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to a beam near the mizzen-mast. Sometimes, though perhaps more rugged route through Afghan. in foggy weather, as a warning to other ships, istan into the Punjab-a preference strengthened by the bell is struck to denote that the ship is on Alexander's direful experience in returning from the a starboard-tack; leaving the larboard-tack to be Indus along the coast. The surface is generally denoted by the beat of a drum. See WATCH ON | mountainous, more especially towards the north, the SHIPBOARD.
peak of Takkatu being said to be 11,000 feet high. BELLU'NO (the ancient Bellunum), a city of Even the bottoms of some of the valleys have an Venetia, Northern Italy, on the right bank of the elevation of 5700 feet: and the capital, Kelat, Piave, and 51 miles north of the city of Venice. It situated on the side of one of them, is 6000 feet is walled, is the seat of a bishop, has a handsome above the level of the sea. The rivers are inconsidercathedral, hospital, public library, fine aqueduct, &c. able, unless after heavy rains: even the largest of It has a trade in timber, and manufactories of silks, them, the Dusti, after a course of about 1000 miles, ats, leather, and earthenware. Pop. 10,000.
has been found to be only 20 inches deep, and 20 BEʼLOMANCY (Gr. belos, an arrow; manteia, |
in yards wide at its mouth. The pastures, as may be prophecy), a mode of divination by arrows, prac
I supposed, are poor, so that there are few cattle: sheep tised among the Arabs and other nations of the
and goats, however, are numerous. The dromedary east. A number of arrows being shot off with
this the ordinary beast of burden; and it is only in the
north-west, towards Kerman, that horses are bred. sentences written on labels attached to them, an indication of futurity is sought from the inscription
Wherever there is a sufficiency of water, the soil on the first arrow found. This is only one of many
is productive---the lowlands yielding rice, sugar, ways of divining by arrows. See AxINOMANCY.
cotton, indigo, and tobacco; and the higher grounds,
wheat, barley, madder, pulse, and European fruits. DIVINING-ROD,
In the sandy waste of Mekran, where Alexander's BELON, PIERRE, a celebrated French naturalist, army suffered its severest hardships and privations, was born in 1517 at Soulletière, in the department the only valuable product is the date. The minerals of Sarthe. He studied medicine at Paris, and subsequently travelled through Germany. In 1546 he
sal-ammoniac; and the manufactures are skins, left France, and visited Greece, Asia-Minor, Egypt, woollens. carpets and tent-covers of goat's and and Arabia. He returned in 1549, and in 1553 |
camel's hair, and rude fire-arms. B. has but one published the results of his travels, in a work seaport Sonmeanee near
ork seaport, Sonmeanee, near the frontier of Sinde. The entitled Observations on several Singular and Memor- trade is insignificant, being, such as it is, chiefly able Things discovered in Greece, esia, Judæa, monopolised by Hindus. The inhabitants, however. Egypt, Arabia, and other Foreign Countries. Charles
are, as a body, Mohammedans, of the Sunnite sect, IX. gave him apartments in the Château of and consequently opposed to their neighbours of Madrid, a sumptuous edifice which Francis 1. had Persia, who are Shiites. Most of the east provinces, constructed in the Bois de Boulogne. Here he which alone come into contact with British India. resided till his tragic death in April 1564. He was
are under the authority of the Khan of Kelat, who, murdered by robbers when gathering herbs at a with a revenue of about £30.000. maintains an late hour of the evening in the Bois de Boulogne. army of 3000 men. This petty sovereign having
Besides the valuable work already mentioned, B. acted treacherously towards the British during the published in 1551, A Natural History of Strange Afghan campaign of 1839, bis royal city was taken Sea-fish, with a correct Representation and Account of by storm in the same year. In 1840, it was abanthe Dolphin, and several others of that Species, which doned; but, in 1841, it was again captured, for contains, among other things, an exact description temporary occupation, by the British of the dolphin, and the earliest picture of a hippopotamus in any European book; in 1555, A Natural BELSHAM, THOMAS, one of the ablest exHistory of Birds, which is often quoted by Buffon, pounders of the Unitarian system of theology, was and acknowledged to be the most important treatise | born at Bedford in 1750. He was educated on ornithology of the 16th c.; in 1558, an elaborate in the principles of Calvinism, and for some years and interesting work on Arboriculture, in which he officiated as pastor of the dissenting congregation gave a list of the exotic trees which it would be and head of the theological academy at Daventry. useful to introduce into France. Besides these, B. These offices he resigned in 1789, on embracing wrote several other treatises of trees, herbs, birds, Unitarian views,' and shortly after received the and fishes.
