of the Scombe'rida (q. v.) "very nearly or about £40,000. allied to the beautiful Coryphenes (q. v.), so fre

Two of the passes of the B. F., the Kniebis and quently called dolphins. It is found both in the the Hölle, acquired considerable celebrity during the Mediterranean Sea and on the western coasts of wars of the French Revolution. The first, situated Europe, occasionally on the southern coasts of

on the borders between Baden and Würtemberg, at Britain, but is everywhere rare, perhaps because the source of the Murg, was taken by the French it is an inhabitant chiefly of deep waters. It is in 1796 and in 1797 ; the Hölle is known in connecknown to attain a length of more than thirty inches, tion with Moreau's retreat in 1796. and a weight of fourteen pounds. The general form BLACKHEATH, a high-lying open common, is not unlike that of a perch; there is a single in the county of Kent, five miles south-east of elongated dorsal fin with short rays, rising from a London, near Greenwich Park. It commands a thin elevated ridge; the body is covered with minute fine view of great extent, and being a healthy scales, the skin is tough and can be stripped off like tract, many villas have been built on its margin. that of an eel; there is no air bladder. The B. of It is a favourite holiday resort for Londoners. The the American coast, prized for the table, is the Taw Roman road to Dover crossed it. B. is one of the toga onitis, of the family Labridce. A species of few places in England where the ancient Scottish whale is also called B.

game of golf is practised. On it stands Morden BLACK FLUX is prepared by heating in a College, founded in 1695 by Sir J. Morden for covered crucible ordinary or crude cream of tartar, decayed merchants, and with a revenue of £5000. or the bitartrate of potash (KO,HO,C311,010), B. was formerly the scene of several insurrections, when the tartaric acid (C2H4000) is decomposed, including those of Wat Tyler, 1381, and Jack Cade, and charred, forming carbonic acid (CO2), which 1450. Here the Danes encamped in 1011; the remains in combination with the potash (KO) as Londoners welcomed Henry V. from Agincourt; carbonate of potash (KO,CO2), accompanied by and Charles II., on his way from Dover, met the much free carbon. This very intimate mixture of army of the Restoration. B. was also a noted carbonate of potash and carbon, otherwise called place for highwaymen. B. F., is a fine black powder of great service in BLACK HOLE, an appellation familiarly given the fluxing of metallic ores, as of lead (q. v.), and to a dungeon or dark cell in a prison, and which is the separation of the metal therefrom. The B. F. associated in the public mind with a horrible catasis likewise employed as the raw material from trophe in the history of British India-namely, the which, on the application of heat in iron vessels, cruel confinement of a party of English in an apartthe metal potassium can be obtained.

ment called the Black Hole of Calcutta,' on the BLACK FOREST (Ger. Schwarzwald), a wooded night of the 18th of June 1756. The garrison of the mountain-chain in Baden and Würtemberg, running fort connected with the English factory at Calcutta, from south to north along the western side of having been captured by the nabob Suraja Dowlah, Swabia, parallel with the course of the Rhine this barbarian caused the whole of the prisoners after its great bend near Basel, and often only a taken, 146 in number, to be confined in an apartfew miles distant from it. The Rhine also bounds ment 20 feet square. This cell had only two small it on the south, and the level country between windows, and these were obstructed by'a veranda. the Enz and the confluence of the Neckar with The crush of the unhappy sufferers was dreadful ; the Rhine borders it on the north ; lat. 47° 30'— and after a night of excruciating agony from pres49° 30' N., long. 7° 40'—9o E. The chief rivers sure, heat, thirst and want of air, there were in the rising in the B. F. are the Danube, Neckar, Murg, morning only 23 survivors, the ghastliest forms ever Kinzig, Elz, Enz, and Wiessen. The B. F. attains seen on earth. See HINDUSTAN. its greatest elevation in the Feldberg (variously BLACKIE, JOHN STUART, Professor of Greek stated at from 4600 to 4892 feet high), which rises in the university of Edinburgh, was born in Glasgow near the source of the Wiessen and the cele-in 1809, but received his early education in Aberbrated Hölle (IIell) Pass, a narrow valley shut in by deen, where his father was agent for a bank. After mountains in the vicinity of Neustadt. The great going through the usual course of a Scotch university

