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of The Atlas newspaper. In 1839, in conjunc-| bell-shaped flowers of a lurid purple colour, which tion with Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton and Dr. are fully larger than those of the common harebell, Lardner, he started The Monthly Chronicle, a stalked and solitary in the axils of the leaves. It literary periodical, published by Longman & Co.; produces berries, of the size of a middle-sized cherry, and latterly was editor of it. In 1841, he retired from The Atlas. For Lardner's Cyclopædia, B. wrote The History of Russia, 3 vols., and The Lives of the English Poets, 2 vols. The last volume of Southey's Naval History, left unfinished by the author, was also written by him, as was the concluding volume of Mackintosh's History of England. At the London theatres, three five-act comedies have been produced by him. He is author, also, of The. Ladder of Gold, å novel, 3 vols., 1850; Heart and Altars, a collection of tales, 3 vols.; Life of Canning;

a Outlines of China ; Memorials of the Civil War, consisting of the Fairfax correspondence, 2 vols. ; Wayside Pictures through France, Belgium, and Holland. In 1854, he commenced an annotated edition of the English poets; and received from the king of the Belgians a gold medal, as a token of his majesty's sense of his services to literature. Died Apr. 12, '67.

BELL, THOMAS, a distinguished naturalist, the son of a medical practitioner, was born at Poole, Dorsetshire, in 1792. In 1814, he went to Lon

Belladonna. don, and studied at Guy's Hospital, and in 1815, a, part of a branch with leaves and flowers ; 6, fruit, with passed the College of Surgeons. In 1817, he com

persistent calyx. menced a course of annual lectures on dental surgery at Guy's Hospital, where he also for some time and which, when ripe, are of a shining black colour, delivered lectures on comparative anatomy. He was

and of a sweetish and not nauseous taste, although one of the founders of, and a principal contributor to, the whole plant has a disagreeable heavy smell. It The Zoological Journal, of which five volumes were

is a native of the southern and middle parts of published; also one of the members of the Zoological Europe, and is not uncommon in England, in the Club of the Linnæan Society, afterwards incorpo- neighbourhood of towns and of ruins. All parts of rated with the Zoological Society. Elected in 1828 the plant are narcotic and poisonous, and fatal cona Fellow of the Royal Society. in 1840 he was sequences not unfrequently follow from the eating of appointed its secretary. In 1836, he became Pro- its berries, which have an inviting appearance. Its fessor of Zoology in King's College, London.

On roots have sometimes been mistaken for parsnips. the establishment of the Ray Society, in 1844, for Dryness of the mouth and throat, dilatation of the the publication of rare and costly works on natural eyes, obscurity of vision, paralytic tremblings, loss history, he was elected its first president. In 1853, of sensation, delirium, and stripor, are among the

When death he resigned the secretaryship of the Royal Society, effects of poisoning by belladonna. on being elected president of the Linnaean Society. takes place from this cause, corruption ensues with He is author of a History of British Reptiles, extraordinary rapidity. B. is, however, of great in Van Voorst's series of British natural history, value in medicine, soothing irritation and pain, 1829; a History of British Quadrupeds, same series, particularly in nervous maladies, and is adminis1836; and a History of the British Stalk-eyed tered both internally and externally, in the form Crustacea, same series, 1853. In 1833, he com- of extract, tincture, ointment, and plaster, which menced a Monograph of the Testudinata. The article are generally prepared from the dried leaves, some

Reptiles,' in Darwin's Zoology of the Voyage of the times from the root. It is particularly useful, Beagle, was written by Beli. It has been the from its power of dilating the pupil of the eye, and happy but deserved good-fortune of Professor Bell is constantly employed by oculists both for examito become proprietor of the manor of Selborne, nations and operations. It is also applied to endeared to all naturalists by the observations of the eye to diminish the sensibility of the retina the celebrated Gilbert White.

to light. It has recently been recommended as BELLA, a thriving town of Naples, in the

a preventive of scarlet fever, apparently on the

pro. vince of Basilicata, with a population of between frequent small doses, to produce an eruption and 5000 and 6000.