charge of a new theological academy at Hackney, BE’LONE. See GARFISH.
which in a few years collapsed for want of funds. BELOOCHISTA'N, a country of southern Asia,
Before its extinction, he succeeded Dr. Priestley in
; his pastoral charge, and in 1805 removed to London bounded on the north by Afghanistan, on the E. by | Moultan and Sinde, on the $ by the Arabian Sea,
| as the successor of Dr. Disney, where he continued
a: till his death in 1829. Most of his works are and on the W. by a maritime dependency of Muscat
| controversial: his doctrine regarding the person in Arabia, and by the Persian province of Kerman.
of Christ represents the purely 'humanitarian' B. corresponds in general with the ancient Gedrosia,
i/view, as distinguished from the more nearly Arian excepting that the latter name appears to have
sentiments of men like Channing. He published extended to the Indus, while the former nowhere
| also a work on mental and moral philosophy, folreaches that river. B. stretches in N. lat. between
lowing Hartley, and a memoir of his predeces24° 50' and 30° 20', and in E. long. between 57° 40'.
sor, Theophilus Lindsey. His brother, William and 69° 18', giving, with a population of half a
|(b. 1752 ; d. 1827), was an active and voluminous million, an area of nearly 200,000 square miles, or
writer of history and political tracts on the side fully double that of Great Britain. Though it was
As of the Whigs. anciently a part of Persia, yet its modern relations connect it rather with India, more particularly BELSHAZZAR, or BELSA'ZAR, was the last since Sinde and Moultan have fallen under the king of the Chaldean dynasty in Babylon. The dominion of the English. In the bygone ages of the name occurs only in the Old Testament, where it overland invasions of Hindustan, the Gedrosian or indicates either the person who is called by HeroBeloochee Desert formed, as it were, a barrier for dotus Labynetos, or his son. For an account of the Lower Indus, constraining every assailant, from the circumstices attending his overthrow, see the Alexander downwards, to prefer the less barren, Book of aniel, Herodotus, &c.
BELT (signifying Girdle), the name given to thing. J. Grimm (Deutsche Mythologie, i, 208, 581) two otraits, the Great and the LITTLE B., which, identifies the Celtic Beal not only with the Slavonic with the Sound, connect the Baltic with the Catte- Belbog or Bjelbog (in which name the syllable bel or gat. The GREAT B., about 70 miles in length, bjel means white, and bog, god), but also with the and varying in breadth from 4 to more than 20 Scandinavian and Teutonic Balder (q. v.) or Paltar, miles, divides the Danish islands, Seeland and whose names appears under the form of Baldag (the Laaland, from Fünen and Langeland. The Little white or bright day), and who appears to have been B. divides the island of Fünen from Jütland. also extensively worshipped under the name of Phol It is equal in length to the Great B., but much or Pol. The universality all over Europe in heathen narrower. Its greatest breadth is about 10 miles, times of the worship of these personifications of the but it gradually narrows towards the north, until sun and of light through the kindling of fires and at the fort of Frederica it is less than a mile wide ; other rites, is testified by the yet surviving praotice thus the passage from the Cattegat into the Baltic of periodically lighting bonfires (q. v.). The more is here easily commanded. Both the Belts are marked turning-points of the seasons would natudangerous to navigation, on account of numerous rally determine the times of these festivals. The sandbanks and strong currents; and therefore, for two solstices at midwinter (see YULE) and midlarge ressels, the passage by the Sound (q. v.) is summer, and the beginning and end of summer, preferred.
