« PrécédentContinuer »
BOGAN-BOG IRON ORE.
peculiar feature on the shores and in the bays of the merits. B., though he wrote much afterwards, never upper part of the Firth of Forth. But when a equalled his first performance. He died in January similar method was more recently introduced in an 1803. extensive moss in the low lands of Renfrewshire,
BO'GEN, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Lower the Clyde trustees interposed to prevent it, in the Bavaria, situated on the left bank of the Danube, interests of the navigation of the river. A portion about six miles east of Straubing. It has extensive of the peat, taken from the upper surface, is not breweries, but is chiefly celebrated for its chapel, unfrequently burned in heaps upon the spot, the still a place of pilgrimage, built on a neighbouring ashes becoming a manure, and assisting in the forma- height. Here, according to tradition, a hollow stone tion of a soil.
image of the Virgin floated up by the river, remained Of course, the first essential in the reclaiming of stationary; and its miraculous arrival had the effect bogs is drainage. The method of effecting this of converting a notorious robber-chief, the ruins oi must be varied according to circumstances; but whose castle now enclose the church. Innumerable very frequently, after a general outlet with suffi- pilgrims flocked to the image, including, at various cient fall has been secured, wide open drains are times, the German emperors, and the monks grew cut, by which the bog is divided into strips, which very wealthy on their offerings. Pop. 1200. again are traversed and subdivided by smaller drains. When these drains þegin to serve their purpose, in history as president of the far-famed synod of
BOGERMANN, JOHANN, who occupies a place the surface of the bog sinks, and their is reduced ; they are then often deepened, and Dort, was born in 1576, at the village of Oplewert, in
Friesland. He took a violent part in the religious at last a permanent system of covered drains emptying themselves into open ditches is thus controversies which inflamed, with unwontedofire, formed, and fits the land for all the purposes of His hatred of Arminianism extended itself (as theo
the Dutch mind at the beginning of the 17th century. agriculture. It is, however, often ploughed before this state of things is attained, the plough-horses logical hatred generally does) to the persons who being shod with the pattens already mentioned, and upheld it, and his zeal was on various occasions socks and coulters of unusual sharpness being Had the misfortune to differ in opinion from him.
gratified by securing the punishment of those who employed for the cutting of the bog. implements have also been devised for cutting the He translated and recommended Beza's book on the
Capital Punishment of Heretics; and about the year moss, to facilitate cultivation. Lime, calcareous şand, clay, and other manures are applied, accord- 1614, ventured to assail the great Grotius in a poleming to circumstances, to promote the conversion of ical treatise, which, along with most of the angry the peat into useful soil. Sometimes the first crop 1618, B. was elected president of the synod of Dort;
literature of the period, has properly perished. In taken from the ploughed bog is a crop of oats; 1618, B. was elected president of the synod of Dort; sometimes it is found preferable to begin with rape, satisfaction to the Frieslanders who had delegated
but his conduct there does not seem to have given turnip, or the like. In some places in the North of Ireland, tiorin grass (see BENT Grass) has been him, for he was accused on his return of having sown on bogs in process of being reclaimed and exceeded his instructions. For one thing, however, enormous crops have been obtained.—See WASTE Bible in the vernacular. Four other persons were
B. deserves great credit, his translation of the
associated with him in the task, but the translation BO'GAN, or NEW-YEAR RIVER, the Allan of the Old Testament is chiefly B.'s work, and is Water of Oxley, an interior stream of East Australia, characterised by taste, fidelity, and purity of joins the Darling, after a generally north-west course language. It is still used in the Dutch churches. of more than 300 miles, about lat. 30' S., and long. B. died in 1633, at Franeker, in the university of 146° E. Its source is in the Harvey Range, about which he was primarius professor of livinity. lat. 33° S., and long. 148° 30' E.
