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the P'yihagorean, his edition of the Antigone of numbers, are found to subsist in the distances of Sophocles, and a Dissertation on the Silver Àlines of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn from their Laurion in Attica. B. has also the honour of having primaries. commenced, in 1824, the great work entitled Corpus

BO'DKIN, an instrument used by women of antiInscriptionum Græcurum, published at the expense quity to fasten up their hair behind. It was the of the Royal Academy of Berlin, and which, in 1867, method commonly adopted by the priests of Cybele, had reached its fourth volume. It is intended to contain every known Greek inscription, whether as well as by the female characters in Greek printed or in manuscript. In 1852, appeared his tragedy, the B. being highly ornamented. Silver Kescarches on the Cosmical System of Plato ; and in bodkins are still worn in a similar way by the pea

sant girls of Naples. The term B. is also applied to 1855, The Lunar Cycles of the Greeks.

a sharp-pointed instrument for piercing holes in BOʻCKLAND, BOCLAND, BOOKLAND, cloth, and it was at one time a very common name one of the original miodes of tenure of manor-land, for a dagger. also called charter-land or deed-land, which was held by a short and simple deed under certain rents

BO'DLE, an ancient copper coin in Scotland, in and free services. It was land that had been severed Jamieson, the B. is said to have been so called from

value the sixth of a penny sterling. According to by an act of government from the Folcland (q. v.),

à mint-master of the name of Bothwell. and converted into an estate of perpetual inheritance. It might belong to the church, to the king, or to a BODLEY, Sir THOMAS, the restorer of the subject; it might be alienable and divisible at the library originally established at Oxford by Humwill of the proprietor; it might be limited in its phrey, Duke of Gloucester, was born at Exeter, descent, without any power of alienation in the March 2, 1544. His family being forced to flee possessor. It was often granted for a single life or from England during the persecutions of Mary, for more lives than one, with remainder in perpetuity settled at Geneva, where B. studied languages to the church. It was forfeited for various delin- and divinity under the most distinguished professors quencies to the state.

of that city. On the accession of Elizabeth, he The estate of the higher nobility consisted chiefly returned to England, and completed his studies of bockland. Bishops and abbots night have B. of at Oxford, where he took the degree of M. A., their own, in addition to what they held in right of and was afterwards elected proctor. After the church. The Anglo-Saxon kings had private travelling some time abroad, he was employed estates of B., and these estates did not merge in the by the queen in diplomatic missions to Denmark, crown, but were devisable by will; gift, or sale, and France, and Holland, and returned to his favourite transmissible by inheritance, in the same manner as city, Oxford, in 1597, where he deroted himself to B. by a subject. (Kerr's Blackstone, vol. ii., p. 88; | literature, especially to the extension of the univerand see An Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of the sity library, now called the BODLEYAN (q. v.), Royal Prerogative in England, by John Allen, in B.'s honour. In collecting rare and valuable 1831, pp. 143-151 ; and Wňarton's Law Dictionary, books from many parts of Europe, B. expended a 2d ed., under Bockland.)

very large sum, and also left an estate for salaries BO'DEN-SEE. See CoxSTANCE, LAKE OF.

to officers, repair of the library, and purchase of

books. He was knighted by King James, and died BODE'S LAW, an arithmetical relation sub- at Oxford, January 28, 1012. B's autobiography, sisting between the distances of the planets from the extending to the year 1609, together with a collec

It may be thus stated : Write, in the first tion of his letters, has been published under the instance, a row of fours, and under these place a title Reliquiæ Bodleiance (Lond. 1703). geometrical series beginning with 3, and increasing

BODLEY'AN or BODLEI'AN LIBRARY, tlie by the ratio 2, putting the 3 under the second 4; and by addition we have the series 4, 7, 10, &c., which public library of Oxford university, restored by gives nearly the relative distances of the planets being the presentation of a large collection of

Sir Thomas Bodley (q. v.) in 1597, his first act from the sun.