would be among the chief seasons. The periods BE'LTEIN, BE'LTANE, BEI'LTINE, or of observance, which varied, no doubt, originally, BEALTAINN, the name of a heathen festival once more or less in different places, were still further common to all the Celtic nations, and traces of which disturbed by the introduction of Christianity. have survived to the present day. The name is Unable to extirpate these rites, the church sought derived from tin or teine, fire, and Beal or Beil, the to Christianise them by associating them with rites Celtic god of light or Sun-god, a deity mentioned of her own, and for this purpose either appointed a by Ausonius (309-392 A.D.) and Tertullian (who church-festival at the time of the heathen one, or flourished during the first half of the 3d c.), as well as endeavoured to shift the time of the heathen on several ancient inscriptions, as Belenus or Belinus. observance to that of an already fixed churchB. thus means “Beal's fire,' and belongs to that festival. All over the south of Germany, the sun and fire worship which has always been one of great bonfire celebration was held at midsummer the most prominent forms of polytheism. The great (Johannisfeuer), (see John's (ST) Eve-a relic, festival of this worship among the Celtic nations probably, of the sun-festival of the summer solstice: was held in the beginning of May, but there seems throughout the north of Germany, it was held at to have been a somewhat similar observance in Easter. It is probable that this fire-festival (Osterthe beginning of November (the beginning, and the feuer) of Ostara-a principal deity among the Saxons ene of summer). On such occasions, all the fires and Angles-had been originally held on the 1st in the district were extinguished (while the system of May, and was shifted so as to coincide with was in full force, even death was the penalty of the church-festival now known as Easter (q. v.; neglect); the needfire (q. v.) was then kindled with see also WALPURGIS-NACHT). The seriousness and great solemnity, and sacrifices were offered-latterly, enthusiasm with which these observances continued perhaps, of animals, but originally, there can be to be celebrated in the 16th and 17th centuries little doubt, of human beings. From this sacrificial began afterwards to decline, and the kindling of fire the domestic hearths were rekindled.
bonfires has been mostly put down by the governThe earliest mention of B. is found by Cormac, ments; the earlier interdicts alleging the unchristian Archbishop of Cashel in the beginning of the 10th c. nature of the rites; the later, the danger occasioned A relic of this festival, as practised in some parts to the forests. of the Highlands of Scotland about the beginning In Great Britain, St John's Eve was celebrated of the 19th C., is thus described: The young with bonfires; and Easter had its fire-rites, which, folks of a hamlet meet in the moors on the 1st of although incorporated in the service of the Roman May. They cut a table in the green sod, of a Catholic Church, were clearly of heathen origin. round figure, by cutting a trench in the ground of But the great day for bonfires in the British islands such circumference as to hold the whole company. was the 1st of November. Fewer traces of this They then kindle a fire, and dress a repast of eggs are found in other countries, and therefore we must and milk in the consistence of a custard. They knead look upon it as more peculiarly Celtic. While the a cake of oatmeal, which is toasted at the embers May festival of B. was in honour of the sunagainst a stone. After the custard is eaten up, god, in his character of god of war--who had just they divide the cake in so many portions, as similar put to fight the forces of cold and darkness the as possible to one another in size and shape, as November festival was to celebrate his beneficent there are persons in the company. They daubone influence in producing the fruits which had just of these portions with charcoal until it is perfectly been gathered in. Hence it was called Samhtheine black. They then put all the bits of the cake into a (peace-fire). If we may judge from the traces that bonnet, and every one, blindfold, draws out a portion. still remain or have been recorded, the November The bonnet-holder is entitled to the last bit. Who- observances were more of a private nature, every ever draws the black bit is the devoted person, who house having its bonfire and its offerings, probably is to be sacrificed to Baal, whose favour they mean of fruits, concluding with a domectic feast. The to implore in rendering the year productice. The B. festival, again, was public, and attended by devoted person is compelled to leap three times bloody sacrifices. Although the November bonfires, over the flames.' The leaping three times through like B., were probably of Celtic origin, they seem to the fire is clearly a symbolical sacrifice, and there have been adopted by the inhabitants of the British was doubtless a time when the victim was bound islands generally. About the end of last cenon the pile, and burned. See SACRIFICE, HUMAN. tury they were still kindled in various parts of
