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Referring to the article CHRISTMAS for a notice of provisions: When a B. belongs to any ship or othe some of the observances on this occasion, we need vessel, the naine of the vessel and of the place to here only say, that in the 'boar's-head carols' are which she belongs must be painted on the outside of found some of the most interesting specimens of the the stern of the B., and the master's name within old English convivial verses. The following, from a side the transom—the leiters to be white or yellow carol printed by Wynkin de Worde (1521), may be on a black ground. Boats not belonging to ships or given :

other vessels must be inscribed with the name of Capud 4 pri defero

the owners and the port to which they belong. All Reidens laudes Domino.

boats having double sides or bottoms, or any secret The boar's head in hand bring I,

places adapted for the concealment of goods, are With garland gay and rosemary ;

liable to forfeiture. I pray you all sing merrily

The boats intended for the rescue of shipwrecked Qui estis in convivio.

persons, or crews and passengers exposed to that The boar's head, I understand,

danger, are described under LIFE-BOAT.
Is the chief service in this land;
Look wherever it be found,

BOA'T-FLY (Notonecta), a genus of insects of
Servite cum cantico.

the order Hemiptera (q. v.), suborder, Heteroptera,

and of the family of the Hydrocorisce, or WaterThe boar's head erased,' according to heraldic bugs (q. v.). All of them, like the rest of the family, plıraseology, is a well-known cognizance of a number are aquatic insects. Their English name is derived of old families, particularly the Gordons ; it also from their boat-like form, eminently adapted for formed the sign of a tavern at Eastcheap, London, progression in water, and probably also from their which has been immortalised by Shakspeare. On remarkable habit of always swimthe site of this famed tavern now stands the statue ming on their back-peculiar to the of William IV.

genus Notonecta, as restricted by BOAST (Fr. Ebaucher), a word in use with recent entomologists—and of resting sculptors. To B., as its French original implies, in this posture suspended at the suris to block out a piece of stone or wood, so as to

face of the water. The known species form a rude approach to the ultimate figure, leaving of this genus are not numerous. One the smaller details to be worked out afterwards. of them, N. glauca (sometimes called Ornamental portions of buildings are often inserted the Water Boatman), is common in Water Boatman in their places in this condition, and frequently re

Britain : it is about half an inch long,

(W. glauca). main so it' they are in an obscure position.

and varies considerably in colour;

but exhibits a general greenish tinge, the other BOAT is the general name for a small open vessel.

colours being black, brown, and gray. Boats differ, however, greatly one from another.

They fly They may be slight or strong, sharp or flat-bottomed, well, but seldom use their wings. They move with decked or undecked, swift for despatch or roomy for dificulty on dry ground. When they descend into cargo, ornamental for pleasure or plain for hard the water, they carry down a supply of air for service, deep or light of draught for deep or shallow They feed on animal substances, and often kill and

respiration in a hollow between their folded wings. The chief varieties supplied to ships of war

devour those of their own species. are the following-Long-B.: the largest B. of a ship, furnished with mast and sails; it is either armed BOATING, the art of managing and propelling and equipped, to render warlike service in certain a boat. This is done either by means of oars or situations, or it is employed to fetch water, wood, sails. As sailing is fully treated under the head of provisions, and heavy stores on board. Launch: YACHTING, rowing only is dealt with here. The most longer and more flat-bottomed than the long-B.; ancient form of boat known to have been used in being rowed with a greater number of oars, it makes the British Islands is the coracle; it is still much more rapid progress up rivers. Barge: a long, used in Wales. The coracle is but a large wicker.. narrow, light B., employed in carrying the principal work basket, covered with skins, or some thin water-officers to and from the ship ; for other kinds of proof substance stretched over the wicker-work, boats or vessels

or vessels under this name, see BARGE. strengthened by a cross seat. Seated in one of these Pinnace: a B. for the accommodation of the inferior rude boats, with but a single paddle, it is astonishofficers; it has usually eight ours, whereas the barge ing with what dexterity the paddler will skim over

Cutter : broader, deeper, and broken water, and avoid dangers which would infalshorter than the barge or pinnace; it is rowed libly destroy a heavier or less manageable craft. with six oars, sometimes hoisting á sail, and is From the coracle spring all the varied classes of chiefly employed in carrying light stores, provisions, boats now in use, either as pendants to ships, or as and crew.

