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BLOOD.

ARIUS, St.

retarded in those cases where death has occurred | commutation for murder. The primitive institution from some sudden shock, as from lightning, and or custom subsists in full force among the Arabs at the B. remains fluid in the veins for some time after this day. Many of the hereditary feuds of families, death. But even during life, B. escaped from the clans, and tribes in all barbarous and semi-barbarous vessels coagulates nearly as rapidly as if out of the countries, have always been connected with the body. In some forms of inalignant fever, or when the avenging of blood. poison of glanders or malignant pustule has entered

BLOOD, CORRUPTION OF (in Law). See CORthe B., the latter remains fluid, also in cases where

RUPTION OF BLOOD. the blood is what is termed poor, as in scurvy, and in those suffocated. The size and firmness of the BLOOD, Eating OF. The eating of B. was proclot depends on the amount of fibrine in the B., hibited under the Old Testament dispensation, obviwhich in health averages about 2 parts in 1000. In ously for reasons. connected with the use of animals inflammations it is much increased, and the B. forms in sacrifice. Christians, with a few exceptions, have slowly into a tough clot, which is almost destitute always regarded the prohibition as having ceased of red globules on its surface, and drawn in towards with the reason for it; and the exhortation of the the centre, this colourless layer is termed the “buffy apostolic council of Jerusalem to the Gentile concoat,' and the physicians of bygone times used to verts, to abstain from things strangled and from attach great importance to it, believing that it was blood,' to have been merely an application of the a phenomenon peculiar to inflammation, and bleed- great law of Christian charity to the circumstances ing repeatedly, with the view to its removal; whereas of a transition period, with reference to the prejuanything which delays coagulation, great poverty of dices of Jewish converts. B., as in Chlorosis (q. V.), green-sickness, or any con

BLOOD OF OUR SAVIOUR, was an order of dition in which the fibrine is in greater proportion knighthood in Mantua, instituted by Duke Vincent than the red blood globules, will cause this appear. Gonçaga in 1608, on the occasion of the marriage of ance; the clot of the impoverished blood will

, how- his son with a daughter of the Duke of Savoy. It ever, be small and loose, and floating in an excessive consisted of 20 kuights, the Mantuan dukes being quantity of serum. The colour of the B. varies, as it happens to come fire, and interwoven with the words Domine probasti.

sovereigns. The collar had threads of gold laid on from the venous or arterial side of the heart. The to the collar were pendent two angels, supporting forid scarlet arterial B., Passing through the capil. three drops of blood, and circumscribed with the laries, loses its oxygen, becomes loaded with carbonic motto Nihil isto triste recepto. The name originated acid, and appears in the veins of a dark purple in the belief that in St. Andrew's Church, in Diantua, colour, which it changes again for scarlet, when it certain drops of our Saviour's blood are kept as a relic. is sent to the lungs, there to part with its carbonic acid and to absorb a fresh supply of oxygen. See BLOOD OF ST. JANUARIUS. See JANUCIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. It seems probable that this change is owing to

BLOOD, THOMAS, a most daring, unscrupulous, the effect of the oxygen on the corpuscles, contract- and successful adventurer, was born in Ireland ing them, and altering their reflecting surfaces ; | about 1628, and served there in the parliamentary carbonic acid, on the other hand, rendering them

After the Restoration, he put himself at the thinner and more flaccid. The changes in colour head of an insurrectionary plot, which was to begin can be effected in B. drawn out of the body by the with the seizure of Dublin Castle, and of Ormond, application of the gases mentioned.

the lord-lieutenant. On its timely discovery, he The red B. corpuscle performs important duties fled, while his chief accomplices were seized and in our bodies. Possessing great powers of absorb- executed. Escaping to Holland, he was received ing oxygen, it hurries away from the left side there with high consideration. He soon found his of the heart, and bears that life-giving stimulus way back to England, to try what mischief miglit to the tissues; takes from them nearly as readily be brewed among the fifth-monarchy men. Findthe carbonic acid, which would poison the whole ing no prospect of success, he repaired to Scotland, body if allowed to remain; carries it away, and invited by the turbulent state of affairs, and was gets rid of it in the lungs, where it again absorbs present at the fight of Pentland, November 27, oxygen; and again goes on its useful circuit