BOGIIA'Z KIE'UI, KE’WEE, or KOI, a village BOG BUTTER, a very peculiar mineral sub- of Asia Minor, pashalic of Sivas, 88 miles S. W. of stance, which is found in some of the bogs of Ireland. Amasia. In its vicinity are the ruins of a magnificent It is evidently of vegetable origin, and has been temple, supposed to be that of Jupiter which Strabo formed by the decomposition of the peat amidst mentions (lib. xii.). A perfect ground-plan of the which it is found. In composition and qualities it building still remains; the length outside is 219 feet, exhibits a general agreement with bitumen, asphalt, the breadth, 140 feet, while the cella measures 87 auber, and the other mineral resins; all of which are feet by 65.' There are several other ruins which not improbably supposed to resemble it also in their seem to identify B. K. as the ancient Tavium. origin, although perhaps it is the most recent of them all. It contains about 74 per cent. of carbon ; its
BOG IRON ORE, a mineral of very variable remaining constituents being oxygen and hydrogen composition, but regarded as consisting essentially of in nearly equal proportions. In colour and consist- peroxide of iron and water; the peroxide of iron ency, it much resembles butter, and at 124° F. it often amounts to about 60 per cent., the water to becomes liquid. It is not soluble in water, but is about 20. Phosphoric acid is usually present in
quantities varying from 2 to 11 per cent. Silicic acid, readily dissolved by alcohol.
alumina, oxide of manganese, and other substances, BOGDANOVITCH, HIPPOLYTUS Theonoro- which seem accidentally present, make up the rest. VITCH, a distinguished Russian poet of the 18th c., B. I. 0. occurs chiefly in alluvial soils, in bogs, was born at Perevolotchua, Little Russia, in Decem- meadows, lakes, &c. It is of a brown, yellowish
His fame rests entirely upon his poem brown, or blackish-brown colour. Some of its varieDushenka, published in 1775. The story of Psyche ties are earthy and friable, formed of dull dusty forms the groundwork of the poem, which is charac- particles; some are in masses of an earthy fracture, terised by a refined and graceful style, and vivacious often vesicular ; and some more compact, with playfulness of language. Its publication made him conchoidal fracture. It is abundant in some of the at once famous, as well as obtained for him the northern and western islands of Scotland, and in the high favour of the court; but there can be no doubt northern countries of Europe generally; also in that the popularity of the work was as much owing North America. When smelted, it yields good iron. to the adventitious circumstances in which it was See Iron, ORES OF. From what source the iron in produced-nothing of the kind having been pre- B. I. O. is derived, has often been a subject of disviously attempted in Russia-as to its intrinsic / cussion; but Ehrenberg appears to have determined
BOG MOSS-BOG SPAVIN.
that it proceeds from the shields of animalcules, and crops of wheat and barley, as also generally of le regards the mineral itself as composed of incal- the leguminous plants cultivated in Europe; while, culable multitudes of these shields. He found in favoured as it is with two rainy seasons in a year, it the marshes about Berlin a substance of a deep-ochre is as rich in pasture as in grain, affording ample yellow passing into red, which covered the bottom sustenance to numerous flocks of sheep and herds of of the ditches, and which, when it had become dry cattle. B. was founded in 1538, consisting then of after the evaporation of the water, appeared exactly 12 houses in honour of the 12 apostles. In 1800, it like oxide of iron; but which under the microscope contained 21,464 inhabitants; and in 1821, 30,000; was found to consist of slender articulated threads, and now it is supposed to have at least 40,000. Proformed of the partly silicious and partly ferruginous spectively, also, the surrounding mountains promise, shields of Gaillonella ferruginea.
one day, to give to industry many valuable minerals, BOG MOSS. See SPHAGNUM.
such as iron, coal, and salt. The last two, in fact, BO'GNOR BEDS. See LONDON CLAY.
have already been obtained to some extent. Mines BOGODOUKHOʻV, or BOHODUKHO'V, a for- to exist within the same district.
of emeralds, gold, silver, and copper are also said
B. is regularly tified town of Russia, in the government of Kharkov, and handsomely built. It has 4 public squares and 29 miles north-west of the city of that name. It 5 elegant bridges over 2 small ‘rivulets-the San is situated on the Merle--the chief industry of its Francisco and the San Augustin. Like every place population, which amounts to about 10,000, consist in Spanish America, it teems with churches and ing in leather-dressing and boot-making. B. has also convents—two of the latter overhanging the city a considerable trade in cattle and hides.