It has been usual to identify the worship of England, and to this day (1860), over whole disthe Celtic Beal with that of the Baal (q. v.) ortricts of Aberdeenshire, every rural dwelling has Bel of the Phænicians and other Semitic nations. its Hallowe'en bonfire lighted at nightfall in an It is unnecessary, however, to go beyond the family adjoining stubble-field. of nations to which the Celts belong (see ARYANS), The Anglo-Saxon population of England had in order to find analogies either for the name or the l their own characteristic May-day rites; but there
exist traces also of the observance among them | Rhinodon are two species found by Kane and Hayes on that day of rites similar to the Celtic Beltane. in the Greenland Seas, and B. Kingii is said to be An' Old Holne Curate,' writing to Notes and found in the Southern hemisphere. Queries in 1853, says: “At the village of Holne, / BE'LUS. See BAAL. situated on one of the spurs of Dartmoor, is a
BELVEDE'RE (It.) was originally an erection field of about two acres, the property of the parish, and called the Ploy (play) Field. In the centre
on the top of a house, for the purpose of looking of this stands a granite pillar (Menhir) 6 or 7 feet
out on the surrounding country, and enjoying the high. On May morning, before daybreak, the
air, in which sense it is still understood in Italy. young men of the village assemble there, and then
A part of the Vatican (q. v.) in Rome is known proceed to the moor, where they select a ram
as the B., and gives name to the famous statue of lamb (doubtless with the consent of the owner),
Apollo. In France, and with us, the word has come and after running it down, bring it in triumph to
to signify any kind of summer-house or place of the Ploy Field, fasten it to the pillar, cut its throat,
refreshment. and then roast it whole, skin, wool, &c. At mid-| BETY
t mid! BELVEDE'RE (Kochia scoparia, Chenopodium day, a struggle takes place at the risk of cut hands, scopariuin, or Salsold scoparia), an annual plant for a slice, it being supposed to confer luck for the of the na
fer luck for the of the natural order Chenopodiacece (q. v.), a native ensuing year on the fortunate devourer. As an act of the middle
act of the middle and south of Europe, and of great of gallantry, in high esteem among the females, the part of Asia, which has long been very familiar in young men sometimes fight their way through the British gardens as an ornamental annual, not upon crowd to get a slice for their chosen among the account of
| account of its flowers, which have no beauty, but young women, all of whom, in their best dresses, of its close, pyramidal, rigid form, and numerous attend the Ram Feast, as it is called. Dancing narrow leaves, which make it appear like a miniature wres ling, and other cames assisted by copious cypress-tree. It is sometimes called SUMMER libations of cider during the afternoon, prolong
CYPRESS. the festivity till midnight.
BELVI'SIA (also called NAPOLEO'NA), a genus The time, the place (looking east), the mystic of exogenous plants, the type of the natural order pillar, and the ram, surely bear some evidence in Belvisiace, of which order only a very few species favour of the Ram Feast being a sacrifice to Baal.' have yet been discovered, natives of the tropical
Additional notices of this sun and fire worship parts of Africa. They are large shrubs, with smooth, will be found under YULE, CANDLEMAS, LAMMAS, simple, leathery leaves. The flowers grow in threes, and the other heads referred to in this article. sessile in the axils of the leaves, and are beautiful
BELU'GA, a genus of Cetacea (q. v.), of the and extremely curious. The calyx is a thick, family of Delphinidce or Dolphins lá. y.). differing leathery cup, divided into five ovate segments. The from the rest of that family in the blunt and broad corolla consists of three distinct rings; the outer head, which has no produced snout: the smaller one 5-lobed, and furnished with ribs, by means of number of teeth, the greater part of which often fall which it is strongly plaited, turning back over and out before the animal is far advanced in age; and
hiding the calyx when full blown; the second, a narrow membrane, divided into numerous regular segments like a fringe; the third, an erect cupshaped membrane. The stamens are erect like another cup; the ovary 5-celled, with two ovules in each cell; the style short, thick, and 5-angled, with a broad, flat, 5-angled stigma. The fruit is a soft berry, crowned with the calyx, with large kidneyshaped seeds. The wood is soft, and contains numer
ous dotted vessels.--The pulp of the fruit of the Beluga.