called tbe Kaiserstuhl (Emperor's Chair), education-partly at Marischal College, Aberdeen, situated near Breisach, is quite isolated. As to the partly at Edinburgh-with a view to the church, he geological character of the B. F., primitive granite went in 1829 to Germany, and studied for soine and gneiss form its core, porphyry is found on its time both at Göttingen and Berlin. He then prosides, and sandstone along its highest ridges, as well/ ceeded to Rome, where he spent more than a year. as at its base. Silver, copper, cobalt lead, and, iron During this period, he acquired a mastery of German are found in greater or less quantity in its prin- and Italian, and an acquaintance more extensive cipal chain, which is luxuriantly wooded, its name than ordinary with the literature of those countries, Schwarzwald being derived from the dark-tinted especially with that of Germany. On his return foliage and immense number of fir-trees. The from the continent, having abandoned the thought B. F. is also rich in mineral waters, as e. g., the of entering the church, he began the study of law, baths of Baden-Baden and Wildbad (q. v.). On the and passed as advocate at the Edinburgh bar in Rhine side, the descent is precipitous, but towards 1834. But he soon found the practice of the the Danube and the Neckar it is gradual. Among profession unconger.ial, and devoted himself henceits numerous valleys, the Murgthal is the most forth to literary pursuits. Among his earliest famous for its natural beauties. The western slopes productions was his translation, in English verse, are studded with vineyards. Summer rye, oats, and of Goethe's Faust, which, notwithstanding conrotatoes are cultivated in some parts of the B. F. ; siderable ruggedness, is preferred by G. H. Lewes but it is with difficulty, and the rearing of cattle is to any other of the metrical translations. He



wrote also about this period numerous articles, however, ought, perhaps, to be regarded as an unforin the Foreign Quarterly Review, the Westoninster, tunate one, as no lead enters into the composition Blackwood, and Tait, chiefly on German subjects. of the mineral. It sometimes occurs crystallised In 1811, he was appointed by the crown to the in short imbedded hexagonal prisms; but generally chair of Hunanity in Marischal College, which he massive, and more or less radiated, foilated, scaly, held until, in 1852, he .was elected to the Greek or compact. It is of a grayish-black colour, chair in the university of Edinburgh. Ever since with a somewhat metallic lustre, and is perfectly he became professor, he has been incessant, by opaque. It is greasy to the touch, and is a perfect means of pamphlets, lectures, and addresses, in call- conductor of electricity. It is found in primary and ing public attention in Scotland to the importance of transition rocks, as in gneiss, mica-slate, quartzeducational reform, more especially to the necessity rock, greenstone, and clay-slate, and pretty abundof raising the standard of the schools preparatory to antly in various parts of the world. It is much the universities. He took an active part in the more incombustible than even anthracite (or blindmovement that led in 1859 to the remodelling of the coal), burning with much difficulty even before Scottish universities. Of works of a professional and the blow-pipe, on which account it is much used for philological kind may be mentioned two lectures on the manufacture of crucibles or ‘melting-pots' the Studying and Teaching of Languages; a contri- which withstand a great heat. These are not, bution to the Classical Museum, published separ- however, made of mere B. L., but of B. L. in ately, On the Rhythmical Declamation of the Ancients ; powder, mixed with half its weight of clay. B. L. The Pronunciation of Greek ; Accent and Quantity, is employed for making pencils (q. v.). It is 1852. Perhaps the most matured and scholarly also extensively employed to give a black gloss to of B.'s productions is his metrical translation, with iron grates, stoves, railings, &c., and to diminish notes, of the dramas of Æschylus, published in 1850. the friction of the belts and other parts of machinB. has also contributed the articles · Aschylus' ery. Lately it has been suggested as a lubricating and 'Homer' to the Encyclopædia Britannica. In agent in the cartridges of rifles, instead of lard or 1853, he paid a visit t) Greece, and spent above tallow.-B. L. is obtained at Borrowdale in Cumberthree months in Athens, acquiring a complete land, Eng., and at Sturbridge, Mass., Ticonderoga, N. mastery of the language as now spoken; and as Y., Brandon, Vt., and elsewhere. fruits of the visit, there appeared an introductory BLACK LETTER (Black Letter), the lecture on the Living Language of Greece, together name commonly given in this country to