on twin hill-tops at a height of 2500 feet above the BOGOMI'LI, a religious sect of the 12th c., general level. B. likewise possesses, in addition to whose chief seat was in Thrace. They resembled official buildings, a mint, a theatre, a university, and the Paulicians and Kathari. Their name, which is spacious barracks. A short way from the city, the derived from the Bulgarian Bog, 'Lord,' and milui, rivulets above mentioned join a stream of the same have mercy,' refers to the frequency of their name as the town itself.—The river Bogota, otherwise prayers. The basis of their creed was as follows: called the Funcha, is in itself an object of physical Out of the eternal Divine Essence or Being sprang interest. It is the single outlet of the waters of the two principles-Satanael and Logos; the former, at table-land, which, botli from geological features and first good, afterwards rebelled, and created in opposi- from aboriginal traditions, appears to have once been tion to the original spiritual universe a world of a land-locked basin, somewhat like the still loftier matter and human beings. These human beings, and larger plateau of Titicaca. Be this as it may, however, received from the Supreme Father a life- the river B. has found, if it has not forced, a passpirit; but this was kept in slavery by Satanael until sage for itself towards the Magdalena. At the the Logos or Christ came down from heaven, and cataract of Tequendaina the waters plunge over a preassuming a phantom body, broke the power of the cipice 650 feet high ; and the clouds of spray clothe evil spirit, who was henceforth called only Satan. the adjacent grounds in the most luxurious vegeThe B. like all similar sects, practised a severe tation. About 20 miles from this cataract, known asceticism, despised images, and rejected the sacra- as the Fall of Tequendama, stands the natural bridge
Instead of baptism, they placed their hands of Icononzo, formed as if by the fortuitous jamming arid an apocryphal gospel of St. John on the head of of rocks from the opposite sides of the cleft. the neophyte, singing at the same time the Lord's Between the crests and the foot of this fearful Prayer, which they repeated seven times during the torrent, there exists a difference of climate, which is day, and five times during the night. They looked obviously disproportioned to the mere difference of on the Lord's Supper as a sacrifice offered to the elevation; and the excess may perhaps be ascribed, demons.
They accepted the whole of the New in conjunction with the ceaseless moisture, to the Testament, but of the Old Testament only the wall-like precipice behind, which, besides intercepting Psalms and Propliets, which they interpreted alle- the winds, increases by reflection the heat of the gorically. In 1118, that vehement hater of heretics, sun. Alexius Cominenus, burned their leader Basilius, and
BOGOUSLAV, or BOGUSLAW,
of imprisoned the rest. Nevertheless, the B. continued to exist in the neighbourhood of Philippopolis down Russia, in the government of Kiew, about 70 miles
south-south-east of the city of that name. It is to the 13th century.
situated on the Rossa, and has a population of BOGOTA', more fully SANTA FE DE BOGOTA, 6000, chiefly Jews. in South America, the capital at present of New Granada, but lately of Colombia as a whole. It BOG SPA'VIN. This singular name has been is situated within the limits of Cundinamarca, in applied to a lesion of the hock-joint of the horse, lat. 4° 6' N., and long. 78° 30' W., on a table-land, consisting in distension of the capsule enclosing which, at an elevation of 8694 feet above the sea, the joint. It usually arises suddenly from a sprain separates the basin of the Magdalena from that of in action. It most commonly affects young horses the Orinoco. Independently of its political import- with defective hocks, and is associated with other ance, B. occupies a commanding position in relation indications of weakness of the injured joint.