best known species is mucilaginous and eatable, the
rind very full of tannin; the fruit is as large as a the want of a dorsal fin. A common species found pomegranate, and the seeds 17 inch long.---The in the northern parts of the world is B. arctica (for position of this remarkable order in the botanical which name there are unhappily many synonyms, system is not yet well determined. Lindley regards as B. leucas, &c.), the White Whale and White Fish it as most nearly allied to Rhizophoracece (Mangroves, of whalers, often called by English writers the B., q. v.). It is supposed by some that the two inner and the Round-headed Cachalot. The form of the rings of the corolla should be regarded as sterile B, is remarkably characterised by the softness of all stamens, and the place of the order is thus fixed its curves, and adapts it for rapid and graceful move- near Barringtoniaceve (q. v.). ments; its skin is usually of a clear white colour, BELZO'NI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, the son of a poor and not very strong, so that it often fails to retain barber, was born at Padua in 1778, and was educated a harpoon. The B. attains a length of more than at Rome, for the priesthood, but soon displayed a thirteen feet. The female brings forth two young preference for mechanical science, especially hydrauones at a birth, and displays the greatest solicitude lics; and when the French republican troops took for them. The food of the B. consists of fish, in possession of the pontifical city, he quited his relipursuit of which it often ascends rivers to some gious studies altogether. About the year 1800, he distance. It is gregarious, and may be seen in visited Holland, and in 1803 came to England. For herds of forty or fifity, which often gambol around a time he gained a living by exhibiting feats of boats; it abounds in most parts of the arctic seas, strength in theatres. At Astley's, he played the and sometimes, but not very frequently, visits the part of Hercules, but he also continued his mechaBritish shores. One was killed in the Firth of nical studies, and even gave numerous hydraulic Forth in 1815, and one in the Medway in 1846. representations in the most populous towns of the The Greenlanders take the B. with harpoons or kingdom. After a sojourn of nine years in England, with strong nets. Its flesh affords them a valuable he went to Spain and Portugal, in his capacity of supply of food, and is eaten by most of the inhabit- theatrical athlete. From the peninsula, he passed ants of arctic coasts; it affords also a considerable to Malta, and thence to Egypt in 1815, on the quantity of the very finest oil, and the skin is invitation of Mehemet Ali, who wished him to made into leather. Some of the B. Declivis and B. construct a hydraulic machine. After succeeding in
this undertaking, he was induced, by the travellers, and then made his escape into Turkey, where he Burckhardt and Salt, to direct his attention to embraced, from political motives, the profession of the exploration of Egyptian antiquities. He threw Islam, was raised to the dignity of a pasha, and himself with ardour into his new vocation. He obtained a command in the Turkish army. In removed the colossal bust of the so-called . Young February 1850, he was sent to Aleppo, where, after Memnon' from the neighbourhood of Thebes to suppressing the sanguinary insurrection of the Arabs Alexandria, and was the first who opened the temple against the Christian population, he died of fever, of Ipsambul. In the valley of the royal graves' December 10, 1850. B. was in private life char--Biban-el-Moluk-near Thebes, he discovered acterised by the benevolence of his disposition, and, several important catacombs containing mummies, as a military leader, was distinguished by courage, and among others, opened, in 1817, the celebrated presence of mind when in extreme danger, and tomb of Psammetichus, from which he removed the remarkable rapidity of movement. splendid sarcophagus, now, along with the “Young BEMBATOO'KA, BAY OF, a safe and commodious Memnon,' and other results of B.'s labours, in the bay on the north-west coast of Madagascar, in lat. British Museum. But B.'s greatest undertaking 160 S., and long. 46° E. Prime bullocks are sold was his opening of the pyramid of Cephren. An here for less than 10s. each, and are bought exten. attempt made on his life caused his departure sively by agents of the French government, who from Egypt, but previously he made a journey have them driven to Fort Dauphin, on Antongil Bay, along the coast of the Red Sea, and another to on the opposite side of the island, where they are the Oasis of Siwah, hoping there to find ruins of killed and cured for the use of the French navy, and the temple of Jupiter-Ammon. In the course of for colonial consumption. Rice is also sold very his explorations, he discovered the emerald mines cheap at Bembatooka. Majunga, on the north side of Zubara and the ruins of Berenice, the ancient of the bay, is an important town, Bembatooka commercial entrepôt between Europe and India. | being but a village. In September 1819, he returned to Europe, visited his native town, Padua, and enriched it with two l.
