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and the style of his attacks gained him the nick- 1 is the only really good and serviceable blue in the name of · Marshal Forward' from the Russians; it colouring of glass and porcelain, and is essentially the soon became his title of honour throughout Germany. oxide of cobalt (C00), the colouring power of wbich His tactics were always much the same: to attack is so great, that the addition of oba part to white the enemy impetuously, then to retreat when the glass is sufficient to render it blue. Several of the resistance offered was too great for his troops to compounds named above owe their blue colour to this overcome; to form again at a little distance, and substance. See COBALT: -DEEP BLUE is employed in watch narrowly the movements of the enemy, and porcelain colouring, and is made from 1 part of oxide whenever an advantage offered itself, to charge of cobalt, 4 glass of lead (2 minium, 1 white sand), with lightning speed, and throw him into disorder, 1 lead glass (2 minium, 1 sand, 1 calcined borax), and make a few hundred prisoners, and retire ere the 1 oxide of zinc, all of which are placed together opposing force had recovered from its surprise. ) in a porcelain crucible, fused for 2 or 3 hours; Such were his usual maneuvres. B., as a man and the residue washed, dried, and ground to a fine as a soldier, was rough and uncultivated, but ener- powder.-King's BLUE is made from 29 parts cargetic, open, and decided in character. His ardent bonate of cobalt, 29 sand, and 42 carbonate of enthusiasm for the liberation of Prussia and Ger- potash, by fusing these ingredients in a crucible. mång from a foreign yoke, and his uncompromising the residue is intense deep blue, bordering on a pursuit of this noble aim, have justly rendered him black blue, and is generally reduced to powder, and a hero in the eyes of the German people. The old re-fused with about half its weight of pebble flux red uniform, and the old name of • Blücher's Hussars” |(3 minium or litharge, and 1 sand). -MINERAL BLUE were restored to the 5th Regiment of Hussars by and Paris BLUE. See PRUSSIAN BLUE. Frederick William IV., on occasion of the centenary PRUSSIAN BLUE is the deep blue colour which is celebration of B.'s birthday.

so frequently seen on cotton, muslin, and woollen BLUE, a colour of which there are several varie- handkerchiefs and dresses. It was discovered in the ties used in the arts, noted below. See also COLOUR. vear 1710 by Diesbach, a colour-maker in Berlin, Blue, or, as it is sometimes termed, True Blue, was and hence called Berlin Blue. The mode of its the favourite colour of the Scottish Covenanters in manufacture was published in Britain, by Dr. Woodthe 17th century. When their army entered Aber ward, in 1724. It may be prepared in several ways: deen, says Spalding, there were few of them without 1. By the addition of a solution of yellow prussiate a blue ribbon; this colour being probably adopted in of potash (ferrocyanide of potassium) to a solution contradistinction to the red of the royal forces. At of sulphate of iron (green vitriol). The blue comthe battle of Bothwell Bridge, the flag of the Cove-pound thus produced deepens in tint when exposed nanting army was edged with blue. From these to the air; and where it is required of greater conusages, blue seems to have become the partisan sistence or more body, some alum and carbonate of colour of the Whigs, but commonly in association potash are added to the prussiate solution before with orange or yellow, in memory of the House of mixing with the iron solution. 2. By mixing soluzOrange and the revolution settlement. This com- tions of yellow prussiate of potash and perchloride bination of blue and yellow is seen in the liveries of of iron, which yields the variety known as Paris certain Whig families of distinction, and also in the Blue. 3. By adding a solution of the red prussiate cover of the Edinburgh Review. Blue is the colour of potash (ferrocyanide of potassium) to a solution of the uniform of the Royal Navy of England; it is of sulphate of iron, and this mode of preparation of a dark tint, and is known as Navy Blue.