valuable books, purchased on the continent at an expense of £10,000. Through his influence and noble example, the library was speedily enriched by

numerous other important contributions. Among 7

the earliest subsequent benefactors of the B. L., Thus, if 10 be taken as the distance of the earth which was opened in 1602, with a well-assorted from the sun, 4 will give that of Mercury, 7 that of collection of about 3000 volumes, were the Earl of Venus, and so forth. The actual relative distances Pembroke, who presented it with 250 volumes of are as follow, making 10 the distance of the earth— valuable Greek MSS. ; Sir Thomas Roe; Sir Kenelin Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars, Asteroids. Jupiter

. Satuan Unigus goure nificent donation of 1300 mss. in more than twenty Mercury. Venus. Earth. Mars. Asteroids. Jupiter. Saturn. Uranus. Neptune. Digby; and Archbishop Laud, who made it a may.

different languages. Upwards of 8000 volumes of Close as is the correspondence between the law and the library of the famous John Selden (q. v.) went the actual distances, no physical reason has been to the Bodleyan Library. General Fairfax pregiven to account for it, although there is little sented the library with many MSS., among which room for doubt that such exists. B. L., therefore, in was Roger Dodsworth's collection of 160 volumes on the present state of science, is termed empirical. English history. During the present century, the Kepler was the first to perceive the law, and Bode most important beq!ests have been the collections argued from it that a planet might be found between of Richard Gough, on British Topography and Saxon Mars and Jupiter, to fill up the gap that existed and Northern Literature; of Edmund Malone, the at the time in the series. The discovery of the editor of Shakspeare; and of Francis Douce ; also Asteroids has proved the correctness of this predic- a sum of £10,000, by the Rev. Robert Mason, the tion. The greatest deviation from the law is seen interest to be expended on books. By purchase, in the case of Neptune; but if we were acquainted the library acquired some magnificent collections with the principles from which the law proceeds, we of Oriental, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew books and might also be able to account for the discrepancy. MSS. The B. L. is particularly rich in biblical relations, thongh expressed in different codices, rabbinical literature, and materials for



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Britis'i history. By the Copyright Act, it is entitled perty of Thomas Sternhold, one of the translators to a copy of every book printed in the United of the Psalms of David into English metre. Kingdom. The number of volumes it possessed in nival, or low kind of festival, was formerly held near 1859 is estimated at 260,000, in addition to 22,000 Bodmin ; and a leper-hospital once existed in the in manuscript. The first catalogue of the printed vicinity. 1500 persons in B. are said to have died books was published by the first librarian, Dr. James, of the pestilence in 1351. Pop. (1851) 4327. It in 1600; the last in 1843, in three volumes, by Dr. returns two members to parliament. Bandinel, the eleventh who has held the office since

BODOʻNI, GIAMBATTISTA, a distinguished typethe institution of the library, and who still (1860) cutter and printer, born at Saluzzo, in Sardinia, continues to hold it. In the interval, several cata- 1740; went to Rome in 1758, where he secured an logues of various departments of the library were

engagement as compositor in the printing-office of published; anà a supplemental volume was added the Propaganda, and where he remained till the by Dr. Bandinel in 1850. By statutes drawn up for death of his patron, Abbate Ruggieri, in 1762, or, the government of the library by Sir Thomas Bodley, according to others, 1766. In 1768, he went to it was decreed that the vice-chancellor, the proctors, Parma, where he published several specimens of his and the regius professors of divinity, law, medicine, workmanship; among others-on occasion of the Hebrew, and Greek, should be visitors and curators; | marriage of the Prince of Piedmont with the Prina statute passed in 1856 added ' five more residents