Jolly-B.: a smaller cutter, rowed with used for pleasure traffic or a means of conveyance four oars instead of six. Yawl: small in size, and upon our rivers and inland waters. The wherry next used for nearly the same purposes as cutters and claims attention. There are many kinds of wherries, jolly-boats. Gig: a long narrow B., rowed with six but we only notice the Thames wherry. This is or eight oars, and employed by the chief officer on stoutly built, and is constructed to carry about expeditions requiring speed. Some of the above- eight passengers. It is usually managed by one named boats are diagonal-built for strength; the sculler or oarsmen; it is almost entirely others are clincher-built, to be as light as possible. employed by watermen for the conveyance of The largest ships of war carry boats of all these passengers or pleasure-parties. The boats used for various kinds, varying in weight from 110 cwt. down rowing as a sport or pastime are of a much lighter to 10 cwt.; the smaller ships carry fewer; while and sharper build. They are constructed of all sizes, merchant-ships have seldom more than threem to carry from eight oarsmen down to a single sculler. except passenger-ships, which are bound by law to Of this class of boats, for racing purposes, we have carry boats enough to save all the passengers the 8, 6, 4, 2, and single pair oared boats; while in and crew in case of disaster. There are other contests between single scullers, we have what is kinds of boats which do not belong to ships. See denominated the wager-boat-a boat so frail and BOATING.

light in its proportions, that none but a most expeIn reference to the legal regulation of boats in rienced sculler can sit in one without danger of the merchant-service, the following are the chief | upsetting. For pleasure, we have another class of


has ten or more.




boats denominated gigs, of stouter and more capa- men's apprentices, on the 1st of August. It is a cious build; they are constructed either for four prize held in high estimation by young aspirants oars, a pair of oars, or single sculls. Boat-racing to rowing honours. But the events of most note is a practice of some antiquity, but it has only in the rowing world are the Oxford and Camculminated in our day. Many prizes have been bridge 8-oared match, rowed annually upon the given from time to time for competition, some of Thames, from Putney to Mortlake. This match which have been made annual. Perhaps the most has not been a regular yearly match, there having famous of all these is Dogget's coat and badge, been occasional intervals at times of a year or two. which is rowed for yearly on the Thames by water. In 1829, 1842, 1849, 1852, 1854, 1857, and 1859,

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the Oxford boat carried off the prize; Cambridge to his titles champion of the Thames also. So much having wrested it from Oxford in the years 1836, is B. favoured at our universities, that almost every 1839, 1810, 1841, 1845, 1846, 1849, 1856, 1858, college has its club. 17 matches have come off in 32 years, the

