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Grammar. His great work in this department is a, by building, in the side of the volcanic mountain Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zend, Greek, where the steam and B. A. vapours are issuing from Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slavonian, Gothic, and fissures, and divert the course of a mountain stream, , German ( Vergleichende Grammatik, &c., Berl. 1833, so that at pleasure the caldrons, or lagoons, may be &c. ; a second edition, entirely recast, was published supplied with water. As the volcanic vapoursin 1857). An English translation by Lieutenant called suffioni-gurgle through the water contained Eastwick, and conducted through the press by in the lagoons, the B. A. is arrested by the water, Mr. Wilson Boden, professor of Sanscrit in Oxford which becomes impregnated with it. The liquid University, was published in 3 vols. 1845–1850. is passed from one lagoon to another, then on In recognition of his splendid services to philology, to settling vats and fat-bottomed evaporating he was, in 1842, made a knight of the newly erected pans, till it becomes so concentrated that on coolFrench Ordre du Merite, and in 1857, foreign associate ing, impure crystals of B. A. separate. In this of the French Institute. He died Oct. 23, 1867. condition it is sent to England and other countries.
BO'PPARD or BO'PPART (ancient Baudobriga), The appearance of the surface of the ground, from a walled town of Rhenish Prussia, situated on
which thousands of jets of steam are constantly the left bank of the Rhine, about nine miles south issuing, is very striking; and the name given to of Cobienz. B. is a busy manufacturing place, one of the principal mountains, Monte Cerboli (Mons with dirty, narrow streets, and its houses are chiefly Cerberi), denotes the feeling of awe with which of wood. Its appearance, however, is picturesque, the peasantry regarded the district as the entrance
Native B. A. is employed and it has several buildings, architecturally remark- to the lower regions. able. The church of the Carmelites contains some as a source of borax (q. v.), and contains about fine specimens of 16th c. sculpture. During the three-fourths of its weight of true B. A., accommiddle ages, B. was an imperial city, and many panied by one-fourth of water and impurities. councils were held in it. Remains of the Romaù In a pure condition, B. A. may be prepared by fortress built by Drusus still exist in the centre of dissolving 40 parts of borax (Na2B20-) in 100 of the town. Pop. 3680.
water, and acting thereon by 25 parts of hydro
chloric acid (HCI), which removes the soda, formBORA, KATHARINA von, or CATHARINE DE BORA, ing chloride of sodium (NaCl) and water (HO), and the wife of Luther, was born, it is supposed, at
on cooling the mixture, the B. A. (H3B03) crystalLöben, near Schweinitz, in Saxony, on 29th January, lises out. On re-solution in water and re-crystallis1499. At a very early age, she entered the Cistercian ation, it is obtained in pure white leathery crystals. convent of Nimptschen, near Grimma. Becoming B. A. is used in the arts as a flux, as an ingredient acquainted with Luther's doctrines, she found her in the glaze employed in pottery; and the wicks of self very unhappy in her monastic life; and finally, stearine and composite candles are treated with it, along with eight other nuns, whose relatives, like so that when the candle is burning, the end of the her own, refused to listen to them, she applied for wick when it gets long, may fuse and fall to the assistance to Luther. Luther obtained the service side, where it can be burned away. The exportaof Leonhard Koppo, a citizen of Torgau, and by him tion of B. A. from the Tuscan lagoons exceeds and a few associates the nine nuns were liberated
3,000,000 lbs. annually. from the convent in April 1523. They were brought
BO'RAGE (Borāgo), a genus of plants of the to Wittenberg, where Luther had suitably provided for their reception. Catharine became an inmate in the house of the burgomaster Reichenbach. Luther through his friend, Nicholas von Amsdorf, minister in Wittenberg, offered her the hand of Doctor Kaspar Glaz, who became pastor in Orlamünde. She declined this proposal, but declared herself ready to marry Von Amsdorf, or Luther himself, who had already laid aside his monastic dress. marriage with Luther took place on 13th June 1525, and was made the occasion of much unjust reproach by his enemies, which has not ceased to be repeated to this day. In his will, he left her all that he had,
а a so long as she should remain a widow, because, as he says, she had always been an affectionate and true wife to him. After Luther's death, the Elector
7 of Saxony and Christian III. of Denmark contributed from time to time to her support. She died at Torgau on 20th December 1552.