gives Turnbull's Blue. The Prussian blue settles AZURE BLUE is a pigment prepared by mixing to the bottom of the mixing vessels, and may be 2 parts of deep blue, 1 of oxide of zinc, and 4 of collected and dried by exposure to the air, when it lead glass ; the latter consisting of 4 parts of is obtained as a blue powder. If heat be applied minium and 1 of sand. The above azure blue is for during the drying, the inaterial cakes, and when skies, but a pigment for more general use is prepared cut, exhibits a lustre and hue like copper. When from 11 fused borax and 67 gray flux; the latter alum has been used in its manufacture, the probeing itself made from 89 pebble flux, 75 minium, duct has a dull earthy fracture. The composition and 25 sand.-BERLIN BLUE. See PRUSSIAN BLUE. of Prussian blue is that of a ferrocyanide of iron. -BRUNSWICK BLUE, or Celestial, is made by preci. See CYANOGEN. It is employed by washerwomen, pitating the alumina from a solution of alum by car- under the name of Blue, for neutralising the yellow bonate of soda, washing the precipitate, and adding tint of cotton and linen clothes ; by paper-makers, to sulphate of baryta, sulphate of iron, yellow prussiate colour paper: and is very largely employed as a of potash, and some bichromate of potash. When pigment in CALICO-PRINTING (q. v.) and DYEING dried, this mixture is known as Brunswick blue, but (q. v.). Mineral Blue is formed when the Prussian when the sulphate of baryta is left out, and the blue is precipitated along with a solution of zinc or material not dried, it is called Damp Blue.-CERU- magnesia, or noist carbonates of zinc or magnesia LEAN BLUE is a colour used in pottery, and consists are added during the precipitation of the colour. In of 79 parts of gray flux, 7 carbonate of cobalt, 14 the formation of Royal Blue, a solution of tin is hydrated carbonate.--BLUE COLOUR OF FLOWERS, added, and Steam Blue is produced on the addition or Anthocyan, may be obtained from those petals of of solutions of tartaric acid and yellow prussiate of flowers which are blue by digesting them in spirits potash. The impurities liable to be present in of wine in the dark. The colour is soluble in alcohol, Prussian blue are starch, chalk, and stucco, either but is precipitated from its alcoholic solution by of which necessarily decreases the intensity of the water. It is changed to red by acids, and to green blue colour, and the utility of the substance. by alkalies.—BLUE COPPERAS, or the Sulphate of SAXONY BLUE is prepared by dissolving indigo Copper. See COPPER.—BLUE Dyes. See INDIGO, (q. v.) in Nordhausen sulphuric acid, and was first Litmus, PRUSSIAN BLUE, and DYEING. IRON EARTH manufactured in Saxony in the year 1810, by taking BLUE occurs native amongst bog iron ore and in the very finely powdered indigo and incorporating it mossy districts in Europe and New Zealand. It with the acid cautiously heated, when the indigo mainly consists of a phosphate of iron with a little dissolves, and yields a blue colour of great depth of alumina, silica, and water. It is called Native tint. It is largely used in dyeing (q. v.).--OLD Prussian Blue.--INDIGO BLUE, in pottery ware, con- SEVRES BLUE is a cobalt blue used in pottery, and sists of 13 parts of carbonate of cobalt, 26 hydrated is made up of 19 parts of oxide of cobalt, 39 dry carbonate of zinc, and 61 gray flux.--COBALT BLUE / carbonate of soda, 3 dry borax, and 39 sand.- BLUEBEARD_BLUE BOOKS.

THEYARD'S BLUE is the blue formed by heating and has two or three broods in the season. Its song alum with a solution of cobalt, or it may be formed is 'a soft agreeable warble.' The male is remarkby igniting a mixture of phosphate or arseniate of ably attentive to his mate,' and both exhibit extraorcobalt with eight times its weight of alumina in the dinary courage in driving away intruders from the hydrated state procured by precipitation from alum by ammonia. Used in pottery.- TURQUOISE BLUE is composed of 3 of oxide of cobalt, 4 of alumina, and 1 oxide of zinc. It is manufactured by dissolving | the oxides of zinc and cobalt in dilute sulphuric acid, adding the liquid to a solution of 40 parts of

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for several hours. The addition of a little: chromate of mercury gives it a green shade. Various shades of purple, blue and violet have recently been made from Aniline, which is itself derived from the benzene of coal-tar. These are known as Azuline, Blue de Paris and Paris Violet, and promise to prove valuable.