BOAT-LOWERING APPARATUS is the name balance being still on the side of Cambridge. It given to certain ropes and pulleys for lowering boats will be noticed that two matches were rowed in from ships quickly and safely, in case of emergency. 1849. The best picked men from each university are Every passenger-ship is compelled by law to carry a selected to contest this great event, and the hardest certain number of boats, depending on the tonnage ; exercise and the severest training gone through by and every ship of war necessarily carries boats (see the crews, to improve their wind, strength, and Boat) for minor services; but until recent years the endurance, for months before the day of rowing; apparatus was very inefficient for lowering these their diet consisting mainly of the plainest cooked boats from the davits or cranes by which they are lean meat and potatoes, with malt liquors, spirituous usually suspended. In shipwreck or other emerdrinks being prohibited, and the duties of temper- gencies at sea, the boats were, until recent years, ance, soberness, and chastity strictly enforced. It often so difficult to extricate that they could not be was at one time thought that light men stood the lowered in time to save the crew and passengers : best chance in these matches, and men weighing or in lowering they capsized, and plunged the nine and ten stone were preferred; but experience unhappy persons into the sea. Many inventors has shewn this to be an error, and ten, eleven, and have recently directed their ingenuity to this subtwelve stone men are now chiefly selected. The ject, with a hope of devising a remedy. In Lacon's distance rowed upon this course, which is cailed apparatus, the principal feature is the employment 5 miles, is about 41. The time chosen is usually of a friction-brake, by which one man can regulate at slack-tide, and the time taken in rowing varies the rate of descent to varying degrees of speed. according as there is little or no tide or wind, or the Captain Kynaston's disengaging hooks are intended reverse, from 19 to 26 minutes. Robert Coombes is not only to lower boats quickly and safely when said to have rowed it on one occasion in 18 minutes. suspended over the side of the ship, but also to hoist The Cambridge boat, in a closely contested race them out quickly when they happen to be stowed in 1860, did the distance in 26 minutes 5 seconds, in-board. Wood and Rogers's apparatus resembles having previously, in one of their trials, rowed it Kynaston's in this: that the actual lowering from in 217, the young ebb-tide, o! the day of the match, the ship is effected by the crew on shipboard, leaving being against them upon the latter half of the course. to the person or persons in the boat only the duty of From 36 to 44 strokes of the oar taken per minute is disengaging it from the tackle. But the apparatus held to be fair racing-pace; and a long steady even which now engages most attention is Clifford's, the stroke-the blade of the oar not being dipped too leading principle of which is, that the lowering and deeply in the water, or thrown too high abovet he disengaging are both effected by one man seated the surface when withdrawn, the arms being welli n the boat. Two ropes or lowering pendants, c and extended in taking the stroke, and the elbows (see fig.), descend from two davits; pass through brought well home to the sides at the conclusion- blocks or sheaves, f; then through other blocks, h, is the kind of stroke now preferred by connoisseurs. within and near the keel of the boat; and finally, The other great events of the boat-racing world are round a roller, a, placed horizontally beneath the the regattas of Henley and Putney. At the former, seat on which the manager of the boat takes his the Oxford and Cambridge crews usually fight their place. By means of a winding-rope, b, held in one battle over again in conjunction with others for hand, he can regulate the speed with which the the challenge-cup. At Putney, Aug. 27, 1869, the other two ropes uncoil themselves from the roller, well-contested race between the Harvard and Oxford thus graduating the boat's descent to the water's clubs was won by the latter by about 2 boat lengths, level. When lowered, the two ropes

ropes can be or 6sec. in time. Distance 41 miles, time 22} m. The thrown off and the boat set free. The slings or most renowned champion of the Thames was Robert lifts, y, are intended to prevent the canting or Coombes, who wrested the championship from Charles upsetting of the boat. The lanyard, m, belongs to Campbell on the 20th of Aug. 1846, having previously the lashings, į, which hold the boat to the side of defeated all the best men. He held it unbeaten for the ship; but by the thimbles, k, slipping off the above six years. He at length succumbed to the prow-prongs, o, the boat is liberated. The efficiency of ess of Cole in 1852. Cole, in 1854, was beaten by Mes- ihe apparatus is most remarkable. In 1856, by senger; Messenger vielded the palm to Kelly in 1856; 1 order of the Admiralty, experiments were made and Kelly was at length, in 1859, beaten by Robert! with the starboard-cutter of H.M.S. Princess Royal. Chambers, the champion of the Tyne, who now adds Twelve men got into the boat while it was hanging


from the davits; it weighed, with the crew and the the davits to the water. Many other experiments gear, nearly three tons; nevertheless, this cutter, of a similar kind were made. Clifford's apparatus is thus laden, was successfully and quickly lowered by now supplied to many ships of war and merchantone of the twelve men, to a depth of 40 feet from vessels; and many lives have been saved by its

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means, under circumstances which would almost the ends, to hold yarn, which is wound on them as certainly have proved fatal under the old mode of a preparatory process to warping in the manufacture lowering boats from the davits.