It lies on the most convenient route Symptoms. As the immediate result of a violent between Quito and the Caribbean Sea; while, by sprain, the hock becomes swollen, hot, and tender, navigable affluents of the Orinoco and the Magdalena, and there is considerable lameness. The acute distant respectively 37 and 55 miles, it enjoys a two- symptoms subside leadily, but a circumscribed fold access to tide-water. Its immediate vicinity, too, swelling remains towards the front, inner, and is favourable to the growth of a great city and the lower part of the joint. The swelling is soft, partly maintenance of a large population. The table-land disappears on pressure, ff the joint is moved; but on measures about 60 miles from north to south, and the horse standing firmly on its limbs, the projecabout 30 from east to west, being bounded on all tion is distinctly visible. At every recurring strain, sides by mountains which, though lofty enough to give lameness supervenes, but commonly passes off within shelter, are yet below the line of perpetual snow. a short time. If the B. S. has accidentally occurred This extensive plain--a temperate zone on the verge in a young horse with good hocks, it may never be of the equator with a singularly genial and salubrious attended with inconvenience, and the acute symptoms climate-is exceedingly fertile, yielding abundant mentioned do not relapse.
Treatment.—The treatment of B. S. consists in several fine valleys, the chief of which are those the application of stimulating embrocations, or mild of the Moldau and the Elbe. The country belongs blisters, in the early stage ; in severe cases, the to the upper basin of the Elbe, which rises in the golden ointment of iodine is the best application ; Riesengebirge range; and it is well watered by the but we can only obtain a reduction in the inflam- affluents of that river, the principal of which are the matory symptoms, and disappearance of the lame- Moldau--which has its source in the Böhmerwald,
The capsular ligament which is injured is never and which is navigable from Budweis to Melnik, again completely restored, and the horse is more or where it joins the Elbe, a distance of 148 miles-the less blemished for life. See SPAVIN.
Eger, Iser, Aupa, Metau, Biela, and Erlitz. B. has
no lakes. BOG-TROTTER, an appellation sometimes con
The climate of B. is cold in the mountainous temptuously given to the lower class of the Irish peasantry, has its origin in the ability acquired by regions, the higher peaks being covered with snow
yearin many of them of traversing the extensive bogs of
, where a stranger would find no secure footing, and
The mineral wealth ole, healthful. in the frequent use which they have made of this consisting of silver, tin, copper, lead, iron, cobalt, ability to escape from soldiers, officers of police, or lain 'clay, with several precious and ornamental
alum, sulphur, graphite, calamine, cinnabar, porceother pursuers.
stones, such as Bohemian garnet (Purope), rubies, BOGUE, Rev. David, the founder of the London sapphires, &c. Of coal, B. produces more than all Missionary Society, was a native of Berwickshire, the rest of the Austrian empire together; in 1855, it being born at Hallydown, February 1750.
yielded 35,000 tons of asphaltum. Mineral springs studying at the Edinburgh University, and obtaining are abundant, and those of Carlsbad, Marienbad, his license as a preacher in connection with the Eger-Franzenzbad, Teplitz, Elisenbad, &c., are celeChurch of Scotland, he, in 1771, went to London, brated places of resort. where he was for some time engaged in tuition. He
The soil of B. is generally fertile. More than oneafterwards accepted the charge of an independent balf of the area consists of arable land; nearly onechurch at Gosport, where he established a seminary eighth is laid out in meadows and gardens ; pastures for the education of students who purposed to be form about a twelfth : vineyards a very small porcome Independent ministers, an institution which tion; and forests cover nearly a third. Of wheat, had a great influence on the connection, as well B., in 1851, raised 9,620,000 imperial bushels--about when it had this object in view as afterwards, when
à seventh of the whole produce of the Austrian it became a school for the training of missionaries. empire; of rye, 23,368,000 bushels; and the proB. now conceived the idea of a grand missionary duce of barley and oats respectively was 13,273,000 scheme, which was ultimately realized in the London bushels, and 22,000,000 bushels--being, in the case Missionary Society. He also took an active part of rye, nearly one-fourtlı
, and of barley and oats, in the establishment of the British and Foreign more than one-sixth of all the produce in these Bible Society and the Religious Tract Society. kinds of grain of the Austrian dominions. Various From this time until his death, which took place kinds of game are found, and the breed of pheasants in October 1825, he devoted himself zealously to is celebrated. Horned cattle, sheep, goats, and the cause of missions. On his death, an extraordinary swine are reared extensively in some districts; and meeting of the London Missionary Society was con- in the south, geese form an important item in the vened, and resolutions passed expressive of its sense
resources of the country. of bereavement, and of the benefits which the de
In manufactures, B. holds a very high place ceased had conferred on the Society. B. was the among continental countries. The linen manufacauthor of An Essay on the Divine Authority of the ture, which is more extensive than that of all the New Testament, which has had a circulation only other Austrian provinces together, consists of second to that of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, having damask, cambric, lawn, and other five varieties, been translated into French, Italian, German, and in addition to the ordinary qualities of cloth. This Spanish ; also Discourses on the Millennium ; and in branch employs about 400,000 flax-spinners, more connection with Dr. James Bennet, a History of than 50,000 weavers, and
thousands of Dissenters, from the Revolution of 1688 to 1808.