an affection of the throat, somewhat similar to BELLA, STEFANO DELLA, a famous Italian

those characteristic of that disease; but the eviengraver, was born at Florence, 18th May 1610. dence of its utility for this purpose is not sufficient He was intended for a goldsmith, but he soon left to warrant confidence. The name B., i. e., Fair that calling, and devoted himself to engraving. He Lady, is supposed to have originated in the employexecuted upwards of 1400 different works, of almost ment of the juice for staining the skin. The name all subjects—battles, sea-pieces, landscapes, animals, Dwale is apparently from the same root with &c. All are characterised by freedom and delicacy, the French deuil, grief-an allusion to the same and give evidence of high imagination on the part of qualities which have obtained for the plant the the author, and also of much patient and careful appellation of Deadly Nightshade. Atropa is from manipulation. One of his most admired works is a Atropos, one of the Fates.—The other species of view of the Pont-Neuf, Paris. He died 12th July Atropa are South American.

B. owes its active properties on the animal system BELLA DOʻN NA, DWALE, or DEADLY to the presence of the alkaloid Atropine, accomNIGHTSHADE (A'tropa Belladonna), a plant of panied by another alkaloid, Belladonnine. The the natural order Solanaceæ (q. v.); an herbaceous alkaloid atropine is present in all parts of the perennial, growing up every year as a bush, from plant, and in all the preparations. It is generally two to six feet high, with ovate entire leaves, and procured from the root of B., and then forms

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needle-shaped crystals, which are sparingly solubles de Controversiis Fidei adversus hujus Temporis in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether. Hereticos (3 vols., Rome, 1581; 4 vols., Prague, 1721; Atropine is a very active poison, and its effects on 4 vols., Mayence, 1842). These disputations are the animal system resemble in an intensified degree regarded by Catholics as the best arguments for the manner in which B. acts. It has recently been their tenets. There can be no question of their introduced into medicine, along with its nitrate, its merits with regard to erudition and adroitness in sulphate, and its hydrochlorate.

controversy ; but as Gerhard, in his Bellarminus BELLADOʻNNA LILY (Amaryllis Belladonna), Orthodoxias Testis (Jena, 1631-1633), and Dallæus a very beautiful species of Amaryllis (q. v.), with have shewn, many of the conclusions are far from rose-coloured drooping flowers clustered at the sum- being sound or logical Industry, clearness, and mit of the leafless flowering stem. It is a native of acuteness are the chief merits of B.'s great work ; the Cape of Good Hope and of the West Indies, but it is seriously lessened in value by subtilty, has become naturalised in Madeira, and is a not forced conclusions, and a very defective exegesis unfrequent ornament of gardens in England. The faults which have long been evident to enlightened flowering stem is about 18 inches high.

Catholic writers themselves. Among his other BELLAMY, JACOBUS, a distinguished Dutch writings, the most able is the Christiance Doctrince poet, was born at Vliessingen (Flushing), November Applicatio, originally written in Italian, and now 12, 1757, and died March 11, 1786.

His parents

translated into all the European languages. Pope were very poor, and he was indebted for his educa- Urban VIII., at the instigation of the Jesuits, tion to the patronage of a clergyman, and other declared B. to be a 'faithful servant of God;' but persons who had seen and admired the patriotic his canonisation as a saint has hitherto 'been effusions of his boyish muse, and who subscribed to opposed. Complete editions of his works have been send him to the university of Utrecht. Here the published at Venice, 5 vols., 1721 ; and Cologne, 7 talents already remarked in B. were devoted chiefly Jesuit Fuligatti (Rome, 1624); and translated into

vols., 1619. His life was written in Italian by the to poetry, though his benefactors had hoped that he would devote himself to theology. His first senti

Latin by Petra Sancta (Liege, 1626). mental and anacreontic poems, published at Amster

BELLARY, a district of British India in the dam in 1782, were followed by a series of earnest presidency of Madras, bounded on the N. by the patriotic poems (Vaderlandsche Gezangen), and in Nizam's territories, on the E. by Cuddapah, on the the same year, a third volume full of merit (1785). S. by Mysore, and on the W. by Dharwar. With an A collected edition of his works appeared at Haarlem area of 13,056 square miles, it extends in N. lat. (1826), but it does not contain his most popular between 13° 40' and 16° 58'; and in E. long. between

Pop. 1,229,599.