of cloth. B. are likewise extensively used in the The apparatus above described is a mere append- spinning of yarn, chiefly in the preparatory proage, not necessarily depending on the form and cesses, for holding rove. In thirostle-spinning, howconstruction of the boat.

ever, they are an essential part of the machinery, BOA'TSWAIN is a warrant officer on board her

as they receive the thread on their respective Majesty's ships, who has charge of the boats, sails, spindles as it comes from the rollers. B. are likerigging, cables, anchors, flags, and cordage. He is

wise very extensively used in the manufacture of

thread. immediately under the master in some of these duties; he frequently examines the masts and yards, sails although not of the genuine type, which deserve to

Besides these, there are three other kinds of B., and ropes, to report on their condition and efficiency. be named as belonging to the class-viz. : the B. He also keeps account of all the spare rigging, &c.

, used for holding silk, which are flangeless, the ends and superintends the replacement of old by new. The B. has certain duties in connection with the being merely raised and rounded a little, by slightly

Then the bobbin, called in crew: he assists in the necessary business of the hollowing the barrel. ship, and, in relieving the watch. "In bad weather, Scotland pirn, for delivering the weft from the he looks well to the boats and anchors, especially shuttle, is simply a tapered pin, bored, it may be, when night is coming on. A B. should be a good throughout, with but the rudiments of a flange at sailor, a good rigger, and a vigilant, sober, firm man.

the thick end; and next, the bobbin used for a The boatswain's mate assists in all the above- similar purpose in lace-weaving, is merely a thin named duties; and to him is assigned the repulsive metal pulley, about the size of a halfpenny, deeply office of inflicting the flogging to which seamen are grooved in the rim, to hold the thread-weft

. B., again, of a large size, and flanged and ribbed like the

frame of a sand-glass, are called reels, are chiefly BO'BBIN-NET is the name of a kind of net- used in cordage-spinning, and are frequently of iron. fabric, usually made of cotton-thread. It is of the The B. used in the thread manufacture are small,

nature of lace, but is being from less than one inch to more than twee made in the lace-frame according as they are made for three or six ply-cori; instead of by hand. and holding 200 yards each. The thread B., and The texture is pecu- those for warping, are of hard wood, turned out of ile liar: it consists in the solid block; but the larger B., for rove, called slub) interlacing of a set of bing B., are of pine, with the ends and barrels turlied long threads, represent individually on the same arbor, and glued together. ing the warp in com

The quantity of B. used in the various branches mon wearing, with a of business is enormous. In the thread manufacture set of cross ones (the alone, the wood required for them, in Britain only, weft), in such a manner is stated to be at least 40,000 tons annually ; and

to form a a inesh- assuming that a ton of wood produces 50 gross, texture. B. is one of taking the small and large together, we have

the most elegant of 2,000,000 gross annually consumed in this manufac:textile fabrics, and forms an extensive branch of ture, costing from 5d. to 1s. 4d. a gross, according in business, the chief seat of the manufacture in size, or, at an average, at least £80,000. this country being Nottingham. SEE LACE MANC

This enormous production is, of course, the result

of the machinery employed in it. The thread B. BO'BBINS are small wooden rollers, flanged at are turned by a self-acting lathe, which turns out

sometimes sentenced.



Bobbin-net texture.



abouc 100 gross in 10 hours, thereby effecting a BOBRUÏ'SK, a fortitied town of Russia, in the Sivirg of alont sixteenfold, as compared with hand government of Minsk, and 88 miles south-east of turning; whilst the attendant has nothing to do but the city of that name. It is situated on the right feed the machine hy dropping the blocks into a hop- bank of the Beresina, and is a station for the steamper, from which they pass singly into the lathe, where packets navigating the Dnieper and Beresina. It was they are finished and dropped one by one out of the besieged ineffectually by the French in 1812. Pop. machine.

stated at 10,000. The quantity and value of the B. made use of, for warping and spinning, in the various manufacturing used to contine the bowsprit down to the stem or

BO'B-STAY, in the rigging of a shin, is a rope districts of the country, cannot be so well ascertuined. It must be very great.