cess Clotilde of France—the Epithalamia Exoticis to be elected by congregation for ten years, if con- Linguibus Reddita, which exhibited the alphabets of tinuing to reside, and to be re-eligible.' Members twenty-five languages. In 1789 the Duke of Parma of the university who have taken a degree are made him superintendent of his private printing admitted to the use of the library—a small addition establishment, and from this press he sent forth his on the matriculation fees, and an annual payment, edition of the Iliad (3 vols. 1808), dedicated to Nabeing charged for the privilege. Literary men, pro-poleon. It is a splendid specimen of typography ; perly recommended, are allowed to make extracts but the correctness of the text is by no means equal from the works in the library, which is open between to the beauty of the printing. His editions of Virgil Lady-Day and Michaelmas from nine o'clock in the (2 vols. 1793), and several Greek, Latin, Italian, and morning till four in the afternoon, and during the French classics, as also his Lord's Prayer in 155 lanother half of the year from ten to three. It is shut guages, are admired for their elegance. He died at during certain holidays, and for visitation purposes, Parma, 1813. in the aggregate about 34 days in the year, besides Sundays. Since 1856, a reading-room, open through of the several organs and functions. For Body

BODY, HUMAN, will be treated of under the names out the year from ten o'clock in the morning to ten

SNATCHING, see RESURRECTIONIST and ANATOMY ACT. in the evening, has been attached to the library.

BODY COLOUR, a term which, in oil-painting, is BO'DMANN (ancient Bodami Castrum), a village applied to the opaque colouring produced by certain of Baden at the mouth of the Stockach, on Lake modes of combining and mixing the pigments. Constance, with ruins of a castle, formerly the resi- When, in water-colour painting, pigments are laid on dence of the lieutenants (Botemann or Bodmanno, thickly, and mixed with white, to render them messenger or legatus) of the Carlovingian kings; opaque, instead of in tints and washes, the works hence the German name of the lake, Bodinan-see, are said to be executed in body colour. or Boden-see. Pop. 900.

BODY OF A CHURCH, more frequently called the BODMER, JOH. JAK., a German poet and littéra- Nave (q. v.), though this latter term is sometimes teur, was born at Greifensee, near Zurich, 19th July employed to include the Aisles (q. v.), is also known 1695. The study of the Greek and Latin writers, as the main or middle aisle. together with the English, French, and Italian masters, having convinced him of the poverty and

BOECE, or, more properly, BOYCE, HECTOR, a

distinguished Scottish historian, was born of an old tastelessness of existing German literature, he resolved to attempt a reformation. Accordingly, in family, about 1465, at Dundee. He completed his 1721, along with a few other young scholars,' he education at Montague College, in the university of commenced a critical periodical, entitled Discurse philosophy. Among other learned men whose friend

Paris, and in 1497, was appointed a professor of der Maler, in which the living poets were sharply ship he here acquired was Erasmus. About the behandled. After 1740, when B. published a treatise on The Wonderful in Poetry, a literary war broke out ginning of the 16th c., he was invited by Bishop between himn and Gottsched, which was long waged founded by him at Aberdeen. B. accepted the office

Elphinstone to preside over the university newly with great bitterness; yet it was not without fruits, after some natural hesitation, the yearly salary being inasmuch as it partly prepared the way for the

40 merks, or about £2, 4s. 6d. sterling. The value Augustan epoch of German literature. B. died at Zurich (in the university of which he had held the of money, however, it has to be remembered, was

immensely greater then than now, and the learned chair of history for 50 years), 20 January 1783. an author he was marked by inexhaustible activprincipal was at the same time made a canon of the

cathedral, and chaplain of St. Ninian. There is every ity, but his poems, dramas, and translations have no vigour or originality. His best known production is

reason to suppose that he discharged his duties with the Noachide (Zurich, 1752). He did greater service Latin, of the Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen.

high success. In 1522, he published his lives, in to literature by republishing the old German poets, This work, a great part of which is occupied with the Minnesingers, and a part of the Nibelungen, as

the life of his excellent patron, Bishop Elphinstone, also by his numerous critical writings.