On the night of the 6th December 1670, through the body till, following the laws which the Duke of Ormond was seized, in his coach in St. govern all cells and bodies composed of them, it .James's Sircet, by a gang of bravoes, tied on horsewears out, degenerates, and dies. The most impor-back behind one of them, and hurried away towards tant differences in the blood of different classes Tyburn. The timely approach of his attendants at of animals, are noticed in the articles on these the moment that he had succeeded in struggling classes. See also RESPIRATION.

with his riding-companion to the ground, probably BLOOD, AVENGER OF. In the early ages of saved him from hanging. The leader in this daring society, the infliction of the penalty of death for villainy was B., and so well had he contrived it, that murder did not take place by the action of any he did not even incur suspicion. His next entertribunal or public authorities administering law, prise was still more wild and dangerous. On the 9th but, in accordance with the rude social condition, of May 1671, disguised as a clergyman, and accomwas left to the nearest relative of the murdered, panied by his former accomplices, he entered the whose recognised duty was to pursue and slay the Tower with the determination to carry off the regalia murderer. He was called the Avenger of B., of England. After nearly murdering the keeper in Hebrew, Goël (q. v.), which term, however, was of the jewels, he actually succeeded in carrying of wider signification. The Mosaic law (Numb. off the crown under his cloak, while one of his xxxv.) did not set aside this universal institution of associates bore away the orb. They were immeprimitive society, but placed it under regulations, diately pursued, however, seized, and committed to prohibiting the commutation of the penalty of death the Tower jail

. Now came a singular turn of for money, which appears to have become frequent, fortune. At the instigation of Buckingham, who and appointing cities of refuge for the manslayer who was accused of having hired B. to attack the Duke was not really a murderer. See City of REFUGE. of Ormond, King Charles visited the dauntless misThe Koran sanctions the avenging of B. by the creant in prison, and, dreading the threat that there nearest kinsman, but also sanctions the pecuniary i were hundreds of B.'s associates banded together by

army.

1666.

BLOOD-BIRD-BLOOD-ROOT.

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Oath to avenge the death of any of the fraternity, BLOOD'-HOUND, a variety of Hound (q. v.) pardoned him, took him to court, gave him an remarkable for its exquisite scent and for its great estate of £500 a year, and raised him so high in sagacity and perseverance in tracking any object favour that for several years Colonel B. was an to the pursuit of which it has been trained. It influential medium of royal patronage. This scan- derives its name from its original common employdalous disregard of public decency was heightened ment in the chase, either to track a wounded animal by the fact, that the old jewel-keeper, who had or to discover the lair of a beast of prey. It was risked his life in defence of his charge, applied in also formerly called, both in England and Scotland, vain for payment of a small reward for his devotion. sleut-hound or sleuth-hound, from the Saxon sleut, After the fall of the cabal' ministry, B. became the track of a deer. The B. was formerly comhostile to Buckingham, and for a scandalous charge mon and much in use in Britain, as well as on against him was committed to prison. He was bailed out, and died in his own house in 1680.

BLOOD-BIRD of New South Wales (Myzomela sanguinolenta), a beautiful little species of Honeysucker (q. v.), which receives its name from the rich scarlet colour of the head, neck, breast, and back of the male. It inhabits thickets. A very similar pecies is found in Bengal.