cut-water; its purpose is to keep the bowsprit The price of the B. ranges from about 6s. a gross to steadı, by counteracting the force of the stays of about £18; or 2s. 6d. a piece for the large wooden the foremast, which draw it upwards. B. nised in cordage-spinning. The wood for B. is BO'CA (Span. meaning Mouth), a term applied to becoming scarce, so enormous is the supply wanted; I the entrance of various straits and rivers, chiefly in and the trade is now under apprehension as to how: America.-1. B. Chica, the channel of 28 miles in it is to be kept up.

length, which leads to Cartagena in New Granada. BO'BBIO, a town of Piedmont, capital of the -2. B. de Navios, the largest and most southerly province of the same name, is situated liear the left outlet of the Orinoco.--3. B. Grande, a bay of the bank of the Trebbia, about 37 miles north-east of Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Zuc:ır, in ('osta Genoa. B. is an ancient place, having originated Rica.-4. B. del Toro, on the Caribbean Sea, in Costa from a church and convent erected here in the Rica, in lat. 9° 20' N., and long. 82o W. end of the 6th, or beginning of the 7th c., in

BO'CCA TI'GRIS, or BOGUE, the name given to the crypt of which St. Columbanus and some that portion of the estuary of the Canton River of his disciples lie buried. B. has a cathedral, an (q. v.) extending north from lat. 22° 45' N.; south episcopal palace, and a place belonging to the of this point, the estuary is designated the Outer Malaspina family. It is guarded from the inunda- Waters. In the centre of the B. T. are the rocky tions of the Pellice by a long embankment, built islands of North and South Wantung, while on the by a money-grant froin Oliver Cromwell, during east the B. T. has the islands of Anunghoy and whose protectorate the town was nearly destroyed Chuenpee, and on the west the Tv-cock-tow island. by an inundation. Pop. 3976.

On these islands are situated the Bogue forts, which BO'BIA, or PIRATE ISLE, a singular island in have been more than once captured by the British. the Bay of Amboise, off the coast of Guinea, Africa. The last time they were taken was in Norember Originally of considerable size, it has been greatly 1856, the occasion of quarrel being the refusal of reduced by the action of the waves, and the same the Chinese to make proper reparation for the capagency is still gradually lessening it It is difficult ture of a vessel under British protection, but alleged, of access, on account of the precipitous character of on the other hand, to be nothing but a smuggling its shores, but is said to be densely peopled.

craft, contriving to hide its real character by hoisting

the British flag. BO'B-O-LINK, or BO'BLINK, REED BIRD, or RICE BIRD (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), a bird nearly BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI, the celebrated author allied to buntings and sparrows, but of a genus of the Decamcrone, was born in Paris, 1313. He characterised by stiff-pointed tail-feathers. It is styled himself Da Certaldo, and was sometimes rather larger than a yellow-hammer; and the male nanied Il Certalılese by others, because his family in his summer or nuptial plumage exhibits a fine sprang from Certaldo, a village in the Florentine contrast of colours, black, yellow, and white. The territory. From an early period he displayed an female differs greatly from the male in colours of invincible attachment to poetry, which his father plumage, yellowish-brown chiefly prevailing; and attempted in various ways to thwart; but as sool in the latter part of summer, the males assume the as B. had attained his majority, he commenced to comparatively dull hues of the females. The B. is follow vigorously his own inclinations, poetising a bird of passage, spending the winter in the West both in the Italian and Latin tongues, but not with Indies. In summer it is found as far north as the any “fine issues.' In prose he succeeded far better, banks of the Saskatchewan, in lat. 54°, but is most developing quickly that airy grace of style which plentiful in the Atlantic states and other eastern suits so admirably his light and lively tales, and parts of America, where it is to be seen in every which soon placed him in the highest rank of meadow and cornfield. It renders good service by Italian prose-writers. He studied Dante closely, the destruction of insects and their larvæ; but the but did not confine himself to literature

proimmense flocks which congregate on their return perly so called. In 1350), B. formed an intimate southwards in autumn, commit great ravages in the friendship with Petrarch, and, following his friend's rice-plantations of Carolina. At this season, these example, collected many books and copied rare birds become extremely fat, and are killed in great MSS., which he could not afford to buy. It is numbers for the table. Their flesh is delicate, and said that he was the first Italian who ever proresembles that of the ortolan.