Between 9000 and 10,000 are employed BOHEMIA (Ger. Bö' hmen), formerly one of the in cotton manufacture, the quantity of raw cotton kingdoms of Europe, now forming a part of the used in 1851 being about 150,000 cwt., and the Austrian Empire, is situated in lat. 48° 33'-51° 5' quantity of yarn and thread produced, about 100,000 N., and long. 12° -16° 46' E. It is bounded N. by cwt. The chief seat of the woollen manufacture Saxony and Prussian Silesia, E. by Prussia and is Reichenberg and its neighbourhood. Another Moravia, S. by Lower Austria, and W. by Bavaria. important branch of industry is the paper mannIt has an area of 19,822 square miles, and a popula- facture, carried on in 108 mills. The glass-works of tion, in 1867, of 5,149,186. It is divided into B. are celebrated, and very numerous and extenthirteen circles-viz., Prague, Leitmeritz, Jung- sive, affording employment to not less than 30,000 Bunzlau Jicin, Königgrätz Chrudim, Caslau, Tabor, persons. Beet-root sugar is manufactured extensively, Budweis, Piseli, Pilsen, Eger, and Saaz. It contains and there are hundreds of breweries and brandy 318 towns, 237 small market-towns, and 12,105 distilleries throughout the country, but they are villages. B. is surrounded on all sides by lofty mostly on a small scale. The manufacture of iron is mountain ranges, the principal of which are the considerable. In 1855 the value of the exports was Riesengebirge (part of the Sudetic chain) on the £3,385,783, and the value of the imports, £1,636,786. north-east, dividing B. from Prussia and Silesia, and the position of B. secures it a large transit trade. attaining, in the peak of the Schneekoppe, a Steam-packets ply on the Elbe and Moldau, and the height of 5275 feet; on the north-west, the Erzge- latter river is connected with the Danube by a birge, with a height, in some places, of more than horse-railway from Budweis to Linz. B. has good 4000 feet on the south-west the Böhmerwald, roads, but the only railways in the kingdom of any reaching, in its highest point, an elevation of consequence are those uniting the capital, Prague,
Offsets from these traverse the in with Vienna, Dresden, and the kingdom of Bavaria. terior of the country, which has an undulating Population, Religion, and Education.—The Czechs, surface, sloping generally to the centre. B. has a Slavonic race, form the bulk of the people. They
number 2,930,300, and dwell chiefly in the centre, time, especially under Rudolf II. (1576--1611), th and east of the country. The German population, arts and sciences were generally cultivated. Pragne amounting to 1,835,830, reside mainly on the out- I had two universities and sixteen schools, and the skirts, especially in the north-east. The few remain- Bohemian language had reached its highest point of ing are Jews. The vast majority of the population cultivation. It cannot, however, be said that the (4,599,400) belong to the Roman Catholic Church, literary works of this period display any great but other religions are tolerated; the number of originality of genius. Among the most noticeable Protestants only amounts to 166,000, and the num- is the Bohemian translation of the Bible, which was ber of Jews is 99,700. The Roman Catholics are finished in 15 years by 8 scholars, assembled by under the supervision of the Archbishop of Prague, John of Zerotin, at his castle of Kralic, in Moraria, and the three bishops of Leitmeritz, Königgrätz, and and was published 1579—1593. It is a model of Budweis. The monasteries and convents number pure and elegant Bohemian. between 70 and 80. Education is much more widely In December, 1774 an imperial decree was issued, diffused than in any of the other provinces of ordaining that the German language should be Austria. The total number of educational establish-employed by all teachers, lecturers, &c., in the ments in 1851, including 17 universities and superior upper schools. This harsh measure excited considerinstitutions devoted to literature, science, and art, able opposition; and several writers came forward was 72:24, attended by 768,029 pupils, and taught to vindicate the clains of the persecuted dialect, by a staff of 8107 teachers and professors, at an an- and to develop its powers; but their efforts were nual expense of £57,797.