BLOOD-FLOWER (Hcemanthus), a bulbous-rooted plants, of the natural order Amaryllidec (q. V.), mostly natives of South Africa, some of which are among the prized ornaments of British green-houses. They take their name from the usual colour of their flowers, which form a fine head or cluster, arising from a spathe of a number of leaves. The fruit is a berry, usually with three seeds. The leaves of the different species exhibit considerable

Blood-hound. diversity of form, in some almost linear, in others almost round; in some, also, they are erect, in others the continent of Europe, but is now rare. The appressed to the ground. The bulbs of some of the poetical histories of Bruce and Wallace describe finest species of B. being very slow to produce these heroes as occasionally tracked by blood-hounds, offshoots, a curious method of propagating them is when they were skulking from their enemies. The

B. was at a later period much used to guide in the pursuit of cattle carried off in Border raids; it

has been frequently used for the pursuit of felons at

and of deer-stealers; and latterly, in America, for the capture of fugitive slaves, an employment of its powers which has contributed not a little to render its name odious to many philanthropists. Terrible ideas are also, probably, suggested by the name itself, although the B. is by no means a particularly ferocious kind of dog, and when employed in the pursuit of human beings, can be trained to detain them as prisoners without offering to injure them. The true B. is taller and also stronger in proportion, and of more compact figure than a fox-hound, muscular and broad-chested, with large pendulous ears, large pendulous upper lips, and an expressióh of face which is variously described as thoughtful,' noble,' and stern.'

The original colour is said to have been a deep tan, clouded with black. The colour appears to have been one of the chief distinctions between the B. and the Talbot

(q. v.), but it is not improbable that this name was Ő

originally common to all blood-hounds. Many interesting anecdotes are recorded of the perseverance

and success of blood-hounds in following a track ll

upon which they have been set, even when it has led them through much frequented roads.- The CUBAN B., which is much employed in the pursuit of felons and of fugitive slaves in Cuba, differs considerably from the true B. of Britain and of

the continent of Europe, being more fierce and Many-flowered Blood-flower :

having more resemblance to the bull-dog, and proba, leares and fruit of flower-stem, in miniature; b, flower; c. ably a connection with that or some similar race.

seed-bud, shaft, and summit; d, seed-bud cut transversely. Many of these dogs were imported into Jainaica in resorted to by gardeners, which is occasionally prac. 1796, to be employed in suppressing the Maroon tised also with other bulbous-rooted plants, by cutting (q. y.) insurrection, but the terror occasioned by them across above the middle, upon which a number their arrival produced this effect without their of young bulbs form around the outer edge.

actual employment. It is this kind of B. which was Thc species of B. seem generally to possess poison- formerly employed in the United States for the reous properties. The inspissated juice of H. toxicarius capture of fugitive slaves. is used by the natives of South Africa for poisoning BLOOD-ROOT. See Geum, HÆMODORACEÆ, and their arrows.

SANGUIXARIA.

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BLOODSTONE-BLOW-FLY.

BLOODSTONE. See HELIOTROPE.

BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT, the author of The

Farmer's Boy, and other pastoral pieces, born 1766, BLOOM, an appearance on paintings resembling at Honington, near Bury St. Edmund's

, was the son in some measure the bloom on certain kinds of fruit

, of a poor tailur, who died, leaving Robert an infant. such as peaches, plums, &c. (hence the name), pro- His mother with difficulty subsisted by teaching duced, in all probability, by the presence of moisture

a school, where B. learned to read. At the age in the varnish, or on the surface of the painting of 11 he was hired to a farmer, but ultimately when the varnish is laid on. The B. destroys the

became a shoemaker in London, where he wrote his transparency, and is consequently very injurious to Farmer's Boy in a poor garret. It was published in the general effect of a picture. It is best prevented 1800, had extraordinary popularity, and was transby carefully drying the picture and heating the lated into a number of languages. He subsequently Vanish before applying it; and best removed by a sponge dipped in liot camphine, after which a soft published Rural Tales, Wild Flowers, and other brush should be employed to smooth the surface of pieces. Though efforts were made for him by the picture, which should be finally placed in the persons of rank, his health broke down, and he died,

nearly insane, at Shefford, in Bedfordshire, in 1823. sunshine to dry.