I BEMBE'CIDÆ, a family of Hymenopterous Egyptian statues of granite. He also published in insects of the division in which the females are furLondon his Narrative of the Operations and Recent nished with stings. Along with Sphegidoe (q. V.), Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples, Tombs,
and other nearly allied families, they receive the and Excavations in Egypt and Nubia: and of a popular name of Sand-wasps. They very much Journey to the coast of the Red Sea in search of the resemble bees or wasps in general appearance. They ancient Berenice, and another to the Oasis of Jiniter. are natives of the warmer parts of the world. Some Ammon (1821, with an atlas of 44 coloured engrav.
crav. of them are remarkable for the odour of roses which ings). In 1821. he opened in London an exhibition, they emit. The females make burrows in sandy of his Egyptian antiquities, but soon afterwards banks, in each of which they deposit an egg, and undertook a journey to Timbuktu, in Central Africaalong with it the bodies of a few flies as food for the At Benin, he was attacked by dysentery, which larva. The B. fly very rapidly, and with a loud compelled himn to return to Gato, where he died. | buzzing noise. Beinbex Rostrata is common in the December 3, 1823. His original 'drawings of the south of Europe. royal tombs he had opened in Egypt were published BEMBO, PIETRO, one of the most celebrated by his widow (London, 1829).
Italian scholars of the 16th c., was born in Venice, BEM, JOSEPH, commander of the army in Tran- | May 20, 1470; having studied at Padua and Ferrara, sylvania during the Hungarian revolution. 1848-9. he early devoted himself to polite literature. He was born at Tarnov, in Galicia. 1795. After á edited the Italian poems of Petrarch, printed by course of military adventure in Poland, he went to Aldus, in 1501, and the Terzerime of Dante, 1502. France, where he resided for a considerable time. In 1506, he proceeded to the Court of Urbino, where earning a livelihood by teaching mechanics and he resided until 1512, when he went to Rome. mnemonics. In 1848. after failing in an attempt to where he was made secretary to Pope Leo X. organise an insurrection in Vienna, he joined the On the death of that pope, B. returned to Padua, Hungarians, and was intrusted with the command of | where he became a liberal patron of literature and the army of Transylvania, amounting to 8000-10.000 | the arts, as well as a fertile writer himself. In 1529. men. He at first experienced some checks from he accepted the office of historiographer to the the Austrian army, but afterwards defeated them at republic of Venice, and was also appointed keeper Hermannstadt and the bridge of Piski; and finally of St Mark's Library. In 1539, B., who had only
eded. in March 1849. in driving both them taken the minor ecclesiastical orders, was unexand their allies, the Russians, back into Wallachia. pectedly presented with a cardinal's hat by Pope Having thus made himself master of Transylvania, Paul III., who afterwards appointed him to the he proposed, by amnesties and general mild rule, to
dioceses of Gubbio and Bergamo. He died January gain the adherence of the German and Slavonian
18, 1547. B. united in his character all that is population, especially in Wallachia ; but his pro
amiable. He was the restorer of good style in positions were not entertained by Kossuth and the
both Latin and Italian literature. His taste is said Hungarian commissariat. After expelling the troops