BORACIC ACID is found native (1) in the stream or vapour which rises from certain volcanic rocks in Tuscany, and (2) as a saline incrustation in the crater of a mountain in the island Volcano, which is situated 12 miles north of Sicily. This crater is about 700 feet deep, the sides lined with a crust of B. A. about half an inch thick and is sufficient to yield an annual supply of
B. A. also occurs in combination in Borax (q. v.), Datholite (q. v.), Boracite, and other
Borage (B. officinalis): minerals, and to a very minute extent a in trap
a, flowering branch; 6, the cone of stamens, &c. rocks generally. The Tuscan supply of B. A. may be regarded as the most important, and its collection takes place over an area of about 30 natural order Boraginere (q. v.), having a wheelmiles. The plan pursued is to form a series of shaped corolla, the mouth of which is closed with caldrons-100 to 1000 feet in diameter, and 7 to five teeth, and forked filaments, of which the inner :20 feet deep-partly by excavation, and partly | arm bears the anther, the anthers connivent around
the styie, in the form of a cone. The species are few, crystals are coated with, to prevent evaporation of chiefly natives of the countries around the Mediter- the water they contain, and thereafter dissolving ranean Sea. The Common BURAGE (B. officinalis) is in hot water and recrystallising. B. is likewise found in waste places in many parts of Europe, and prepared from boracic acid (B03), (q. v.), by solution is pretty frequent-perhaps naturalised-in Britain. in boiling water, and the addition of a boiling soluIt is a plant of rather coarse appearance, with a tion of ordinary carbonate of soda (NaOCO,), when stout erect herbaceous stem, 1--2 feet high, some- B. (Na0,2B03) is formed, and carbonic acid (CO) what branched; the lower leaves elliptical
, obtuse, is disengaged, and on cooling in wooden tanks lineil tapering to the base; the stem, leaves, flower- with lead, the crystals of B. separate. The common stalks, and calyx rough with hairs. The flowers crystalline variety of B. contains 10 equivalents of are more than half an inch broad, of a beautiful water (NaO,2B03 + 10HO); but if a stronger than blue colour. B. was formerly much cultivated and ordinary solution be allowed to cool, crystals begin highly esteemed, being reckoned amongst the cordial to separate at a higher temperature than usual, flowers, and supposed to possess exhilarating quali- which contain only 5 atoms of water (Na0,2B0; † ties, for which it no longer receives credit. The 5HO). B. is soluble in water to the extent of one belief in its virtues was at one time extremely part of the salt in two parts of hot prevalent in England, and its use accordingly water, and in twelve of cold, yielding a universal. The flowers were put into salads, Gerarde clear solution with a sweetish taste. It tells us (1597), “to make the mind glad;' and he is readily reduced to powder, and is then adds: “There be also many things made of them, known as powdered borax. It is of great used everywhere for the comfort of the heart, for use in the chemical arts. As an assistthe driving away of sorrow, and increasing the joy ant agent in experimenting with the of the mind.' Like some other plants of the same blow-pipe (q. 1.), B. is of great service, order, B. contains nitrate of potash (nitre), and is from the readiness with which it forms Crystal of slightly febrifuge. It is mucilaginous and emollient, coloured glasses with the various metal- Borax. and has been used in pectoral affections; its leaves lic oxides. It is also employed in the impart a coolness to beverages in which they are manufacture of enamel, and for glazing or coating steeped; and with wine, water, lemon, and sugar, vessels in English pottery, as also in the formation enter into the composition of an English drink of the paste for artificial gems. To the metallurgist, called a cool tankard. The young leaves and tender it is an aid in the readiness with which it promotes tops are pickled, and occasionally boiled for the the fusion of metallic mixtures, and the separation table.
of the metals; and to the solderer of all metals it is BORAGI'NEÆ, or BORAGINA'CEÆ, a
natu- of service in forming a thin glassy coating over the ral order of dicotyledonous plants, consisting chiefly edges of the metals, which prevents their oxidation of herbaceous plants, but also containing shrubs and at the time they are being joined together. B. is even trees, the leaves generally rough with hairs also used in dyeing. which proceed from a thick hard base, and the BORDA, JEAN CHARLES, an eminent practical whole plant mucilaginous and emollient. The mathematician and astronomer, was born on 4th leaves are alternate and without stipules. The May 1733 at Dax, in the department of the Landes, flowers are in spikes, racemes, or panicles which are in France. In 1771, he was associated with Verdun almost always coiled up, and gradually uncoil and and Pingré in proving the accuracy of chronometers. elongate themselves, the flowers expanding in He also devoted much attention to the subject of Succession. The calyx is 4—5-partite, and remains ship-building, and suggested great improvements in till the fruit is ripe; the corolla is generally regular, the form of vessels. In 1787 he took an active part 4-5-cleft, imbricated in bud; the stamens rise in bringing the observatories of Paris and Greenwich from the corolla, and are equal in number to its into closer relations with one another. Along with divisions--generally five-and alternate with them. Delambre and Méchain, he was a leading member of The ovary is 4-partite, 4-celled; the style simple, the French commission intrusted with the measurearising from the base of the lobes of the ovary. ment of a meridian arc. He rendered essential The fruit consists of 4-or sometimes of 2-distinct service in the commission on the new system of achenia. See ACIIENIUM.—The order Ehretiace of weights and measures. He invented a new instrusome botanists differs chiefly in the fruit, which in ment for measuring the inclination of the magnetic the more typical species is a succulent drupe; and needle ; and his corrections of the seconds' pendiin the Heliotropes consists of four dry achenia more lum are still in use. But his reputation dependis or less consolidated. There are about 600 known most of all on his improvement of the reflecting species of the proper Boraginece, and about 300 of circle, on which instrument be published a work in Ehr acece. The former are natives principally of two volumes (Par. 1787). He died at Paris on the temperate climates, and are particularly abundant 20th February 1799. in the south of Europe and in the temperate parts of Asia; the latter are more tropical, but not south-west of France, beautifully situated in a plain
BORDEAUX, an important seaport town in the exclusively so. Borage (q. v.), ALKANET (9. v.), on the left bank of the Garonne, about 60 miles from COMFREY (q. v.), and FORGET-VE-NOT (q. v.), are its mouth in the Atlantic. Ships of more than 1000 familiar examples of the former; the exquisitely tons' burden can easily ascend the river at high water fragrant HELIOTROPE (9. v.) is the best known of the latter. The drupes of some species of Ehretia to B., which is accessible at all times of the tide to
vessels of 600 tons. Its harbour is very capacions; are eatable.