BLOUSE, a name borrowed from the French for BLOOMERISM, a new and fanciful fashion of that loose, sack-like over-garment which, as worn in ladies' dress, partly resembling mule attire, which England by wagoners and farm-labourers, is called arose out of what is termed the · Woman's Rights' a emock-frock. The English smock-frock is made Movement,' that began to be agitated in the United of coarse and imperfectly bleached linen, and is States about the year 1848. The first Woman's ornamented, particularly on the breast and shoulRights' Convention was held at Worcester, New York, ders, with plaits and embroidery. In the south of in 1850, under the presideney of Mrs. Lucretia Mott. Scotland it is sometimes worn by butchers, and is Its object was to advocate for women a more liberal then blue, as in Germany and France.

In Germany, education, training in trades and professions, and it is frequently tightened to the body by a belt, and generally the social and political privileges possessed is sometimes made of coarse woollen; but France is by the other sex. At the same date, and in close pre-eminently the country of blouses. There, they connection with this movement, arose an agitation are worn universally, not only by the country people, for the reform of female attire. Its advocates said, but also by the labouring-classes in towns, not justly enough, that if women were to take their excepting Paris; and so characteristic is this garplace in the world as fellow-workers with men, they ment, that the French populace are often called ought not to labour under the disadvantage of having the blouses.' The white B. is Sunday dress with a dress that deprived them of the use of their hands, the working-classes in France, and has also often and required nearly their whole muscular power for served as a countersign among the leaders of sections its support.

In 1849, Mrs. Ann Bloomier adopted in secret societies. A lighter and neater garment the costume, to which she has given her name, and of the sort, usually made of fine but imperfectly lectured in New York and elsewhere on its advan-bleached linen, and buttoning in front, which the tuges. The Bloonier dress consisted of a jacket with English smock-frock and the original continental B. close sleeves, a skirt falling a little below the knee, do not, is much worn by summer tourists. and a pair of Turkish trousers. Though a few ladies followed the example of Mrs. Bloomer, the the order Diptera (two-winged), (q. v.), and of the

BLOW'-FLY (Sarcophaga carnaria), an insect of dress was extremely unpopular, and exposed its large family bluscides, of which the common Houseadherents to a degree of social martyrdom which the fly (q. v.), Flesn-fly (q. 1.), &c., are familiar examples. more prudent, timid, or amiable declined to brave. The B. is very similar to these in its general appearA very elegant modification of the Bloomer dress ance; its body is hairy, the expanse of its wings was achieved by a New York lady-a Polish jacket, about one inch, the face silky and yellow, the thorax trimmed with fur, and a skirt reaching to within a few inches of the ground, avoiding à display of gray, with three black stripes, the abdomea of a pantaloon, and showing off' merely the trim furred shining blackish brown, which, in certain points loot, but still sufficiently short to avoid contact with the street; the filthy habit of spitting, which prevails in America, rendering such avoidance peculiarly necessary. The agitation for dress-reform has not died out on the other side of the Atlantic. There is in New York a monthly publication, called the Sibyl, devoted to its advocacy, and whose editor, a married lady, as well as several of her contributors, personally illustrate their principles. A wood cut at the head of the periodical represents the Reform Dress, as it is called. It looks by no means tempting in point of elegance-a fault fatal

Blow-fly and Pupa. to its general adoption. The skirt is immoderately short, and the jacket cuts the figure awkwardly of view, assumes a bluish tint, chequered with

The introduction of B. into England, glittering yellowish spots. One of the distinguishsoon after it had sprung up in America, was ing characters of the genus is, that the eyes are under such unfavourable auspices, that it failed to widely separate in both sexes. The species of this gain entrance into respectable society, and speedily genus are not unfreqnently ovoviviparous, the eggs disappeared. Still here, as in America, nothing is being hatched within the body of the parent. The more frequently talked of, or desired with more generic name (Gr. sarx, flesh; phago, to eat) is apparent fervency, than a dress-reform. The present derived from the circumstance that the larvæ of heavy hooped skirts, injurious to health and fatal most of the species feed upon the flesh either of to comfort from their weight and amplitude, and dead or of living animals. The B. is common in liable to be equally dirty and ridiculous, are univer- Britain on heaths, in gardens, &c., and its larvæ rally complained of; but the prejudice with which are to be found feeding upon meat, the carcases of any innovation is sure to be met, discourages every animals, sometimes upon living earthworms, and attempt to introduce a reform.

too frequently upon sheep, of which it is one of the

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in two.