BLUE STONE, or BLUE VITRIOL, is sulphate of cop-1 per. See COPPER.

BLUEBEARD, the name given to the hero of a well-known tale of fiction, which is of French origin. According to this romance, the chevalier Raoul has a blue beard, from which he gets his designation. This personage tests his wife's curiosity by intrusting her, during his absence on a journey, with the key of a chamber, which she is

Blue Bird (Sylvia sialis). forbidden to enter. She is unable to stand the test, and he puts her to death. Several wives share the vicinity of their nest. A hen, with her brood, has same fate, but at length the seventh is rescued at been seen to flee from the attacks of an enraged and the last moment by her brothers, and B. is slain.pugnacious blue bird.-The B. B. is known as an The tale appears in innumerable collections, under inhabitant of the Bermudas, Mexico, the West various forms. Tieck, in his Phantasus, has worked Indies, Guiana, and Brazil. In the western and in up this material into a clever drama, with numerous the niore northern parts of North America, its place romantic and satirical additions, and Grétry has made is taken by nearly allied and very similar species. use of it in his opera of Raoul.

| BLUE'-BOOKS, the name popularly applied to The historic original of Chevalier Raoul would

the reports and other papers printed by parliament, appear to be one Giles de Laval, Lord of Raiz, who

because they are usually covered with blue paper. was made marshal of France in 1429, and fought

The term was, for like reasons, long applied to valiantly in defence of his country when invaded by th the English ; but his cruelty and wickedness seem

by the reports sent annually by the governors of

colonies to the colonial secretary; and even in to have eclipsed even his bravery, as he is remembered chiefly for his crimes, which credulous tradi

technical official phraseology, these are called 'blue

books.' The practice of printing, and to some tion has painted in the blackest and most fearful colours. He is said to have taken a pleasure, among

extent publishing, the proceedings of the House of

Commons, began in the year 1681, when disputes other atrocities, in corrupting young persons of both sexes, and afterwards in murdering them for the

ran high on the question of excluding the Duke of

York from the succession to the throne. The prosake of their blood, which he used in his diabolical

ceedings on the occasion are extremely interesting. incantations. Out of this fact, in itself probably

It was stated that especially after parliaments were half-mythical, the main feature of the tale of B. has

dissolved, false accounts of their proceedings were probably grown. Laval was burnt alive in a field

circulated, and, as a remedy, Sir John Hotham near Nantes, in 1440, on account of some state-crime

moved that the votes and proceedings of the house against the Duke of Brittany.

be printed. Mr. Secretary Jenkins opposed the BLUE-BELL. See HYACINTH.