was reprinted by the Bannatyne Club in 1825. “Five BOʻDMIN, a town in the middle of Cornwall, 26 years later, B. published the History of Scotland, miles north-north-west of Plymouth. It is situated on which his fame chiefly rests, a work which, though partly in a valley and partly on the side of a hill, proved to contain a large amount of fiction, is and consists principally of one street a niile long. worthy of the commendation it has received even on Its chief trade is in wool. It arose in a priory the score of style. The author was rewarded by founded in the 10th c., and was long an important the king with a pension of £50 Scots, until he should place, having, besides the priory, a cathedral and 13 be promoted to a benefice of 100 merks, which apchurches. Of the latter, only one now exists, built pears to have occurred in 1534. B. died two years in the 15th century. The priory was once the pro- l later.




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BEIME'RIA, a genus of plants of the natural a surface estimated at 1120 square miles. The order Urticeæ, included, until recently, in the genus plains enclosed on the south by Mounts Cithæren Urtica or Nettle (q. v.). The fibres of a number of and Parnes, on the west by Mount Helicon, on the species are used for making ropes, twine, nets, sewing- north by the slopes of Mount Parnassus and the thread, and cloth; and some of them appear likely to Opuntian Mountains, fall naturally into three diviacquire much economical and commercial import- sions—the basin of the lake Copais, now called

B. nivea (formerly, Urtica nivea) has been Topolias, that of the Asopus, and the coast-district recently ascertained to yield great part of the fibre on the Crissæan Sea. The principal stream was employed in China in the manufacture of the anciently called the Cephissus. It entered the country beautiful fabric nown as China-grass (q. v.) cloth. from Phocis at Chæronea; and in the spring, when It is a perennial herbaceous plant, with broad ovate it was swollen by innumerable torrents, almost conleaves, which are white and downy beneath, and is verted the Copaic plain into a lake. There were destitute of the stinging powers of the nettles. It is several natural channels for the outlet of the waters carefully cultivated by the Chinese, by whom it is that congregated in this plain, but they were not called Tchou Ma. It is propagated either by seeds sufficient to carry off the whole surplus, and the or by parting the roots. It loves shade and moisture. surrounding country was in consequence frequently Three crops are obtained in the season, new shoots deluged. In order to guard against this inundatiori, springing up after it has been cut. Great atten- | two tunnels had been cut in the rock for the distion is bestowed upon the preparation of the fibre; charge of the water. One of these tunnels, which the stems are sometimes tied in little sheaves, and carried the water to Upper Larymna—where it instead of being steeped, are placed on the roof emerged in a natural outlet after a subterraneous of a house, to be moistened by dew, and dried course of nearly four miles, whence it flowed above by the sun, but are carefully preserved from rain, ground a mile and a half to the sea - was no which would blacken them; and in rainy weather, less than four miles in length, with about twenty they are placed under cover in a current of air. vertical shafts let down into it, some of which were Another plan is to steep the separated fibres for from 100 to 150 feet deep. The other tunnel, which steeped in water containing the ashes of mulberry- much shorter, but still an extensive and striking wood. A patent was obtained in Britain, in 1849, work. The date of these gigantic engineering for the preparation of this fibre, by boiling the undertakings is not precisely known, but they