The main poem, Roosje. B. was possessed of a glowing spirit 75° 44' and 78° 19'. and fancy, as well as a fine taste and ease in compo- peculiarities of the district are connected with its sition. He deservedly ranks as one of the chief situation. Elevated on the east slope of the West restorers of national literature in Holland,

Ghauts, B. enjoys so healthy a climate that it has BELLARMINE, ROBERT, one of the most cele. been officially recommended as the site of a sanabrated Catholic theologians, was born at Monte torium for the neighbouring provinces. Screened by Pulciano in Tuscany, October 4, 1542. He entered the Ghauts from the south-west monsoon, and prothe order of Jesuits in 1560, and was distinguished tected against the north-east one by its distance from among his confrères by the zeal with which he studied the Bay of Bengal, B. receives, on an average, less theology, the church-councils, the Fathers, Hebrew, annual fall ranging between about 12 inches and about

rain than any other portion of Southern India--the history, and the canon law. In 1563, he gave lessons 26 inches. Hence all its subordinate streams become, in polite literature and astronomy at Florence; and ,

in the dry season, mere expanses of sand, which, seventh year, when he went to Louvain as professor excepting when bound together by the growth of of theology, he began that long controversy with the nuth-grass, is apt to encroach from year to year, 'heretics." which formed the main business of his like a glacier, over the bordering grounds. B., in life. In 1599, when he was made a cardinal against fact, may in a great measure be said to be habitable his own inclination, he used his influence over Pope is yet ingenious; dug wells amount to 22,000; of

through artificial means. Irrigation, though rude, Clement VIII. to prevent the introduction of the tanks there are 1400; and weirs or dams of huge Platonic philosophy into the university of Rome, on the ground of its being pernicious ; ' but though stones, to the number of 331, cross the various waterhimself a Jesuit, he honourably opposed the Domini-courses, so as to form, after the rains, so many cans with regard to the Pelagian writings of Molina. He seems, however, to have participated to some

BELLA'RY, the chief town of the above district, extent in that writer's suicidal ethics, for in his is situated about 380 miles south-east of Bombay,

that, as the pope is the and 270 north-west of Madras. Lat. 15° 8' N., and supreme authority in doctrine and morals, if he long. 76° 59' E. As one of the principal military should call virtue vice, and vice virtue, we are stations in the presidency of Madras, it is connected bound to believe him, and to act accordingly. In by good roads with Belgaum, Bangalore, Hyderabad,

The fort stands on a rock two 1602, he was appointed Archbishop of Capua. After and Madras itself. the death of Clement VIII., he contrived to escape miles round, and 450 feet high ; and is supplied with promotion to the papal chair, but was induced by water from tanks excavated in the solid granite. Pius V. (1605) to hold an important place in the Besides the fort and adjacent cantonments, B. Vatican, where he remained until the time of his contains a native town, which, in 1836, numbered death, which took place in the Novitiate-house of 30,426 inhabitants. the Jesuits, September 17, 1621. ' In his work, De BE'LL-BIRD (Casmarynchus carunculata), a bird Potestate Pontificis in Temporalibus (On the Pope's found in some of the warm parts of South America, Power in Secular Matters), he introduced the remarkable for the metallic resonance of its cry, doctrine that the pope must be held as supreme which resembles the tolling of a bell, with pauses over all kings. On this account, the book was con- varying from a minute to several minutes. demned as treasonable in Paris, Venice, and Mentz. bird belongs to a genus nearly allied to the Cotingas His chief work contains the disputations held in the (q. v.) and Wax-wings (q. v.), but characterised by a Jesuits' College at Rome, 1576-1581, Disputationes very broad and much depressed bill, soft and flexible




His per

at the base, and hard towards the extremity. It is , strengthened it. His grandson, the celebrated about the size of a jay; the male is of snow-white Marshal Belleisle, ceded the island to Louis XV. in plumage, and from his forehead rises a strange exchange for the comté Gisors, 1718. In 1761, it was tubular appendage, which, when empty, is pendu- captured by the English fleet under Keppel, and lous, but which can be filled with air by a communi- restored in 1763. catiou from the palate, and then rises erect to the

BELLENDEN (BALLANTYNE), JOHN, Archdeacor height of nearly three inches. He generally takes his place on the top of a lofty tree, and his tolling of Moray, a Scottish writer in the reigns of James

V. and Queen Mary, regarding whose personal can be heard to the distance of three miles. It

He is freresounds through the forest, not only at morning history little is known with certainty. and evening, but also at mid-day, when the heat of quently confounded with a contemporary of the the blazing sun has imposed silence on almost every held the offices of Lord Justice-Clerk and director of

same name, Sir John Bellenden of Auchinvole, who other creature.