motion, saying: 'Consider the gravity of this assemBLUE BIRD, BLUE WAR'BLER, BLUE | bly; there is no great assembly in Christendom that RE'DBREAST, or BLUE RO'BIN (Sylvia sialis, does it; it is against the gravity of this assembly, or, according to the most recent ornithological sys- and is a sort of appeal to the people. He was tems, Erythaca or Sialia sialis ; see SYLVIADÆ), an answered by Mr. Boscawen: 'If you had been a American bird, which, from the confidence and fami- privy council, then it were fit what you do should liarity it displays in approaching the habitations of be kept secret, but your journal-books are open, and men, and from its general manners, is much the same copies of your votes in every coffee-house, and if you kort of favourite with all classes of people in the print them not, half votes will be distributed to your United States that the redbreast is in Britain. | prejudice. This printing is like plain Englishmen, Except in the southern states, it is chiefly known who are not ashamed of what they do, and the as a summer bird of passage, appearing early, how people you represent will have a full account of what erer, as a harbinger of spring, and visiting again you do.' Colonel Mildmay said: 'If our actions be “the box in the garden, or the hole in the old apple- nought, let the world judge of them; if they be tree, the cradle of some generations of ancestors.') good, let them have their virtue. It is fit that all Few American farmers fail to provide a box for the Christendom should have notice of what you do, B. B.'s nest. In size, the B. B. rather exceeds the and posterity of what you have done-and' I hope redbreast, which, however, it much resembles in they will do as you do, therefore I am for printing general appearance. Its food is also similar. The the votes.' The motion was carried. See Parl. upper parts of the B. B. are of a rich sky-blue colour, Hist, iv. 1307 ; Kennet, iii. 396. The documents the throat and breast are reddish chestnut, and the printed by the House of Commons accumulated belly white. The female is duller in colours than gradually in bulk and variety, until they reached the male. The B. B. lays five or six pale-blue eggs, their present extent. In 1836, the Llouse adopted BLUE-BOTTLE FLY-BLUE PILL.

the practice of selling their papers at a cheap rate. | elegant and graceful movements. Numbers are often A curious legal and constitutional question imme- seen together clinging and hanging in every variety diately arose out of this practice, a publisher having of position, frequently at the extrenie ends of thə taken proceedings for libel against the officers small thickly-flowered branches, bending then down concerned in circulating the papers, because it with their weight. was stated in a report concerning prisons that the BLUE'FIELDS, a river of the Mosquito Terriprisoners read indecent books printed by him. The torv, in Central America, which, after a course of chief contents of these papers at present are—the several hundred miles to the east, enters the Caribvotes and proceedings of the House; the bills read bean Sea in lat. 12° N., and long. 83° W. Its lower in their several stages; the estimates for the public stream is navigable to a distance of 80 miles from services of each year; the accounts of the expendi- the sea. At its mouth is a good harbour, above ture of the moneys voted in the previous year; any which stands a town of the same name, the residence correspondence or other documents which the minis- of the king of the Mosquito Territory. try may voluntarily, or at the demand of the House

| BLUE'-GOWNS, the name commonly given to a produce, as convected with a question under dis- clas

class of privileged mendicants in Scotland. The cussion; reports of committees of inquiry appointed | by the House ; reports of commissions of inquiry | Bedesmen or Beadsmen. In ancient times, a beads

proper designation of these paupers was the King's appointed by the crown ; and annual reports by the

man was a person employed to pray for another. permanent commissions and other departments of

See BEAD. From practices of this kind, there the government, stating their proceedings during the

sprang up a custom in Scotland of appointing beadsVear. The B. of a session, when collected and i men with a small royal bounty. who ultimately bound up, now often fill fifty or sixty thick folio

degenerated into a class of authorised mendicants. volumes. Nothing can seem more hopelessly chaotic

Each of the beadsmen on his majesty's birthday than those of , few sessions huddled together un

received a gown or cloak of blue cloth, with a loaf arranged. It deserves to be known, however, that

of bread, a bottle of ale, and a leathern purse conthey are all printed according to a peculiar sequence,

taining a penny for every year of the king's life. which enables the whole papers of a session to be

Every birthday, another beadsman was added to bound up in such an order that any paper can be

the number, as a penny was added to each man's found by consulting an ample index in the last

purse. The most important part of the privilege volume. In any library where the B. are pre

was a large pewter badge, attached to the breast of served and properly bound up, the most trifling

the gown, which, besides the name of the bearer, had paper of any session may thus be found with ease;

the inscription, Pass and Repass. This inferred the and it need hardly be said that with much that is

privilege of begging, and bespoke the kindly conuseless or unimportant, there is an enormous mass

sideration of all to whom the bradsman appealed of valuable matter hidden in the blue-books.