to have been so fastidious with regard to style, under Puchner from the Banat, B. returned into that he subjected each of his own writings to forty Transylvania, where the Russians had defeated revisions previous to publication. Some of his the Hungarians. Here he reorganised his forces, writings are marred by the licentiousness of the time. .and did all that was possible in his circumstances Among his works may be mentioned the Rerum to prevent the union of the Russians with the Veneticarum Libri XV. (Venice, 1551), of which Austrians, but his efforts were unsuccessful. After he published an Italian edition (Venice, 1552); sailing in an attempt to excite an insurrection in his Prose, dialogues in which are given the rules Moldavia, he was defeated in a battle near of the Tuscan dialect; Gli Asolani, a series of disSchäszburg, where he was opposed to three times putations on love, &c. ; Rime, a collection of sonnets the number of his own troops. At Kossuth's and canzonets ; his Letters, Italian and Latin; and request, he vow hastened into Hungary, where he the work, De Virgilii Culice et Terentii Fabulis. His took part in the unfortunate battle near Temesvar. collected works were published at Venice, in 4 vols., Retreating into Transylvania, he here defended him
1729. self for some days against à vastly superior force, BE’MBRIDGE BEDS are a division of the Upper BEN-BENARES.
Eocene strata, resting on the St Helen's, and capped 1.50 and 92 feet in depth, and in width between 600 by the Hempstead series. They are principally yards and a little more than half a mile. It is in developed in the Isle of Wight. Ed. Forbes, who lat. 25° 17' N., and long. 83° 4' E., being 421 miles carefully examined them there, has arranged them to the north-west of Calcutta, and 466 and 74 in four subdivisions: 1. The upper marls and lami- respectively to the south-east of Delhi and Allonated gray clays, which form the basement bed of habad. Without reckoning Secrole, which, at the the black band,' the lowest member of the Hemp- distance of 2 or 3 miles to the westward, contains stead series. They are distinguished by the abun- the official establishments, B. covers, as it were, an dance of Melania turretissima. 2. Unfossiliferous amphitheatre of 3 miles in front, and 1 mile in mottled clays, alternating with fossiliferous marls depth, the immediate margin of the river, which and clays, whose characteristic organisms are Ceri- is comparatively steep, being chiefly occupied by thium mutabile and Cyrena pulchra. 3. The oyster- flights of steps, or ghats, as they are called, where bed, consisting of greenish marl, and containing crowds of all classes spend the day in business, immense quantities of a species of oysters (Ostrea amusement, or devotion. This lively scene, backed Vectensis), accompanied with Cerithia, Mytili, and by the minarets of about 300 mosques, and the other marine mollusca. 4. The Bembridge lime- pinnacles of about 1000 pagodas, presents a truly stone, generally a compact, pale-yellow, or cream- picturesque appearance to spectators on the oppocoloured limestone, but sometimes vesicular and site shore of the Ganges. On closer inspection, concretionary, and containing occasionally siliceous however, the city, as a whole, disappoints a visitor. or cherty bands. This is interstratified with shales The streets, or rather alleys, altogether impractiand friable marls. All the beds are fossiliferous, cable for wheeled-carriages, barely afford a passage containing numerous land and fresh-water shells. to individual horsemen or single beasts of burden; One bed is composed almost entirely of the remains and these thoroughfares, besides being shut out of a little globular Paludina. Shells of Lynnea from sun and air by buildings of several stories, are and Planorbis are abundant, and are accompanied said to be shared with the numerous passengers by with the spirally striated nucules of two species of sacred bulls that roam about at will. The estimates Chara, water-plants which have been well preserved of the population vary from 200,000 to 1,000,000. because of the large quantity of lime which enters. In the traditions of the country, B. is believed to into their composition. In this division have been have been coeval with creation; and tolerably authenfound the mammalian remains of the species of tic history does assign to it a really high antiquity. Palæotherium (q. v.) and Anoplotherium (q. v.) In its actual condition, however, B. is a modern city. which characterise the gypseous deposits of Mont- Both in extent and in embellishment, it owes much martre; it is consequently considered the British to the influence of Mahratta ascendency, which equivalent of these Parisian beds.