and, by the Garonne, its commerce very extensive. BORA'SSUS. See PALMYRA PALM.
The river is crossed by a noble bridge of 17 arches BO'RAX, or BIBO'RATE OF SODA, is found and 532 yards in length, erected by the elder native as a saline incrustation on the shores of | Deschamps in 1811-1821. The old town, consistcertain lakes in Persia and Thibet. It also occurs ing partly of high wooden houses of the 15th (., in India, China, Ceylon, California and S. America. has narrow crooked streets; but the newer paris When collected on the banks of the lakes, it is of the city and the suburbs have wide streets, fine impure, and goes by the name of tincal. The latter is squares, and pleasant promenades lined with trees. purified by acting upon it with a solution of caustic The cathedral, which was consecrated in 1996, is soda, which removes the fatty matter that the
the fatty matter that the remarkable for its beautiful towers. The church BORDELAIS_BORDER.
of St. Croix is a building of the 10th c.; that of, common frontier of England and Scotland. At St. Seurin is also very old, and has rare Gothic present, the dividing boundary of the two countries
The fornrer archiepiscopal palace is consists partly of natural and partly of imaginary now the town-hall. The Great Theatre is one of outlines. It is customary to speak of Scotland as the largest and finest buildings of its kind in a country 'north of the Tweed;' but the Tweed France. B. has many other fine public buildings, is the boundary only in a small part of its course, and learned associations, and educational and bene- on the east, and large portions of several Scottish volent institutions, with a public library of upwards counties lie to the south of that river. Even at its of 120,000 volunies. The university, founded by mouth, the Tweed is not the division ; for north of Pope Eugenius IV. in 1441, has been, since 1839, the river at its estuary lies the ancient town of an Académie Universitaire, with four faculties and Berwick, with the district known as its 'bounds,' fifteen professorships. Pop. in 1861, 162,750. which belong to Northumberland. The Tweed
Among the principal branches of industry are forms the division only for about 16 to 18 miles. the production or preparation of sugar, brandy, Leaving the river at Carham Burn, a few miles liqueurs, vinegar, nitric acid, printed calicoes, ahove Coldstream, the line proceeds towards the wcollen goods, carpets, hats, paper, earthenware, Cheviot mountains, the ridge of which is the bounglass bottles, metallic wires, &c. The rope-works, dary for about 25 miles; descending thence, the cooperages, and dockyards are extensive and full line strikes on Kershope Water, a tributary of the of activity. The Canal du Midi, connecting B. with Esk. That river is the boundary for a number of the Mediterranean, enables it to supply the whole miles to a point above Longtown. The line now south of France with the colonial produce which quits the Esk abruptly in a northern direction, and it imports; and also with English tin, lead, copper, taking into England part of what was known as the coal, dye-stuffs, herrings, &c. Wine, brandy, vinegar, 'Debatable Land' (q. v.), strikes on the small river dried fruits, hams, turpentine, and glass hottles are Sark, which is the boundary to the Solway Firth, the among its principal exports.-In former times, B. was great natural division on the west. Such, in general called Burdigala, and was the capital of the Bitu- terms, is the entire boundary, extending from sea riges l’ivisci. It was a very prosperous town in to sea for about 100 miles, in which length the the times of the Romans, was made by Hadrian the Tweed obviously plays an
inferior part. capital of Aquitania Secunda, and was both the counties lying on the English side of the border are principal emporium of the south-west of Gaul, and Northumberland and Cumberland; on the Scottish the seat of its best educational institutions. Remains side, Berwickshire, Roxburghshire, and Dumfriesof the Roman period still exist. After suffering shire. Readers of history are aware that the division greatly at the hands of Vandals, Goths, Franks, here indicated is comparatively modern; in former and Spanish Arabs, it was taken by Charles Martel times, the frontier shifted according to the surging in 735; but was again spoiled by Norman plunderers tide of war or diplomacy. For several ages prior in the 9th century. It became the capital of the to the 11th c., the kingdom of Northumbria, forming Duchy of Guienne ; and in 1152 passed, by the a part of what we now call England, included ail marriage of Eleanor of Guienne with Henry of that portion of Scotland south of the Firth of Forth Normandy (afterwards Henry II. of England), under as far west