BLOW-PIPE.

autumn.

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most grievous pests, requiring the constant attention for this reason the luminous cone is generally of the shepherd during most of the summer and termed the reducing-flame of the blow-pipe. Beyond

Some districts are more infested with it the second cone, or where the flame comes freely than others; it is particularly troublesome in the in contact with the atmosphere, and abundance of fenny districts of England. Unless the maggots oxygen is present to effect complete combustion of are removed, they eat into the skin, the sheep the gases, is a third, or pale yellow envelope, consuffer great torment, and soon die. At first they taining excess of atmospheric air at a very high may be removed by shaking them out of the wool, temperature, so that a portion of metal, such as into which dry sand is then abundantly sprinkled; lead or copper, placed at this point, becomes rapidly but if they are very numerous, a mercurial ointmeut converted into its oxide : this outer part of the or wash of corrosive sublimate is applied; and when flame is on this account called the oxidizing flame of the skin is much broken, the wool is clipped away, the blow-pipe. an ointment of tar and grease is used, and a cloth Substances under examination before the B. are sewed over the part. Like many other insects, the generally supported either on wood-charcoal or B. multiplies with excessive rapidity.

platinum--the latter in the condition of wire or foil. Another species of this genus, common in most în applying the B. test, the body to be examined is parts of Britain, is S. mortuorum, so named from either heated alone, or along with some flux or its frequenting burial-vaults and similar places. It fusible substance; in some cases, for the purpose of is very similar to the B., but the abdomen is of a assisting in the reduction of metals from their ores shining steel blue, and there is a reddish-brown line and other compounds; in others, for the production down the forehead.

of a transparent glassy bead, in which different BLOW-PIPE, a small instrument used in the colours can be readily observed. When heated arts for soldering metals, and in analytical chemistry alone, a loup of platinum wire, or a piece of charand mineralogy, for determining the nature of coal, is generally employed as a support; the former substances by the action of an intense and con

when the colour of the flame is to be regarded as tinuous heat, its principle depending on the fact, the characteristic reaction, the latter when such that when a jet of air or oxygen is thrown into a effects as the oxidation or reduction of metallic subflame, the rapidity of combustion is increased, while stances are to be observed. the effects are concentrated by diminishing the

The following are exemplifications of the difference extent or space originally occupied by the flame.

of colour communicated to the flame by different The B. generally consists of a conical tube of substances: Salts of potash colour, the flame violet; metal, about eight inches long (fig. 1), closed at the soda, yellow; lithia, purplish red; baryta, yellowish

wider or lower end, but open green; strontia, carmine; lime, brick red; compounds at the narrow or upper end, a,

of phosphoric acid, boracic acid, and copper, green. which latter constitutes the The commonly occurring metallic oxides reducible mouthpiece, and is turned over by heating on charcoal alone in the inner flame of to admit of the lips closing per- the B. are the oxides of zinc, silver, lead, copper, fectly round it. Near the lower bismuth, and antimony; the principal ores end, a small tube, fitted with a

so reducible are the alkalies and alkaline earths, as finely perforated' nozzle, b, is also the oxides of iron, manganese, and chromiun. inserted at right angles to the The fluxes generally used in B. experiments are large tube-the space below either carbonate of soda, borax (biborate of soda), being intended as a chamber or the amnionia-phosphate of soda, otherwise called for condensing the moisture of microcosmic salt (q. v.). The carbonate of soda

the breath-through this nozzle, when heated on platinum-wire in the oxidising b

a fine current of air can be flame, forms with silica a colourless glass ; with projected against the flame ex- oxide of antimony, a white bead, &c. The followperimented with.

ing metals are reduced from their compounds when When a current of air from heated with carbonate of soda on charcoal in the Fig. 1. the B. is directed against a inner flame of the B.; viz., nickel, cobalt, iron,

candle or gas-jet, the flame molybdenum, tungsten, copper, tin, silver, gold, and almost entirely loses its luminosity, owing to the platinum. When compounds of zinc, lead, bismuth, perfect combustion of the gases evolved from the arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and cadmium source of heat, and is projected in a lateral direction, similarly treated, these metals are also formed, but as a long pointed cone, consisting of three distinct being volatile, they pass off in vapour at the high

temperature to which they are exposed.