the with articles in the North British and Westminster types which on the continent are most generally Reviews. Not content with educational and philo- known as Gothic. The first printed books inilogical subjects, the versatile activity of Professor B. tated every peculiarity of the contemporary manuhas led him to make incursions into the fields both scripts; and as printing was first practised in of abstract speculation and of poetry. Besides an Germany and the Netherlands, the first types essay on The Philosophy of Plato,' in the Edinburgh were copies of the letters in use in those countries Essays, 1856, be published in 1858 a treatise on in the middle of the 15th c. Two sorts of letters Beauty, in refutation of Lord Jeffrey's association have been employed in the writings of Western theory, and containing an exposition of the æsthet- Christendom. What have been called Roman ical philosophy of Plato. In 1857 appeared Lays letters prevailed from the 5th to about the close and Legends of Ancient Greece, with other Poems; of the 12th C., when they gradually began to and in 1860, Lyrical Poems. In 1866 B. published pass into what have been called Gothic letters, Homer and the Iliad, with critical Dissertations which continued till the 16th c., when, in most and Notes, Philological and Archäological.

European countries, they were superseded by Roman BLACKING is the material employed for pro- letters. The first types, as has been said, were ducing a black glazed shining surface on leather. Gothic, and they spread with the art of printing The main ingredient in the various kinds of B. into various European states. In France and Italy, is bone-black (q. v.), which is mixed with an oil, they were slightly modified by cutting off some of some sugar, and a little sulphuric acid. The their rougher points; and when thus trimmed, they materials in Day and Martin's B. are finely pow- came to be known in the former country as lettres dered bone-black ground with sperm-oil, raw sugar de somme, being so called, it is said, from their use or molasses, a little vinegar, and some concen- in an edition of the Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas. trated sulphuric acid (specific gravity 1850). The The classic taste of Italy could not long tolerate substances are incorporated together one by one in the Gothic character even of the lettres de somme ; the order in which they are stated, and the action and they were still further modified, until they of the sulphuric acid is to convert much of the

lime assumed the shape to which the name of Roman in the bone-black into sulphate of lime, which letters has since been given. The first works printed causes a thickening of the mixture, and a tena- with these new types were two beautiful editions of cious paste results. This . paste, diluted with Pliny's Natural History: the one by John of Spira weak vinegar, is put, while warm, in stoneware at Venice in 1469; and the other by his disciple, bottles, and is then ready for the market. Nicholas Jenson, also at Venice, in 1472. Another

Venetian printer--the first Aldus Manutius-BLACK JACK, the name given by miners to attempted in 1501 to supersede the Roman letters Blende (q. v.). It was also the name applied in by what have been called Aldine (q. v.), or Venetian, former times to a kind of drinking flagon.-B. J. but are best known as Italic characters. These can (tree), see Oak.-B. J. or NiggER CATERPILLAR, temporary or exceptional use ; but the Roman

scarcely be said to have come into much more than see TURNIP SAWFLY.

letters in no long time spread from Venice all over BLACK LEAD, GRA'PHITE, or PLUMBAGO, the west of Europe. Although thus supplanted in a mineral consisting chiefly of carbon, but contain- general use, the Gothic or B. L. was long retained ing' also more or less of alumina, silica, lime, iron, for special purposes, such as, in this country, the &c., to the extent of 1 to 47 per cent., apparently printing of Bibles, prayer-books, proclamations, and mixed rather than chemically combined. B. L. acts of parliament. Books in B. L. being the earliest, is the popular name, and that by which it is are highly prized by antiquaries and bibliomaniacs, generally known in the arts; Graphite is that gene- who are hence sometimes spoken of as 'blackrally preferred by mineralogists.---The name B. L., I letter' devotees. Thus, Matthias, in his Pursuits of

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