the Chancery at that time, and took a considerable BELLE-ALLIANCE, the name of a farm in the part in political affairs. The works by which the province of Brabant, Belgium, 13 miles south of archdeacon established his claim to an honourable Brussels. It has become famous as the position place among Scottish literary men, are his translaoccupied by the centre of the French army in the tions of Boece's Scottish History, and of the first five battle of Waterloo, June 18, 1815. The Prussians books of Livy, both interesting as specimens of the gave the name B. to this decisive battle; the Scottish prose of that period, and remarkable for French named it from Mont-Saint-Jean, the key of the ease and vivacity of their style. To these works the British position, about two miles to the north; are prefixed poetical prologues; and appended to but the English name, Waterloo (q. v.), taken from the Scottish history is an epistle to the king, written the village where Wellington had his head-quarters, in a free and manly strain of admonition. B. had is now commonly used.

enjoyed some share of favour at the court of James, BELLE DE NUIT (Fr., Beauty of the night), a at whose request he executed the translations. As name given to certain tropical species of Convolvula- the reward of his performances, he received grants cece, with extremely beautiful and fragrant flowers, of considerable value from the treasury, and afterwhich open only during the night. The species wards was made Archdeacon of Moray and Canon to which perhaps the more particularly of Ross. The translation of Livy was first pubbelongs, is Calonyction Bona Nox, a native of the lished in 1822 by Mr. Thomas Maitland (afterwards forests of the West Indies and of tropical America, Lord Dundrennan), uniform with his edition of with twining stem, spiny branches, heart-shaped Boece in the previous year (Edin., 2 vols. 4to). leaves, and exquisitely beautiful white flowers of five or six inches in diameter, which are produced

BELLENDEN, WILLIAM, a Scottish author in in large many-flowered corymbs.

the time of Queen Mary and James VI. BELLEGARDE, a hill-fortress of France, in know being the testimony of Dempster (Hist. Eccl.),

sonal history is meagre and obscure; all that we the department of Pyrénées Orientales. It is situated on the Spanish confines on the road from advocate in the parliament of Paris, and that he was

that he was a professor in the university, and an Perpignan to Figueras, and in the pass between Col employed in a diplomatic capacity by Queen Mary, de Portus on the east, and Col de Panizas on the and also by her son, who conferred on him the Here the French, under Philip III., were honorary appointment of Master of Requests.

His defeated by Peter III. of Arragon in 1285. In the first work, entitled Ciceronis Princeps, &c., was pub14th c., B. consisted only of a fortified tower. It was captured by the Spaniards in 1674, and again Senator, &c., in 1612.

lished at Paris in 1608; his next, Ciceronis Consul,

Both these works are comthe After the peace of Nimeguen, 1678-1679, a regular pilations from the writings of Cicero, and exhibit in fortress, with five bastions, was erected here by all the information and reflections scattered through

a systematic form, and in the words of the original, order of Louis XIV. In 1793 it was blockaded and taken by the Spaniards under Ricardos, but was and senatorial government.

out his works on the subjects of regal, consular,

His next work, De retaken by the French in the following year.

Statu Prisci Orbis, appeared in 1615, and consists of BELLE ISLE, an island in the Atlantic, about a condensed sketch of the history and progress of midway between the north-west of Newfoundland religion, government and philosophy in ancient and the south-east of Labrador, in lat. 52° N., and times. These three works he soon after republished long. 56° W. Although on the parallel of Essex in in a collected form. His crowning labour, De England, it yields little but potatoes and ordinary Tribus Luminibus Romanorum, was published after vegetables. It is chiefly known as giving name to his death. The three luminaries' were Cicero, the adjacent strait on the south-west, which, separat- Seneca, and Pliny, out of whose works he intended ing Labrador from Newfoundland, forms the most to compile, on the same plan as his previous works, northerly of the three channels between the Gulf of a comprehensive digest of the civil and religious St. Lawrence and the open ocean.