cured from Greece a copy of the liad and the Tlie B. generally makes its nest in a grassy | Odyssey. He also wrote a Genealogy of the Gods, in meadow, an artless structure of a few dry stalks 15 books, which was unquestionably the most comand leaves, with a lining of finer grass. It displays prehensive mythological work that Europe had as the same instinct with many other birds, of seeking yet seen. But not only was B. one of the most to lead intruders away from its nest, by pretending learned men of his time, he was also one of the great anxiety about some other part of the field. most enlightened in his scholarship. He helped During the breeding-season, the males are very to give a freer direction and a greater expansiveness musical, singing mostly in the air, in which they to knowledge, stimulated his contemporaries to the seem to rise and fall in successive jerks. Their song study of Greek, and wished to substitute the wisdom is very pleasing, and 'is emitted with a solubility of antiquity for the unprofitable scholasticism that hordering on the burlesque.' On account of their prevailed. beauty and powers of song, many are caught, caged, While in Naples (1311), B. fell passionately in love and sold in the New York and other markets. with a young lady who was generally supposed to



be an illegitimate daughter of King Robert. His education at Leyden, he was chosen pastor of the passion was returned, and to gratify his mistress, Protestant church at Caen, where he became very B. wrote Il Filocopo, a prose-romance, and after popular. In 1629, he gained great reputation by his wards La Teseide, the first attempt at romantic victory, in a public discussion of several days' epic poetry, and writien in ottava rima, of which duration, over the famous Jesuit, Doctor Verin. B. may be considered the inventor. In 1342, he The meetings gained additional éclat from the returned to Florence, but in 1344, went back to occasional presence of the Viceroy of Normandy, Naples, where he wrote his Amorosa Fainmetta, Il the Duke of Longueville. In 1646, appeared his Filostrato, and L'Amorosa Visione, Here also he Sacred Geography, bearing the title of Phaleg and composed his famous Decancrone, to please Joanna, Canaan. llis Hierozoicon, or Scripture Zoology, the danghter and successor of King Robert. It to which he devoted many years of his life, appeared consists of 100 stories, ten of which are told each posthumously in 1675. In 1652, B. was invited to day by seven ladies and three gentlemen, who had Stockholm by Queen Christina, and went thither fied froin Florence during the frightful plague of accompanied by his friend Huet. The court-life, 1318, to a country villa, and who try to banish fear however, did not suit him, and his visit was by abandoning every inoment to delicious gaiety. short. He died suddenly, in 1667, while speaking It is impossible to exiggerate the literary merits of at a meeting of the Caen Academy of Antiquarie.s. the book. In abundance of incident especially, it is A complete edition of his works, with a life by almost inexhaustible, though many of the stories are Morin, was published at Leyden in 1712; and a taken from older collections of Contes et Fabliaux. new improved edition of the Hicrozoicon, his most It is, however, unfortunately steeped in impurity. valuable work, at Leipsic, in 3 vols. 4to (1793B. once inore returned to Florence about 1350. He 1796), by Rosenmüller. was now honoured with several diplomatic appoint

BO'CHNIA, a town of Austrian Galicia, capital of ments by his fellow-citizens, and subsequently even

a circle of the same name, and about 25 miles eastthought of entering into holy orders as a penance south-east of Cracow. The houses are built chiefly for the imunoral life he had previously led. From of wood. There are extensive mines of rock-silt in this artificial course of repentance he was wisely its vicinity, which employ upwards of 500 miners, dissuaded by Petrarch, who advised him to be and yield annually about 13,000 tons of salt. Pop. content with changing his conduct. In 1373, B. 5300. . was appointed Dantean professor at Florence; that