dates from the close of the 17th c.; and it possesses, No marked line of distinction separates this series perhaps, not a single structure that reaches back from the St Helen's beds on which it rests. The to the close of the 16th. As the central seat of contained organisms indicate that both had the Hinduism, B., on high occasions, attracts immense same fluvio-marine origin. The maximum thickness crowds of pilgrims--sometimes as many as 100,000; of the Bembridge series is 115 feet.
and a few years ago, during an eclipse of the moon, BEN, a term of Gaelic origin, prefixed to the
forty persons were trampled to death in the streets. names of the principal mountains of Scotland—as
Naturally enough, the Brahmins of B. have always Ben Ledi, Ben Lomond, Ben Nevis, &c. It is
been remarkable for bigotry. Now, however, Brahessentially the same word as the Welsh Pen, the
minism appears to be on the decline; and a result, primary signification of which is “head,' and hence
which Mohammedan persecution vainly tried to it may be considered as equivalent to mountain
produce, would seem to be gradually achieved, summit' or mountain head.' The term
chiefly through the introduction of European liter
Pennine, applied to a division of the Alps, is doubtless derived
zature and science. On the Sanscrit College, instifrom the Celtic Pen or Ben; and even the name
tuted in 1792, there was at a later date ingrafted Apennines is in all probability from the same root.
an English department, comprising poetry, history,
mathematics, and political economy. In 1850, the BEN, a Hebrew word signifying "son,' and form- pupils numbered 230–6 converts to Christianity, ing the first syllable of many names ancient and 16° Mussulmans, and 208 Hindus. B., as Heber modern-as Benhadad, Benjamin, Ben Israel, &c. has observed, is very industrious and wealthy, as The corresponding Arabic word, Ibn or Ebn, in well as very holy. Besides having extensive manulike manner enters into the composition of a great factures of its own in cotton, wool, and silk, its number of names-as Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn- commanding position on the grand line of commual-Faradhi, Ibn-al-Khatib, &c. Ibn in some of nication-road, river, and rail alike-renders it the its construct forms, drops the initial vowel, thus principal emporium of the neighbouring regions. It nearly corresponding to the Hebrew-as Jusuf ben- is the great mart for the shawls of the north, the
Yakub (Joseph the son of Jacob). The plural diamonds of the south, and the muslins of the east; (in the construct form), Beni, is found in the names while it circulates the varied productions of Europe of many Arab tribes both in Asia and Africa—as and America over Bundelcund, Goruckpore, Nepal, Beni Temeem (or Temîm), Beni Selim, Beni Sala, / &c. For the general history of the city, see the &c.; and sometimes it occurs in the names of places following article on the district of the same name. -as Beni Hassan.
The details of the mutiny of 1857 will be found BEN, OIL OF, a fluid fixed oil, obtained from under the head of SECROLE. At the same time, B. the seeds of a tree found in India and Arabia, proper added its share to the fearful interest of and known as the HORSERADISH TREE (Moringa the emergency through the proverbially fanatical pterygosperma). The seeds are called BÈN Nuts, character of its inhabitants, who, during the second and are roundish, with three membranous wings. siege of Bhurtpore, had got 30,000 sabres sharpened The oil is used by watchmakers, because it does not in anticipation of a second repulse of the British. readily freeze; also by perfumers, as the basis of BENA'RES, the district mentioned in the inimevarious scents; and other oils are often adulterated diately preceding article. It is under the lieutenantwith it. See HORSERADISH TREE.
governorship of the North-west Provinces, being BENA'RES, a city on the left side of the Ganges, bounded on the W. and N. by Jounpur; on the E. which here varies, according to the season, between by Ghazeepore and Shahabad; and on the S. and W.