alkaline solution, after previously are generally attributed to the Minyæ of Orchoõteeping them for 24 hours in water of the tempera- menus. B. was in ancient times very productive ture of 90° F., then thoroughly washing with pure of marble, potters' earth, and iron, besides aboundwater, and drying in a current of high-pressure ing in corn and fruits; and it was also particularly steam. It seems now to be ascertained that this celebrated for flute-leeds. The earliest inhabitants is the same plant which Dr. Roxburgh strongly belonged to different races, the two most powerful recommended to attention about the beginning of of which were the Minyæ and Cadmeans the 19th c., under the name of Urtica tenacissima, Cadmeones; but were at an early dite (about 60 and of which the Court of Directors of the East years after the Trojan war, according to Thucydides) India Company, in 1816, declared the fibre to be in part dislodged by the Baotians, an Aolian people 'stronger than Russian hemp of the best description,' who were driven from Thessaly, and in part incorand to have been brought to a thread, preferable to porated with them. The Bæotians excelled as the best material in Europe for Brussels lace.' It cultivators of the soil, and were gallant soldiers may well be regarded as curious that, after this, both on foot and horseback; but they were rude, it was lost sight of for a considerable time, although unsociable, and took little part in the gradual the commendation bestowed upon it is found not to refinement of manners and intellectual development have been exaggerated. The plant grows naturally, of the rest of Greece, so that the name became and is cultivated not only in China, but in Sumatra, proverbial for illiterate dulness. This was usually Siam, Burmah, Assam, and other parts of the East. ascribed to their thick damp atmosphere. Yet The fibre is called Caloee in Sumatra, Ramee by there have not been wanting amongst them emithe Malays, and Rheea in Assam.-B. candicans nent generals, as Epaminondas; anil poets and and B. utilis, from which a fine silky fibre is historians, as lesiod, Pindar, Corinna, Plutarch, &c. obtained in Java, are either varieties of this or The greater cities, of which the number was about nearly allied species.-B. frutescens is another fourteen, Thebes, Haliartus, Thespiæ, &c., with their important species, common in Nepaul, Sikkim, and territories, formed the Bæotian League. At the other parts of the Himalaya, to an elevation of 3000 head of this was an archon, and next to him a feet above the sea. It is not cultivated, but often council, which was composed of four persons, and overruns abandoned fields. It grows to a height had its head-quarters in Thebes. The executive of 6 or 8 feet, and varies from the thickness of a authority was intrusted to Bæotarchs, who were quill to that of the thumb. The leaves are serrated, elected in popular assemblies of the separate states, dark-green above, silvery-white below, not stinging and could only hold office for one year. Of this The plant is cut down for use when the seed is League, a shadow still remained down to the times formed, the bark is then peeled off, dried in the sun of the empire; but after the battle of Chæronea, for a few days, boiled with wood-ashes for four in which Philip established the Macedonian throne or five hours, and beaten with a mallet to separate on the ruins of Grecian liberty, the political importthe fibres, which are called Pooah or Poee, and also ance of the country declined so rapidly, that about Kienki or Yenki. When properly prepared, the | 30 B. c. only two citics, Tanagra and Thespiæ, were fibre is quite equal to the best European flax.- of any consideration.—Along with Attica, B. now B. cylindrica and Urtica gracilis of the Middle States forms one of the ‘nomarchies’ of the kingdom of might prove substitutes for the tropical B. See Rep. Greece. of Com. of A. 1865-67.

BOERHAAVE, HERMANN, the most celebrated BEOT'IA, one of the ancient political divisions physician of the 18th c., was born at Voorhout, near of Greece, was bounded on the N. and N. W. by Leyden, December 13, 1668. In 1682, he went to Locris and Phocis, on the E. by the Eubean Leyden, with the intention of becoming a clergyman, Channel, on the S. by Attica and Megaris, and į and there studied Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Chaldee,

the W by the Corinthian Guf. B. had / history, ecclesiastical and secular, and mathematics.



In 1689, B. was made doctor of philosophy, and in most friendly towards them to perform all kinds 1690 began the study of medicine, reading carefully of field-labour for nothing; and not only this, but Hippocrates among the ancients, and Sydenham they also compel them to find their own impleamong the moderns.