for an alms or a night's lodging. The fctitious charThere is no doubt, however, that allhough the

acter of Edie Ochiltree, in Sir Walter Scott's tale of means are thus provided for finding what the B.

the Antiquary, is a fair sample of this ancient and contain, their contents are heterogeneous, and to a

picturesque fraternity. The practice of appointing great extent cumbersome and valueless. They are

beadsmen was discontinued in 1833, at which time not prepared on any uniform system, or subjected

there were sixty on the roll. The whole have since to general revision, or what may be called editing.

died out but one, who still annually calls at the Each officer prepares his own report in his own

Exchequer Office, Edinburgh, and receives his way, sometimes lauding his own services, or arguing

accustomed almis. (1860.) in favour of his own peculiar principles on some public question, so that it has been remarked that

BLUE'-MANTLE, the title of an English pursuithe B. contain a large number of articles like | vant-at-arms. See PURSUIVANT. those in the periodical press, but too cumbersome BLUE MOU'NTAINS, the name of two mounand dull to get admission there. It has been tain-chains, the one in New South Wales, the other matter of complaint that the public are burdened in Jamaica.-1. The B. M. of New South Wales with the expense of widely distributing such docu- run very nearly parallel with the coast, and being ments. It is stated in a treasury minute, circulated impassable by nature, long threatened to cut off among the government departments in May 1858, the maritime part of the colony from the intewith the view of in some measure remedying the rior. To cross this apparently insurmountable abuse, 'that the cost of printing the report of the barrier was the grand aim of the colony during commissioners appointed to inquire into the endowed the first 24 years of its existence, Surgeon Bass, schools of Ireland, and the three volumes of evi- the discoverer of the strait that bears his name, dence and appendices (including the cost of the standing pre-eminent among the adventurous and paper), was £5200, and that the weight of the paper patient explorers. It was not till 1813 that a used in printing them was about 34 tons.'

practicable passage was found, or rather made, for it BLUE'-BOTTLE FLY. See FLESH-FLY.

terminated towards the west in a zigzag road down

a nearly perpendicular height of 670 feet; but it BLUE CAR'DINAL. See LOBELIA.

was not before 25th April 1815-a day ever memorBLUE'-COAT SCHOOL, the name ordinarily given able in the local annals--that Governor Macquarie, to Christ's Hospital, London, in which the boys with a numerous retinue, actually opened a route wear blue coats or gowns, according to an old cos- into the Bathurst Plains, then yielding the richest tume. See CHRIST'S HOSPITAL.

pasturage in the colory, and now forming its goldBLUE'-EYE (Entomuza cvanotis), a beautiful little field. The B. M. are the dividing-ridge between the bird, abundant and very generally dispersed in New rivers of the coast and those of the interior. They South Wales, although not found in the more south- are of very considerable height, 1or some parts of the ern Australian colonies. It is a species of Honey-road which crosses them are about 3400 feet above sucker (q. v.) or Honey-eater, and is sometimes

the sea—an elevation nearly equal to that of any called the Blue-cheeked Honey-eater. The B. seeks / point in England or Wales. 2. The still loftier its food almost exclusively among the blossoms and range of the same name in Jamaica traverses the small leafy branches of Lucalyptă. Its food consists whole length of the island from east to west. These partly of insects and partly of honey; perhaps also B. M. in some places attain an altitude of 6000 feet: of berries. It is a bold and spirited bird, of most! BLUE PILL (Pilula hydrargyri) is the most


simple form in which mercury can be administered BLUEWING, according to some naturalists, a internally. It consists merely of two parts of mer- genủs of Anatidæ, which has been named Cyanopterus cury rubbed up with three parts of conserve of roses, (by a sort of Greek translation of the English name), till globules of mercury can no longer be detected; but more generally regarded as a mere section or to this is added powdered liquorice-root, so that a pill subsection of the restricted but still large genus of five grains contains one grain of mercury.