history, and the moral and physical science of the BELLEISLE-EN-MER, an island belonging to Romans. The first of these only was completed, France in the department Morbihan, in the Atlantic, and forms a remarkable monument of B.'s industry 8 miles south of Quiberon Point. Its length is ii and ability. “B.,' says Mr. Hallam, seems to have miles, and its greatest breadth 7. Pop. about 9000, taken a more comprehensive view of history, and to chiefly engaged in pilchard-fishing. Salt is made on have reflected more philosophically on it than perthe island. B. is a place of considerable antiquity. haps any one had done before; at least I do not The chief town is Palais, a seaport and fortified remember any work of so early an age which place. In the 9th c., B. came into the possession of reminds me so much of Vico and the Grandeur et the Count of Cornouailles, who bestowed it on the Decadence of Montesquieu.' B.'s works are supabbey of Redon, afterwards on the abbey of Quim- posed to have furnished the materials for Dr. perlé. In the 16th c., the monks of Quimperlé ceded Middleton's Life of Cicero, though that learned the island to Charles IX., who gave it as a mar- divine abstains from any allusion to his predecesquisate to the Marshal de Retz, who fortified it. sor. An edition of B.'s De Statu was published in His successor sold the island in 1658 to Fouquet, 1787 by Dr. Parr, with an elaborate, political, and intendant of Finance, who further improved and I somewhat pedantic preface in Latin.





BELLE'ROPHON, a genus of univalve shells, | department of the Seine, forming a suburb of Paris, known only as a fossil. Montfort, who established the and enclosed by the new fortifications. It has manugenus, placed it among the chambered Cephalopoda. factories of cashmeres, varnished leather, articles It was subsequently associated with the living Argo- of polished steel, chemical stuffs, &c.

There are naut, but is now generally considered as a genus of springs at B. which have supplied Paris with water De Blainville's Nucleobranchiata (q. V.), having as from a very early date, and it has tea-gardens and

other places of amusement much resorted to by the Parisians. Pop. 56,833.

BELLEY, a town of France in the department of Ain, is a place of great antiquity, and was at one time strongly fortified. The finest lithographing stones in France are procured here. Pop. about 4000.

Bellerophon tangentialis.

BELLI'NI, the name of a Venetian family wlich its nearest ally the genus Atlanta; from which, how- produced several remarkable painters. The earliest

He was ever, it differs in having a strong shell. The shell was JACOPO B., who died in 1470.

the B. is symmetrically convolute, with few and pupil of the celebrated Gentile da Fabriano, and one occasionally sculptured whorls, globular or discoidal, GENTILE B., born 1421, died 1501, was distinguished


His eldest son, and having a dorsal keel, which terminates in a deep notch in the sinuous aperture. It is a palæozoic

as a portrait painter, and also as a medailleur. organism, extending from the lower silurian to the Along with his brother, he was commissioned to carboniferous series. Seventy species have been decorate the council-chamber of the Venetian

Mohammed II., having by accident seen described.

some of his works, invited Gentile to Constantinople, BELLE'ROPHON (originally called HIPPONOUS) | employed him to execute various historical works, was the son of the Corinthian king Glaucus, and and dismissed him laden with presents. The PreachEurymede, daughter of Sisyphus. Other accounts make Neptune his father. Having accidentally killed His more celebrated brother, GIOVANNI B., born

ing of St. Mark is his most famous achievement. his brother, B. fled to his relative Prætus, king of 1422, died 1512, was the founder of the older Argos, by whom he was hospitably received and Venetian school of painting, and contributed greatly protected; but Anteia, the spouse of Pretus, having to its progress. His works are marked by naiveté, become enamoured of him, and he, like Joseph, warmth, and intensity of colouring. His best works having declined her overtures, she revenged herself are altar pieces. His picture of the Infant Jesus after the manner of Potiphar's wife. This induced slumbering in the lap of the Madonna, and attended Prætus to send his guest away to Iobates, king of by angels, is full of beauty and lively expression. Lycia, to whom B. carried a sealed message. After His Holy Virgin, Baptism of the Lord, and Christ being entertained nine days at the court of Lycia, and the Woman of Samaria, are also much admired. B. delivered the letter, which contained a request Among his numerous pupils the most distinguished that lobates would cause the youth to be slain. were Giorgione and Titian. This, however, Iobates was reluctant to do in a

He consequently direct way, as B. was his guest.