Though mainly self-educated ments of labour and their own food. They steal in medicine---is in chemistry and botany—he gained domestic servants from the more hostile tribes in his doctor's degree at Harderwyck, 1693, and the most cowardly and cold-blooded way imaginreturned to Leyden, where, in 1701, having aban- able. The plan of operation is thus described by doned theology, he was appointed lecturer on the Dr. Livingstone: 'One or two friendly tribes are theory of medicine, and in his inaugural lecture forced to accompany a party of mounted Boers, and recommended to the students the ancient method these expeditions can be got up only in the winter, of Hippocrates in medicine ; but in 1703 his views when horses may be used without danger of being had become greatly enlarged. He saw the neces- lost by disease. When they reach the tribe to be sity of a-priori speculations, as well as of the attacked, the friendly natives are ranged in front, to Hippocratic method of simple observation, and elabo- form, as they say, a shield; "the Boers then coolly rated various mechanical and chemical hypotheses fire over their heads, till the devoted people flee, and to explain the diseases of the body, especially in the leave cattle, wives, and children to the captors. case of the fluids. In 1709, he was elected professor This was done in nine cases during my residence in of medicine and botany in the place of Hotton. the interior, and on no occasion was a drop of Boer's About this time, he published the two works on blood shed. And yet these B. proudly boast themwhich his great fame chiefly rests: Institutiones selves Christian! They have an immense contempt Medicæ in Usus Annuc Exercitationis Domesticos for the ignorance of the natives, and told Dr. Living(Leyd. 1708), and Aphorismi de Cognoscendis et stone that he might as well teach baboons as Africans. Curandis Morbis, in Usum Doctrince Medicine They, however, declined a test which the missionary (Leyd. 1709), both of which went through numerous proposed—viz., to be examined whether they or his editions, and were translated into various European native attendants could read best. In his opinion, languages, and also into Arabic. In the first work they are quite as degraded as the blacks whom they

-a model of comprehensive and methodical learn- despise. ing—he gives a complete outline of his system, BOËTHIUS, A NICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS (to including a history of the art of medicine, an which a few MSS. add Torquatus), a Roman statesaccount of the preliminary knowledge necessary to man and philosopher, was born between 470 and 475 a physician, and a description of the parts and A, D. The family to which he belonged had been functions of the body, the signs of health and dis- distinguished both for its wealth and dignity for two ease, &c. ; in the second, he gives a classification of centuries. His own father held the office of consul, diseases, with their causes, modes of treatment, &c. but dying while B. was still a boy, the latter was B. also rendered important services to botany. One brought up under the care of Festus, Symmachus, of his best lectures is that delivered on his resigna- and other honourable Romans. He studied with tion of the office of rector of the university, De sincere enthusiasm philosophy, mathematics, and Comparando Certo in Physicis. To combine practice poetry, translated and elucidated with laborious with theory, he caused a hospital to be opened, care the writings of Aristotle, and of the old mathiewhere he gave clinical instructions to his pupils. maticians Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemæus, and Though so industrious in his own profession, he others; but the story of his eighteen years' stay at undertook, in 1718, after Lemort's death, the pro- Athens is entirely unhistorical. B. soon attracted fessorship of chemistry, and published in 1724 his notice; he became a patrician before the usual Elementa Chemiæ, a work which did much to render age, a consul in 510, and also princeps senatus. this s«ience clear and intelligible; and although now Having, moreover, gained the esteem and confientirely superseded by more advanced researches, dence of Theodoric, king of the Goths, who had one that will always occupy a high place in the fixed the seat of his government at Rome in the history of chemistry. His fame had meanwhile year 500, he was appointed by that monarch rapidly increased. Patients from all parts of Europe magister officiorum in his court.

His influence was came to consult him. Peter the Great of Russia invariably exercised for the good of Italy, and visited him; and it is even said that a Chinese his countrymen owed it to him that the Gothic mandarin sent him a letter, addressed · HERR BOER- rule was so little oppressive. His good-fortune HAAVE, celebrated physician, Europe. He was a culminated in the prosperity of his two sons, member of most of the learned academies of the who were made consuls in 522. But liis bold day. He died September 23, 1738, having realised uprightness of conduct, springing from what seem to from his profession a fortune of two millions of have been the essential characteristics of the manflorins.-Burton, Account of the Life and Writings viz., a strong faith in the truth of his philosophic of B. (2 vols., Lond. 1743); Jolinson, Life of B. ethics, and a courage to regulate his official conduct (Lond. 1834).