Borax, as a flux, is generally mixed with the Jet

substance under examination, and placed on platinum-wire. When thus heated in either of the flames, baryta, strontia, lime, magnesia, alumina, and silica, yield colourless beads ; cobalt gives a fine blue colour, copper, a green ; &c. With microcosmic salt, the results obtained are generally similar to those with borax, and need not be specially men

tioned, as the test is applied in the same way. The Fig. 2.

B. has been long used by goldsmiths and jewellers

for soldering metals, and by glass-blowers in fusing parts (fig. 2). The first or central cone is of a dark- and sealing glass-tubes, &c.; it has also been blue colour, and there the conibustion is complete applied in qualitative analysis for many years, but from the excess of air thrown in from the small more recently chemists (especially Plattner) have nozzle. The second cone, or that immediately sur- devoted their attention to its use, and have even rounding the first, is somewhat luminous; and here employed it with great success in quantitative lhe oxygen, being insufficient for the coinbustion of chemical analysis ; the advantages being that only the carbon, any metallic oxide subjected to the a very small quantity of material is required to opeaction of this portion of the flame is deprived of rate upon, whilst the results may be obtained with its oxygen, and reduced to the condition of metal ; I great rapidity and considerable accuracy.

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BLOW-PIPE AND ARROW-BLUCHER.

up the

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FISHERY.

BLOW'-PIPE AND A'RROW, a kind of weapon, employed in the war-department in Königsberg much used by some of the Indian tribes of South and Berlin, and subsequently became commander America, both in war and for killing game. It in Pomerania. At a later period, he was pensioned, consists of a long straight tube, in which a small along with several other men of note, at the instance, poisoned arrow is placed, and forcibly expelled by it was said, of Napoleon. He was one of the few the breath. The tube or blow.pipe, called grava- to combat the general belief in the invincibility of tána, pocuna, &c., is 8-12 feet long, the bore not | Napoleon, which had grown into a sort of fitalism generally large enough to admit the little finger. I in high places. In common with Stein and HardenIt is made of reed or of the stem of a small palm. berg, he laboured to remove all weak and unpatriotic Near Pará, it is in general very ingeniously and counsellors from the person of the king. When all nicely made of two stenis of a palm (Iriartea setigera, the leaders of the army lost courage, his constancy see IRIARTEA) of different diameters, the one fitted revived confidence, and made him the centre of all into the other, in order the better to secure its hope for the future. When the Prussians at last perfect straightness. A sight is affixed to it near rose in opposition to France, B. was appointed to the end. The arrows used in that district are 15 the chief command of the Prussians and of General -18 inches long, made of the spines of another Winzingerode's Russian corps. At the battles of palm, sharply pointed, notched so as to break off Lützen, Bautzen, and Haynau, he displayed heroic in the wound, and their points covered with curari courage. At the Katzbach, he defeated Marshal (q. v.) poison. A little soft down of the silk-cotton Macdonald, and cleared Silesia of the enemy. In tree (q. v.) is twisted round each arrow, so as exactly vain did Napoleon himself attempt to stop the

In Peru, arrows of only 11—2 old captain of hussars,' as he called him, in his inches long are used, and a different kind of poison victorious career.

victorious career. In the battle of Leipsic he won seems to be employed. An accidental wound from great advantage over Marshal Marmont at Möckern, one of these poisoned arrows not unfrequently 16th October 1813, and on the same day pressed proves fatal. In the hand of a practised Indian, the on to the suburbs of Leipsic. On the 18th, in conB. and A. is a very deadly weapon, and particularly junction with the crown-prince of Sweden, he had a when directed against birds sitting in the tops of great share in the defeat oi the French, and on the high trees. As his weapon makes no noise, the 19th his troops were the first to enter Leipsic. B., hunter often empties his quiver before he gathers in opposition to the policy of Austria, continually

game, and does inore execution than an pressed the taking of Paris as the real aim of the English sportsman could with his double-barrelled war. On the 1st of January 1814, he crossed the fowling-piece.