Anas. See Duck. The tail-feathers are only 14 In cases of torpid condition of the liver or inflam- in number, instead of 16, as in the common duck, mation of that organ, B. P. is much used as a teal, &c.; but the character from which the name is purgative, either alone or combined with some other derived is, after all, that which chiefly distiuguishes drug, such as rhubarb. When it is given with the the bluewings, and never fails to arrest attention. view of bringing the system under the influence The best known species, the Cominon or Lunate B. of mercury (Salivation, q. v.), small doses of opium (Anas or Cyanopterus discors), is generally called the should be added to counteract its purgative ten- Blue-winged Teal in the United States of America, dency, and the state of the gums watched carefully where it is very abundant. Vast numbers spend the from day to day, so that the first symptoms of sali- winter in the extensive marshes near the mouths of vation may be noticed, and the medicine omitted. the Mississippi, to which they congregate both from A3 a purgative, the common dose of B. P. is one the north and from the coast regions of the east; or two pills of five grains each, followed by a purga- but the summer migrations of the species extend as tive draught. When the system is to be saturated far north as the 57th parallel, and it is plentiful on with it, or salivated, one pill may be given morning the Saskatchewan in the breeding-season. It breeds. and evening, or one every night combined with of however, also in the marshes of the south, even in a grain of opium, repeated till the gums become Texas; and is common in Jamaica, where it is sore. But the sensibility to the action of mercury supposed to be not a mere bird of passage, but a varies with the individual ; some may take large permanent resident. None of the duck tribe is in quantities before it exhibits its physiological symp- higher esteem for the table, and it has therefore toms, and on the other hand, three blue pills, one been suggested that the B. is particularly worthy of taken on three successive nights, have brought on a domestication, of which it seems to be very easily fatal salivation. When taking blue pills, all sudden susceptible. In size it is rather larger than the changes of temperature should be avoided; and, common teal; in the summer plumage of the male, indeed, though they are found in every domestic the upper part of the head is black, the other parts medicine-chest, neither they nor any other form of the head are of a deep purplish blue, except a of mercury should be given without good cause and half-moon shaped patch of pure white before each without the greatest caution.

eye; the prevalent colour of the rest of the plumage BLUE RIDGE. the most easterly range of the on the upper parts is brown mixed and glossed with Alleghanies, in the United States. It forms an

| green, except that the wings exhibit various shades almost continuous chain from West Point in New of blue, the lesser wing-coverts being of a rich York to Northern Alabama, and is known as the South

ultramarine blue, with an almost metallic lustre ; Mt. in Penna., Blue Ridge in Virginia, and the Allegha

the lower parts are reddish orange spotted with ny Mt. in N. C. It divides Virginia into Eastern and

black; the tail is brown, its feathers short and Western. Mount Mitchell, in North Carolina, the

pointed. - The B, is a bird of extremely rapid and loftiest point of the B. R., is 6470 feet above the

well-sustained flight. The flocks of the B. are sea; while the Otter Peaks in Virginia, next in

sometimes so numerous and so closely crowded

together on the muddy marshes near New Orleans, elevation, have an altitude of 4200 feet.

that Audubon mentions having seen 84 killed by BLUE STOCKING, a name given to learned the simultaneous discharge of the two barrels of a and literary ladies, who display their acquirements double-barrelled gun.-There are other species of B., in a vain and pedantic manner, to the neglect of also American; but this aloue seems to visit the more womanly duties and virtues. The name is derived northern regions. from a literary society formed in London about the year 1780, which included both men and women. A

BLUM, ROBERT, was born in very humble cir

cumstances at Cologne, 10th November gentleman of the name of Stillingfleet, who was in the

1807. habit of wearing blue stockings, was a distinguished

After a brief military service in 1830, he became member of this society; hence the name, which has

scene-shifter, afterwards secretary and treasurer, to been adopted both in Germany and France.