by them-at last brought down upon his head the BOERHAAVIA. See NYCTAGINACEÆ, .

unscrupulous vengeance of those whoin he had

checked in their oppressions, and provoked by his BO'ERS (Ger. agriculturists, farmers), the name virtues. He was accused of treasonable desigris applied to the Dutch colonists of the Cape of Good against Theodoric; and the king, having become Hope who are engaged in agriculture and the care despondent and mistrustful in his old age, was of cattle. The B., generally, according to Dr. Living- induced to listen to the charges. B. was stripped of stone, are a sober, industrious, and most hospitable his dignities, his property was confiscated, and he body of peasantry Very different, however, are himself

, after having been imprisoned for some time certain of their numbers who have fled from English at Pavia, was executed in 524 or 526 ; according to law, on various pretexts, and formed themselves into one account, with circumstances of horrible cruelty. a kind of repubiic in the Cashan Mountains. Coming During his imprisonment, B. wrote his famous De 'with the prestige of white men and deliverers Consolatione Philosophire, divided into 5 books, and from the cruelty of Kaffir chiefs, they were received composed in the form of dialogue, in which B. himby the Betjuans giadly, who, however, soon found self holds a conversation with Philosophy, who shews out that their new friends were much less desirable him the mutability of all earthly fortune, and the as neighbours than their old enemies. The B. insecurity of everything save virtue. The work is force eren those tribes of the Betjuans who are composed in a style which happily imitates the best




models of the Augustan age, and the frequent frag- / upon its surface. It was not the least remarkable ments of poetry which are interspersed throughout triumph of the genius of Stephenson, to extend the the dialogue are distinguished by their truthfulness same principle to the support of the railway. Tradiof feeling and metrical accuracy. The Consolatio is tion reports that at the battle of Solway, in 1542, a piously theistic in its language, but affords no indica- fugitive troop of horse plunged into the moss, which tion that B. was a Christian; and if the doctrinal instantly closed upon them; and in the end of the treatises ascribed to him are, as the acutest criticism 18th c., this tradition was confirmed by the discovery, maintains, not genuine, we must class him in religion made in peat-digging, of a man and horse in comrather with Marcus Aurelius than with his alleged plete armour. friend, St. Benedict. He was the last Roman writer One of the remarkable phenomena of peat-bogs of any mark who understood the Greek language is the frequent presence of roots and fallen trunkis and literature. During the middle ages, he was of trees, in a good state of preservation, many feet regarded with profound reverence, as the Augustine below the surface. From the black bog-oak of of philosophy, but on the introduction of the Aristo- Ireland, various small fancy articles are manufactelian metaphysics in the 13th c., his reputation tured. The circunstance of trees being found gradually sank. The first edition of B.'s entire imbedded in bogs, leads to the conclusion that in works appeared at Venice, 1491—1492 ; a more cor- many instances these morasses originated in the rect one at Basel, 1570. The oldest edition of the decay or partial destruction of ancient forests. This Consolatio is that published at Nürnberg, 1473, but subject, however, along with all that relates to the many manuscript translations into various languages origin and nature of bogs, will be treated in the had appeared long before the invention of printing. article Peat. It may be proper here to mention Among these may be mentioned that by King Alfred that there is a popular division of bogs into two into Anglo-Saxon.

classes-Red Bogs and Black Bogs; the decomposiBOG, land covered with peat, the spongy texture tion of the vegetable matter in the former being of which containing water, converts it into a kind less perfect, and the substance, consequently, more of quagmire. The term PEAT-BOG is sometimes fibrous and light than in the latter. There is employed as more perfectly distinctive of the true indeed no precise line of distinction, and all interbog from every other kind of swamp or morass; the mediate conditions occur. The most extensive bogs term Peat-Moss is also sometimes employed, par- are red bogs, and they are said to corer 1,500,000 ticularly in Scotland, and even simply Moss. The acres in Ireland. Black bogs, although comparaword Bog is of Irish origin, being from a Gael. root, tively of small extent, are more numerous, partisignifying a bobbing, quaking motion.