BÖCKH, Augustus, the most erudite classical is to say, he was to deliver elucidatory lectures on the Divina Commedia of the great poet, and antiquary of Germany at the present day, was born zealously devoted himself to the difficult task 24th November 1785, at Carlsrulle, and entered thus imposed on him; but his health failing, he the university of Halle in 1803. The prelections of resigned the office, and retired 10 his little property. His first publication was commentatio in Platonis

Wolf determined him to the science of philology. at Certaldo, where he died, December 21, 1375, 16 montlis after his friend Petrarch. Besides those qui vulgo fertur Minoem (Halle, 1806). In 1808, works we have already mentioned, B. wrote Origine, appeared his Græce Tragediæ Principum, Æschili, Vita e Costumi di Dante Alighieri, and Commento Sophoclix, Euripidis, uum ea que supersunt et genuina sopra la Commedia di Dante. This commentary on omnia sint. In 1809, he became ordinary professor the Divine Comedy extends only to the 17th canto at the university of Heidelberg; and in 1811, he of the Inferno. In Latin, B. wrote, beside the was translated to the chair of Rhetoric and Ancient Genealogia Dcorum, a work arranged in alpha- Literature, at Berlin, where he has taught for betical order, De Montibus, Silvis, Fortibus, Lacubus, upwards of forty years, forming many excellent Fluminibus, &c.; De Casibus Virorum et Foeminarum scholars, and extending his reputation through all Illustrium ; De Claris Julieribus, &c.

the learned circles of Europe. His conception of

philology as an organically constructed whole, which BOCCAGE, Marie Anne FIQUET nu, a French aims at nothing short of an intellectual reproduction poetess, was born at Rouen, 22d October 1710, and of antiquity, excited for a long time great opposition received her education in the monastery of the Assumption at Paris, where her poetic tendencies undoubtedly given an impetus to a deeper study of

among his professional contemporaries, but has early developed themselves, though only furtively. the old classical world. His lectures include not She first appeared as an anthoress in a small volume merely a grammatico-historical interpretation of the of poems, published in 1746 ; next as an imitator of ancient authors, but also archæology proper, the Milton in her Paradis Terrestre (1748); and in history of ancient literature, philosophis, polities, 1756, issued her most important work, La Colom- religion, and social life. The four great works of B.

The letters which she addressed to her which have, in fact, opened up new paths in the sister, Madame Duperron, while travelling throngh study of antiquity, are, Ist, his edition of Pindar England, Holland, and Italy, are the inost inter- (2 vols., Leip. 1811-1822), in which the metre and esting things which have fallen from her pen, rhythm of the poet, as well as his artistic skill, are During her life, she was excessively admired and investigated and discussed with profound knowledge bepraised, especially by Voltaire, Fontenelle, and of the subject. 2d, The Political Economy of Aiheus Clairant. She used to be described as Formâ Venus, (2 vols., Berlin, 1817), a work which remains unsurarte Minerva ! The complimentary poems addressed

passed for subtle research, surprising results, and to her would, if collected, fill many volumes. She clear exposition. It treats of the prices of goods, was elected member of the academies of Rome, rate of workmen's wages, rent of houses and land, Bologna, Padua, Lyon, and Rouen. She died 8th and other points of commercial economy, as well as August 1802.

Her poems fail now to explain the of the larger questions of the state income and reputation she once enjoyed, and dispose us to believe that her personal attractions must have by Sir George Cornewall Lewis

, under the title

expenditure. It has been translated into English given a charm to her verses.

of The Public Economy of Athens (Lond. 2d edit. BOCHART, SAMUEL, a learned Protestant divine, revised, 1842). 3d, Investigations concerning the was born of an ancient family at Rouen, in 1599. Weights, Coins, and Measures of Antiquity (Berl. He very early exhibited remarkable talent, chiefly 1838). 4th, Records of the Maritime Affairs of Attira philological. After studying at Paris, Sedan, and (Berl. 1840). The most important of his lesser works Saumur, visiting England in 1621, and finishing his are the Development of the Doctrines of Philolaus,


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