BELLI'NI, VINCENZO, one of the most popular imposed upon B. the seemingly impossible task of modern opera composers, was born at Catania, in slaying the formidable Chimæra (q. v.). B., mounted Sicily, November 1, 1802, and died at Puteaux, near on the winged steed Pegasus (given to him by

Pallas), education at the Conservatory of Naples, and was

Paris, September 24, 1835. He received his early ascended into the air, and succeeded in slaying the monster with his arrows. Afterwards, he was sent subsequently instructed in composition by Tritto by king lobates against the Amazons, whom he and Zingarelli

. After making some attempts, withdefeated. On his way home he destroyed an

out much success, in instrumental and sacred music, ambuscade of Lycians, which lobates had set for his he brought forward, in 1825, the opera Andelson e destruction. That monarch now thought it useless Salvina, which was played in the small theatre of

the Royal College of Music (Naples). Another to attempt his death, and as a sort of recompense, gave the hero in marriage his daughter Philonoë, by opera, Bianco e Gernando, was given in the theatre whom he had three children—Isander, Hippolochus, Bellini was commissioned to write a piece for La

) in , and Laodameia; such at least is the story as told Scala at Milan. This opera, Il Pirata, was the first by Apollodorus, who here concludes. Homer relates that he at last drew on himself the hatred of the which carried the composer's name beyond Italy. It gods, and wandered about in a desolate condition was followed with equal success by La Straniera, through the Aleïan field. Pindar relates that B. on 1829, and by I Capuletti ed i Montecchi, written for Pegasus endeavoured to mount to Olympus, when the theatre of Venice, 1830, which was the culmithe steed, maddened by Jove through the agency

nation of the fame of B., though it by no means

La Sonnambula of a gadily threw his rider, who was stricken with exhausted his productive powers. blindness. B.'s adventures were a favourite subject

and Norma appeared in 1831, and Beatrice di Tenda

In the same year the composer went to of the ancient artists. Sculptures have recently been discovered in Lycia, which represent him Paris, where he became acquainted with other forms

He was received with vanquishing the Chimæra.

great applause in London, and after his return to BELLES-LETTRES, a term. adopted from the Paris, wrote his opera I Puritani, which shews the French into the English and various other languages. influence of the French school of 'music, but without It is generally used in a vague way to designate servile imitation. At an early age the career of B. the more refined departments of literature, but was interrupted by death, before the composer had has in fact no precise limits. In English usage it fully developed bis powers. He was the most genial is synonymous with another vague expression, polite and original of all the followers of Rossini, and literature

, including history, poetry, and the drama, though inferior to his master in exuberance of fancy, fiction, essay, and criticism.

is superior in carefulness and finish, especially in the BELLEVILLE, a town of France, in the due subordination of instrumental decorations to


in 1833.

of music beside the Italian.



vocal melody. In private he was highly esteemed | time by M'Clintock on his crowning voyage. It for the purity and affectionateness of his character. is about 20 miles long, and, at its narrowest part, BELLINZO'NA, or BELLENZ, , town

of about 1 mile wide, running pretty nearly on the Switzerland, in the canton of Tessin or Ticino, on parallel of 72°, between granite shores which, every. the left bank of the river of that name, and the where high, rise here and there to 1500 or 1600 feet. seat of the provincial government, alternately with Through this funnel both the winds and the waters Lugano and Locarno. It is guarded by three old have full play; the latter, permanent currents and

To the castles, and completely commands the passage of flood-tides alike, coming from the west. the valley in which it is situated. In former times, it most northerly point on the south shore, M'Clintock was considered a place of great military importance, has given the name of Murchison promontory, which, and was the scene of frequent conflicts between the at least unless other straits like B. S. be found Italians and Swiss; the latter of whom finally made towards the isthmus of Boothia, must be also the

See themselves masters of it about the beginning of most northerly point of the new continent. the 16th c.

As an entrepôt for the merchandise of Barrow, Point. Germany and Italy, it is now a place of considerable

BELLOY, PIERRE LAURENT BUIRETTE, one of the commercial importance, though the population is but first French dramatists who ventured to introduce small_about 2000.

on the stage native, instead of Greek, Roman, or BE'LLIS. See Daisy.