Rhine, garrisoned Nancy on the 17th of the same BLUBBER. See CETACEA, WHALE, and WHALE- month, and after winning the battle of La Rothière,

pressed forward to Paris; but his scattered corps

were routed by Napoleon, and he fought his way BLÜCHER, GEBHARD LEBERECHT VON, Prince back to Chalons with great loss. On the 9th March, of Wahlstadt, Field-Marshal of Prussia, born at however, he defeated Napoleon at Laon ; and at the Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, West Germany, end of the month, after being joined by Schwarzen16th December 1742. At the commencement of berg and his corps, he again advanced towards the Seven Years' War he joined a regiment of Paris. The day at Montmartre crowned the brilSwedish hussars, and in his first action was taken liant deeds of this campaign, and, on the 31st prisoner by the Prussian hussars, whose colonel March, B. entered the French capital. Frederick persuaded him to exchange out of the service of William III. created him Prince of Wahlstadt, Sweden into that of Prussia, and gave hiin a lieu- in remembrance of the victory at the Katzbach, tenancy. A lieutenant, Jägersfeld, having been and gave him an estate in Silesia. In England, promoted over B.'s head, he immediately wrote to whither he followed the allied sovereigns, he was Frederick the Great as follows: “Von Jägersfeld, received with an enthusiasm never before excited who has no merit except that of being son of the by a German. The university of Oxford conferred Markgraf of Schwedt, has been put over my head: on him the degree of Doctor of Laws. After I beg to request my discharge. The result was, Napoleon's return in 1815, B. once more assumed the that B. was put under arrest, and after repeated general command, and promptly led the army into applications for discharge, he received from Frederick the Netherlands. On the 16th June 1815, he lost the curt intimation : Captain Blücher is at liberty the battle of Ligny, in which he was personally in to go to the devil!' B. went instead to his estate great danger, from his horse falling on him. The of Grossraddow, in Pomerania, and devoted himself victory of the allies at the battle of Waterloo was to farming ; but he soon tired of a bucolic life. In completed by B.'s timely appearance on the field 1793, having returned to the army, he fought, as B. ordered his Prussians to pursue the flying enemy, colonel of hussars, against the French on the which they did the whole night. Declining the Rhine, evincing great genius as a leader of cavalry. offered truce, B. marched again against Paris, and The breaking out of the war of 1806 led him, as on the second taking of that city manifested a lieutenant-general, to the battle of Auerstadt. B., strong desire to retaliate on Paris the spoliation with the greater part of the cavalry, occupied the that other capitals had suffered at the hands of the left flank of the Prince of Hohenlohe in the retreat French; but he was held in check by the Duke of to Pomerania. He is accused, on this occasion, of Wellington. In order to reward B.'s services to not giving the prince due support, and thus leading Prussia and the common cause, Frederick William to the capitulation at Prenzlau. B. himself then III. created a new order, the badge of which conmarched into the territory of the free town of sisted of an iron cross surrounded by golden rays. Lübeck, and hastily fortified the city; but the On the 26th August 1819, a colossal bronze statue French took it by storm, and B. was forced to was erected in his honour in his native town. B. surrender at Ratkow, near Lübeck, whither he died 12th September 1819, after a short illness, at his had escaped with a few troops. A fortnight estate of Krieblowitz, in Silesia. In Berlin, a statue after, he was exchanged for the French general twelve feet high, modelled. by Rauch, and cast in Victor; and immediately on his arrival in Königs- bronze by Lequine and Reisinger, was erected to his berg, was sent, at the head of a corps, by sea, memory, 18th June 1826, and at Breslau another, to Swedish Pomerania, to assist in the defence also executed by Rauch, in 1827. In the beginning of Stralsund. After the peace of Tilsit, he was) of the campaign of 1813, his characteristic activity

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