cularly in elevated districts, for which reason they Bogs of great extent exist in some of the northern are sometimes called mountain bogs. The depth of parts of the world. A very considerable part of the red bogs is usually much greater than that of black surface of Ireland is occupied with them. The Bog bogs. of Allen (see ALLEN, BOG OF) is the most extensive The conversion of bogs into good pasture or in the British Islands, although its continuity is not arable land, is a subject of national importance. altogether unbroken, strips of arable land intersect. There can be no doubt that much of the land now ing it here and there. The Solway Moss (q. v.), occupied by bog is capable of being rendered very on the western borders of England and Scotland, productive, whilst the effects of extensive bogs upon is about seven miles in circumference. Chatmoss the climate are always injurious. The reclaiming (q. v.), in Lancashire, famous for the engineering of shallow mountain bogs is comparatively easy, and difficulties which it presented to the formation of in some cases it is effected by a very simple and the first great English railway, is twelve square inexpensive drainage, and by throwing them at miles in extent. The swamps of the east of England once under cultivation in a manner analogous to are in general not peat-bogs, but consist chiefly of that known in Ireland as the lazy-bed method of soft mud or silt.

planting potatoes--the soil upon which the bog The general surface of a bog is always nearly level, rests being partially digged up and thrown over but it is usually varied with rushy tissocks rising its surface. Great difficulties, however, attend the above the rest, and having a rather firmer soil. By reclaiming of red bogs. It has unfortunately the continued growth of peat, the surface of a bog happened, particularly in Ireland, that the tenures is gradually elevated; that of Chatmoss, for example, of land, and the want of capital on the part of the rises above the level of the surrounding country, owners of estates, have formed the most insuperable having a gradual slope of thirty or forty feet from of all obstacles to improvements of this kind, which, the centre to the solid land on all sides. In rainy however, have been carried on to no inconsiderable weather, it sensibly swells, the spongy mass imbibing extent since the middle of the 18th c., and have water, whilst the mosses and other growing plants in general proved highly remunerative. A chief on the surface prevent evaporation. Occasionally, difficulty, in some cases, is caused by the low situathe quantity of water becoming excessive, a bog tion of the bog, and the want of fall for drainage. bursts, and pours a terrible deluge down the course Another great difficulty is presented by the spongy of a stream, causing great devastation, not only substance of red boys being extremely retentive of by the force of its torrent, but by the enormous water, so that a deep ditch only drains a very narrow quantities of peat which it deposits upon meadows strip on each side of it. A difficulty has been also and cultivated fields, as has recently happened in found in disposing of the peat, where a good soil some memorable instances in Ireland. The depth being known to exist below, it has been attempted of a bog is sometimes more than forty feet. The to reclaim land by removing the peat instead of spongy mass of which it is formed shakes on the draining it and converting its own surface into soil. least pressure.

Sometimes it is impossible to tra- To some extent, in such cases, the peat is advantageverse it; in other cases, it is possible only for those ously disposed of for fuel, or to be used as a species who are well accustomed to it, a false step being a of manure for other soils; but the demand for these plunge into a quagmire, in which a man sinks as purposes is often insufficient for any other than a in a quicksand. Safety is sometimes insured by very slow process of improvement in an extensive 'pattens '-boards fastened upon the soles of the bog. The peat is therefore, sometimes, by various féetma method which Mr. Roscoe of Liverpool, in means, floated off, as in the long-continued operahis extensive operations for reclaiming land from tions at Blair-Drummond, on the banks of the Forth, Chatmoss, employed also to enable horses to work the results of which have for many years formed á

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