attended with little success. History.—The Boii (q. v.), from whom B. derives A new and better era began in 1818, with the its name, settled in the country in the 2d c. B, C., discovery of valuable remains of old literature, and but were expelled by the Marcomanni about the the publication of edicts favourable to the use of the beginning of the Christian era. The victors them- Bohemian language in schools. Since that time, the selves soon gave place to others, and as early progress of the language, as a vehicle of literature as the 5th c. we find B. peopled by the and science has been rapid, and a love of the old Czechs, a Slavic race. In the latter , art of the dialect has been extended through all classes of 9th c. Swatopluk, the king of Moravia, subjugated society. In Bohemian poetry and belles-lettres, the Bohemia, and introduced Christianity. After his names of Czelakowsky, Kollar, Holly, Langer, and death, the dukes of Prague, who in 1061 had the Schneider, are distinguished. Among scientific title of king conferred on them, by the Emperor writers, mention may be made of Jungmann, Henry IV., ruled the country as a state in the Schafarik, Wenzel, Hanka, and Presl. In history anai German Empire until 1306, when the last of the archæology, the names of Palacky, Tomek, Schafarik, dynasty was assassinated.
and Wocel are worthy of notice. During the year From 1310 to 1437, B. was ruled by kings of the 1851, 22 Bohemian journals (of which seven were House of Luxenburg. In the time of Wenzel IV. entirely political) were established—11 in B., 5 in (Wenceslas), a reformation of religion took place Moravia, 4 in Hungary, and 2 in Vienna. Since 1831, under John Huss (q.v.) and Jerome of Prague (q.v.). a committee for the cultivation of Bohemian literaAfter the death of Wenzel IV., the imprudent ture has been connected with the Bohemiar. Museum measures adopted by the Emperor Sigismund ex- in Prague. Several important works, among them cited in B. a war of sixteen years' duration, which Schafarik's Slavonic Antiquities, and Jungmann's ended in making B. an elective kingdom. In 1458, | Large Lexicon, and his Literary History, have been the shrewd and able Protestant noble, George von published by aid of the committee. Podiebrad, ascended the throne.
The Bohemian language is one of the best dialects Ladislaus (1471-1516), was elected (1490) to the of the West-Slavonic; it is spoken not only in B., throne of Hungary, and removed the royal residence but also in Moravia, and aniong the Slowaks in to Ofen, where also his son and successor Lewis (1516 Hungary. Among its sister-dialects, it is distin-1526), resided. After his death in battle against guished by copiousness of root-words, great flexithe Turks at Mohacz (1526), B. and Hungary passed bility in combinations, precision, and into the hands of Ferdinand I. of Austria, who had grammatical structure; but, like all the Slavonic married Lewis's sister. Froni that time, the history and most modern dialects, it bas no specific form of B. merges in the history of Austria (9.v.).