Ringelhardt, director of a theatre at Cologne, and

subsequently at Leipsic, in which situation he BLUE' THROAT, or BLUE'BREAST, also remained, devoting his leisure time to literature and called Bluethroated Warbler and Bluethroated politics until 1847, when he established himself as Robin (Phænicura Suecica, or Sylvia Suecica, see bookseller and publisher. In 1840, he founded at SYLVIADÆ), a beautiful bird, a very little larger than Leipsic the Schillers-Verein, i. e., Schiller's Society, a redbreast, and much resembling it, but having the which celebrated the poet's anniversary, as a throat and upper part of the neck of a brilliant sky- festival in honour of political liberty. In 1845 he blue, with a spot in the centre, which in some speci- acquired, in connection with the German Catholic mens is pure white, and in very old males is red. movement and the political outbreaks in Leipsic, great Below the blue colour is a black bar, then a line of reputation as a popular orator; and in 1848, was white, and again a broad band of bright chestnut. elected vice-president of the provisional parliament The B. is well known as a summer bird of passage at Frankfort, and as such he ruled that turbulent in many parts of Europe, from the Mediterranean assembly by presence of mind and a stentorian voice. Sea to the Arctic Ocean, but is very rare in Britain, In the National Assembly he became leader of the only a few instances of its occurrence having been Left; and was one of the bearers of a congratulatory recorded. It is supposed to spend the winter in address from the Left to the people of Vienna, Africa. Great numbers are caught for the table in when they rose in October. At Vienna he joined Lorraine and Alsace. The bird is one of those the insurgents, was arrested, and shot on the 9th known by the names of Becfin (q. v.) and Beccafico November. B. was a man of strong character, of (q. V.), and esteemed a delicacy. It is a bird of very great natural intelligence, and a speaker of stirring sweet song. It imitates, to an unusual degree, the eloquence. For heading a party, he possessed clevernotes of other birds, so that the Laplanders give it a ness and ambition enough, but he had not that name which signifies the bird of a hundred tongues. passion and fanaticism which scorns to consider


the consequences likely to flow from unbridled, understood: it is simply like the case of distending popular licence. The news of his execution caused the hose of the fire-engine by working the pump, an indignant outcry among the democrats in Ger- and driving the water along. The counteracting many, who, besides instituting commemorations for force of the nerve-centres is proved by the following the dead, made an ample subscription for his widow experiments : When the sympathetic nerve proand children.

ceeding to the vessels of the head and face of an BLUMENBACH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, a very

no animal is cut, there follows congestion of the bloodeminent naturalist, was born at Gotha, 11th May

vessels with augmented heat over the whole surface 1752. He studied at Jena and Göttingen, in

supplied by the nerve. The ear is seen to become the latter of which universities he became extra

redder; a thermometer inserted in the nostril shews

ua an increase of temperature, the sign of a greater ordinary professor in 1776, and ordinary professor in 1778. Here he lectured for fifty years on

quantity of blood flowing into the capillaries. The natural history, comparative anatomy, physiology, ang

inference from the experiment is, that, from the with

drawal of a counterpoise, the force that distends the and the history of medicine. In 1785, con- | sequently before Cuvier, he made natural history

small blood-vessels--that is to say, the heart's action dependent on comparative anatomy. His Manual

|-has an unusual predominance. It is further proved of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology has been

that this nervous influence, acting upon the minute

' muscular fibres of the small vessels. proceeds from translated into alniost all the principal languages the nerve-centres lodced in the head for by cutting of Europe. The natural history of man was always

the connection between the brain and the ganglion his favourite study; and his Collectio Craniorum Diversarum Gentium, commenced in 1791, and com

in the neck, from which the above-mentioned nerve pleted in 1808, gave to the learned world the result

is derived, the same restraining influence is arrested,

and the congestion takes place. By stimulating the of his observations on the skulls of different

divided nerve galvanically, the suffusion disappears, races, of which he had an extensive collection (see ETHNOLOGY). He published many other works