other outlandish heroes. He was born at St. BELLONA, the goddess of war among the Flour, in Auvergne, 17th November 1727, and died Romans, was described by the poets as the com- 5th March 1775. His father having died while B. panion, sister, wife, or daughter of Mars; she was was young, his uncle took him under his protection, also represented as armed with a bloody scourge, and educated him for the law: but the seductions of and as inspiring her votaries with a resistless enthu- the drama proved irresistible, and the opposition siasm in battle. In the war with the Samnites, which he encountered in the cultivation of his the Consul Appius Claudius vowed a temple to B., theatrical talent ultimately determined him to leave which was erected afterwards on the field of Mars. his adopted home. Under the name of Dormont In this temple the senate gave audience to embassies de B. he performed on various northern boards, from foreign powers, and also to consuls who had and was much esteemed for his private worth. For claims to a triumph which would have been nullified some years he resided at St. Petersburg, where the by entrance into the city. The priests of the Empress Elizabeth interested herself in him. In goddess were styled Bellonarii, and practised 1758, he returned to France, to superintend the sanguinary rites; such as cutting their own arms “bringing out of his tragedy Titus, trusting that its or feet, and offering (or even drinking) the blood in success would reconcile his family to him. In sacrifice. This was especially done on the dies this, however, he was disappointed, for the piece sanguinis (day of blood), March 24.

proved a failure, being only a fer ble imitation of BELLOT, JOSEPH René, a lieutenant in the

lieutenant in the Metastasio, and he returned to St. Petersburg. After French navy, who perished in the arctic regions, in the death of his uncle, he again visited France, and search of Sir John Franklin, was born in Paris, 18th obtained a decided success by his tragedy of Zelmire. March 1826, and educated at Rochefort, in the In 1765, appeared Le Siége de Calais, which was Naval School. In the French expedition against mation ; and in 1771, Gaston and Bayard, which

immensely popular, and is even vet held in estiTamatave, in 1845, he gave proof of so much courage secured' for him an entrance to the French Academy. and presence of mind, that the Cross of the Legion But of all his productions, the one which has lofigest of Honour was conferred on him before he had retained a place in the répertoire of the stage, though attained his twentieth year. In May 1851, he the Polar regions, in search of Sir John Franklin, theatrical effectiveness, but are marred by great joined the expedition then preparing in England for it was far from popular at first, is Pierre le Cruel


B.'s dramas are not by any means wanting in and sailed in the Prince Albert, Kennedy com

incorrectness, mander, sent out by Lady Franklin. Distinguished

They have been collected and edited by his noble daring and spirit of enterprise, he by Gaillard (6 vols., Par. 1779).

. took part in several explorations. In one of these

BELLS, on shipboard, is a term having a peculiar he made an important geographical discovery, to meaning, not exactly equivalent to, but serving as which his name was given-Bellot Strait (q. v.). a substitute for time or o'clock' in ordinary On his return, he was promoted to the rank of navy land-life. The day, or rather the night, is divided

In the expedition fitted out by the into watches or periods, usually of four hours' British Admiralty, under Captain Inglefield, he duration each ; and each' half-hour is marked by sailed as a volunteer, in H.M.S. Phænix; but never striking on a bell. The number of strokes depends, returned, having been carried by a violent gust of not on the hour, according to ordinary reckonwind, 21st March 1853 into a deep crack in the ing, but on the number of half-hours which have ice on which he was travelling. A considerable elapsed in that particular watch. Thus, three bells' sum was subscribed in England for a monument is a phrase denoting that three half-hours have to his memory. His Journal of a Voyage to the elapsed, but it does not in itself shew to which Polar Seas made in Search of Sir John Franklin particular watch it refers. Captain Basil Hall, in in 1851-1852, edited, with a notice of his life, by his Fragments of Voyages and Travels, while treatM. Julien Lemer, 2 vols., was published at Paris in ing of Sunday usages on board ships of the Royal 1854. English translation. London 1855.

Navy, mentions one or two phrases illustrative of BELLOT STRAIT, the passage which separates this mode of time-reckoning. While the sailors North Somerset from Boothia Felix, and connects are at breakfast on Sunday morning, the word Prince Regent's Inlet with Peel Strait or Sound, is passed to “clean for muster," and the dress is or, in M*Clintock's

new nomenclature, Franklin specified according to the season of the year and Channel. Its east entrance was discovered by climate. Thus, at different seasons is heard : “Do Kennedy during his search for Franklin, and he, you hear there, fore and aft! clean for muster at assuming the continuity of the opening, classified five bells! duck-frocks and white trousers ! it accordingly, naming it after his lamented com- “Do you hear there, clean shirt and a share for

After four unsuccessful attempts, muster at five bells !". A ship's bell is usually it was explored for the first and perhaps last hung to the beam of the forecastle, but occasionally


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