for the passive voice of the verb. The orthography Bohemian Literature. - The Czechs of B. possess introduced by John Huss in the 15th c. is precise a literature older than that of any other people of and consistent with itself. Every letter of tlie the Slavonic stem. Its origin may be dated with Roman alphabet has its one distinct sound. Boliecertainty as early as the 19th century. Of the oldest mian prosody is distinguished from that of most periodmor hefore the time of John Huss, the re- European languages by the use of quantity instead formier-21 poetical and more than 50 prose works of accent, so that it can copy faithfully all the
Among the former, the remains of a ancient Greek and modern metres. No other modern collection of ballads, &c., made in the 13th c., ale language can translate the ancient classics so remarkable for their poetical merit. John Huss in readily, and yet so completely and forcibly, as the B., like Luther in Germany, began a new era in Bohemian. Its grammatical forms are complicated literature (1409—1526); but the impulse of his and difficult. example was far more important than his own BOHEMIAN BRE'THREN is the name of a writings. The literary remains of the Hussite sects in religious society which was first instituted in Prague the 15th c.-dogmatic, polemic, and ascetic works- | about the middle of the 15th century. It was origiare still numerous in the old libraries and archives nally composed of remnants of the Hussites. Dissaof B., though very many of them perished in the tisfied with the conduct of the Calixtines (q. v.), they flames the Jesuits kindled during the Thirty Years' betook themselves, in 1453, to the borders of Silesia War. Even so late as 1750, ihe Jesuit, Antony and Moravia, where they settled. Here they dwelt Kovias, boasted that he had burned 60,000 Bohemian in separate communities, and were distinguished by books. Of historical works of this period, some re- the name of Brothers of the Rule of Christ. Their mains have been edited by Palacky in his Scriptores adversaries often confounded them with the WalRerum Bohemnicarum, 1829.
denses and Picards, while, on account of their being The period 1526~-1620 is regarded by the Bohe- compelled during persecution to hide in caves and mians as their golden age of literature. In this solitary places, they were also called Cave-dwellers
(Grubenheimer). In spite of oppression, such was killed in battle, 1130.-B. III., grandson of the the constancy of their faith and purity of their former, was allowed to retain sovereignty only by morals, that they became profoundly respected, and the clemency of Saladin, and died 1201.-B. IV. their , numbers greatly increased. The chief pecu- (1233—1251) and B. V. (died 1275) were insignifiliarity of their creed was the denial of the ordinary cant princes; and with B. VI. the Christian dynasty Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation; but, in in Syria was brought to a close. truth, they rejected tradition generally, and pro- BÖHME, or BÖHM, Jacob, a German theosofessed to found their tenets only on the Bible. phist and mystic, was born of poor parents at Their ecclesiastical constitution and church-disci- Altseidenberg, near Görlitz, in Upper Lusatia, 1575, pline-of which the Lutheran reformers spoke and spent his boyhood in tending cattle. He received highly —was a close imitatiớn of that of the primitive no instruction till he was ten years of age; but even Cliristian communities. They even went the length then, the contemplation of earth and sky had so of practically denying anything to be secular; and, excited his naturally pious imagination, that he under the impression that religion should con- conceived himself inspired. He learned the trade sciously penetrate and characterise the entire life of a shoemaker, but continued to devote much of of men, they extended ecclesiastical authority over his time to meditation on divine things. the very details of domestic life. Their chief | 1612 was published his first book, called Aurora, functionaries were bishops, seniors and conseniors, or the Morning Redness. It contains revelations and presbyters or preachers, ædiles, and acolytes. meditations upon God, Man, and Nature; betokens Their first bishop was consecrated by a Waldensian a remarkable knowledge of Scripture, especially of bishop, though they never united themselves with the apocalyptical books ; as also a familiarity with the Bohemian Waldenses. It was against their the writings of the mystico-philosophic alchemists. principles to engage in war; and having, on several It was condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities Occasions, refused to take up arms, they were at of Görlitz ; but the persecutions to which its author last deprived of their religious privileges. The
was subjected, had not the effect of convincing result was, that, in 1548, about a thousand of the him of his errors. B.'s fundamental speculation is, Brethren removed to Poland and Prussia.