the vessels shrinking by the galvanic contraction of

their muscular coats. on natural history, all of which were favourably

The agency now described is of a piece with the received ; for, both as a writer and a lecturer, he was eminently successful. His Manual of Natural

action of the brain upon involuntary muscles geneHistory, indeed, has gone through 12 editions. /

rally, as the heart and the intestinal canal, and l'owards the end of the the ho visited England by 10 many organic functions-digestion, nutrition. where he met with a distinguished reception from

absorption, &c.—are affected by those changes in

the cerebral substance that accompany mental the most famous naturalists. On the 19th Septem

states. It is known that mental excitement has ber 1825, his friends celebrated the jubilee of his

an immediate influence in all those functions; one doctorate, presented him on the occasion with a medal struck on purpose, and founded an exhi.

set of passions, such as fear, tend to derange them, bition in his name, the proceeds of which were to

while joy and exhilaration operate favourably upon

them. assist young physicians and naturalists in the prose-"

To apply these operations to the case in hand. cution of their researches by travel. In 1835, the increasing infirmities of age compelled him to resign

Supposing a person in the average mental condition, his academical functions. He died on the 22d Janu

and something to arise which gives a painful shock

to the feelings-a piece of ill news, a reproach from ary 1840.

some one whose good opinion is much valued, an BLUNDERBUSS is a kind of short musket open shame, or the fear of it, a fit of remorse, an with a very wide bore, sufficient to take in several

occasion of grief-the pain is accompanied with shot or bullets at once. It has a limited range, but a sudden loss, or waste, or decrease of cerebral is very destructive at close quarters. As a military power: none of the functions that the brain aids in weapon, it is chiefly of service in defending passages, maintaining is so strongly stimulated as before ; door-ways, staircases, &c. Some of the English and and in particular, that stream of nervous energy Gernian troopers in the 17th c. were armed with the which balances the heart's action in regulating the B.; but the carbine has since nearly superseded this distension of the small blood vessels, is abated, weapon.

the abatement being made apparent in the redness BLUSHING, a sudden reddening of the face, and heat over the face and neck. In a great stroke neck, and breast, owing to some mental shock, most of mental depression, the influence is of a much commonly of the character of humiliation or shame. ( more extensive kind, though still of the same nature The nature and cause of this effect have been essentially as regards the enfeeblement of the recently elucidated by physiological researches. nervous energy, and may lower the action of the It is produced by an increased flow of blood into heart itself: in which case there will be a widethe capillary vessels over the parts where the blush spread pallor, perhaps without a blush. In all extends. Besides reddening the complexion, it probability, it is when the loss of cerebral influence creates a sensible augmentation of heat in those parts. extends only to the relaxation of the muscular fibres The feeling that accompanies the state is of a dis- of the small vessels, leaving the heart in its usual tressing kind.

vigour, that the state of B. is most fully manifested. The phenomenon of B. is part of a general influ- Hence it is more apt to arise out of the smaller ence exerted on the capillary circulation by mental modes of painful apprehension, than from the causes operating through the brain. The experiments more serious calamities that prostrate the system whereby the existence of this influence has been throughout. established, may be described as follows: The small! It is said that, in the Circassian slave-market, a blood-vessels, by which the blood is brought into young woman that blushes fetches a higher price. proximity with the various tissues of the body, Some complexions do not shew the increased flow of are kept in a state of balanced distension between blood in this way, and all persons are not equally two forces: the one the propulsive power of the sensitive to the cerebral shock that causes it. heart's action, which fills and distends them; BO TREE, the name given in Ceylon to the the other, an influence derived from the nervous PEEPUL (q. v.) of India (Ficus religiosa). It is held centres, and acting upon the muscular fibres so sacred by the Buddhists, and planted close by as to contract the vessels. The first of the two every temple, attracting almost as much veneration forces—the agency of the heart is quite well as the statue of Buddha itself.—The B. T. of the


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