The that the forthcoming of the creation out of the contract which these exiles entered into with the divine unity—which is itself distinguishable into Polish reformers at Sandomir, 14th April 1570, la trinity-can be contemplated by mystic illuand, still more, the religio:is peace concluded by mination, and expressed in words. The object the Polish States in 1572, secured their toleration ; of his mystic contemplation, accordingly, is twobut subsequently, in consequence of the perse- fold: first, God himself apart from creation, or, to cutions of King Sigismund III., they united thein- use some of B.'s own synonyms, the groundless, selves more closely to the Protestants, though even the eternal one, the silent nothing, the temperaat the present day they retain something of their mentum ; and, secondly, the forthcoming of the old ecclesiastical constitution. The Brethren who creature out of God. This forthcoming of the crearemained in Bohemia and Moravia obtained a little tion, which is also an in-going of the silent nothing, freedom under the Emperor Maximilian II., and had is, according to B., the principle of negation, and their chief seat at Fulnek, in Moravia. In the 17th he calls it contrariety. * All things,' he says, c., a number removed into Hungary, but during the consist in Yes and No. The Yes is pure power and reign of Maria Theresa, were coerced into Catholi- life, the truth of God, or God himself. The No is cism. The Thirty Years' War, so disastrous to the reply to the Yes, or to the truth, and is indisthe Bohemian Protestants, entirely broke up the pensable to the revelation of the truth. So, then, societies of the B. B. ; but afterwards they united the silent nothing becomes something by entering again, though in secrecy. Their exodus about into duality ;' and so on into what most minds 1722 occasioned the formation, in Lusatia, of the will think utter unintelligibility. Numerous attacks United Brethren, or Herruhuters. See MORAVIAN from theologians disturbed B.'s last years, but he BRETHREN.
bore them all with great meekness. They were BOHEMOND I., eldest son of the Norman probably occasioned by a
on repentance conqueror of Apulia and Calabria, Robert Guiscard, which his friends had printed without his knowwas born about 1056, and during his youth distin- ledge; and so great was the interest exciteil, that guished himself in his father's war against the he was induced by the solicitations of certain cours Byzantine emperor, Alexis Comnenus (1081—1085). tiers and of his friends to visit Dresden for the After his father's death, he was excluded from the purpose of having his doctrines investigated. The throne of Apulia by his brother Roger, and only court applauded and protected him. On returning gained the principality of Tarentum after a long to Görlitz, he took ill, and died 27th November 1624.
He joined the crusade of 1092 with a large The first collection of his writings was published army-most of which he had won over from his by Betke (Amsterdam, 1675); the most complete in brother's service—and took a prominent part at 1730, at the same place; and the latest (1831-1846) the fight of Dorylæum, in Cilicia, in 1096, and at by Schiebler, at Leipsic. Next to Germany, Holland the capture of Antioch, 1098. While the other and Eugland are the countries in which B.'s works Crusaders advanced to storm Jerusalem, B. remained have been received with most favour. Sir Isaac in Antioch, where he established himself as prince. Newton studied him, and used to make extracts Being soon after besieged, the Christians, reduced from his works; William Law of Oxford published to extremities, came out, and gave the sultan battle, the best English translation of them in two quarto and entirely routed his forces, B. greatly distin- volumes, 176+; in 1697, Jane Lead, a fanatical guishing himself in the fight. He was afterwards ! disciple of B., founded a sect, called the Philamade prisoner by a Turkish emir, and remained delphists, for the exposition of his writings; and two years in captivity. Tancred, meanwhile, looked John Perdage, a physician, is also famed among after his interests in Antioch. B. returned to Europe his English interpreters. Abraham von Frankento collect troops, and after defeating Alexis in seve- berg, who died in 1652, published the earliest ral engagements, was acknowledged by that emperor biography of Böhme. In modern times, and in conas Prince of Antioch. He died in Apulia, 1111.- nection with speculative philosophy in Germany, His son, B. II., a minor at the death of his father, his views, which had come to be regarded as empty assumed the government of Antioch (after Tancred mysticism, have acquired fresh interest and impor:had been regent for some years) in 1126, and was ance. This arises from the kindred character of