as Stirling. As a result of some warlike the dominion of England. From the English, B. vperations, this district was ceded by the Earl of received important liberties and privileges; they Northumberland to Malcolm II., king of Scots, encouraged its commerce; and it was for a consider- 1018, and ever since the Tweed, in its lower part, able time the seat of the splendid and chivalric court has been the boundary. What, however, was gained of Edward the Black Prince. It strongly supported by Scotland on the east was lost on the west; for the cause of England against France, but was taken William the Conqueror wrenched Cumberland from by Charles VII. in 1451. It rose against the imposi- the northern sovereign ; and with little intermission tion of the salt-tax in 1548, and was visited with the boundary in this quarter was settled according bloody vengeance by the Constable Montmorenci. to its present limits. The horrors of St. Bartholomew's Day were repeated It may be said that from the 11th till the end here, from 3d to 5th October, 1572, by the governor, of the 17th c., there was almost constant disturb).. Montferrand, and 2500 persons perished. During ance During ance on the border. Ruthless wars on
on a great the Revolution, B. was the principal seat of the scale between English and Scots sometimes caused Girondists, and suffered fearfully at the hands of the most frightful devastation, and became the the Terrorists. The pressure of Napoleon's conti- source of lasting ill-will on both sides. History nental system made its inhabitants disaffected to abounds in events of this kind, and the feuds his government, and they were the first of the French and forays of clans and families are to declare for the Bourbons in 1814.
rated in a series of ballads, for ever embalmed The wines produced in the neighbourhood of B., in the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, by Sir and forming one of its principal exports, are called Walter Scott. The most notable of these foravs Bordeaux Wines. Except the wines of Champagne from the Scottish side is narrated in the ballad of no French wines are so much exported to foreign the Battle of Otterburne, or, as it is sometimes countries. Some of them are red (known in England called, Chery Chase. The event referred to occurred as Claret), others white. Of the red wines, the in 1388. Among the latest of the regular invasions Medoc is one of the best known. The red wines from England was that in 1843, in the reign of produced by the vineyards of Lafitte, Latour, Châ- Henry VIII., conducted by the Earl of Hertford, teau-Margaux, and Haut-Brion, are particularly cele- The invasion was by the eastern marches, and in brated for their quality. The white wines of Graves, their devastating course, the English army set fire and those of Sauternes, Barsac, Preignac, and Langon to and destroyed all the towns, villages, monasare in highest repute.
teries, and numerous castles within a wide range
of country, BORDELAIS, a district of France, once forming sioners had been appointed to repress poetty insur
At an early date, wardens and commispart of the old province of Guienne, and having rections, and punish the nioss-troopers who made Bordeaux for its capital, but now included in the de
cattle-lifting from their neighbours on the opposite partments of Gironde and Landes.
side of the border a kind of profession. BO'RDER, THE, is a term employed in historical measures of police, the border was divided into three as well as popular phraseology to signify the parts--the east, middle, and western marches. Suen
For these BORDER-BORDER-WARRANT.
was the lawlessness in the early part of the 16th c., and Widdrington. The English border castles of that in 1511, Sir Robert Kerr, warden of the eastern every kind appear to have been of greater splendour marches, was slain at a border meeting by three and strength than those on the Scottish side. "Raby Englishmen. The principal murderer escaped as far Castle, still inhabited, attests the magnificence of as York, and for a time tried to conceal himself; the great Nevilles, Earls of Westmoreland; and but he was sought out by two of Sir Robert's fol- the lowering strength of Naworth_shews the power lowers, who brought his head to their new inaster, of the Dacres' (Scott). On the English side, howby whom, in memorial of their vengeance, it was ever, there is nothing which can be compared to exposed at the cross of Edinburgh (Scott's Essay the ruins of that remarkable group of Scottish on Border Antiquities). Sometimes the Scottish border abbeys-Melrose, Dryburgh, Kelso, and borderers met ostensibly to amuse themselves with Jedburgh, not to speak of the remains of various the ancient sport of football, but in reality to other religious houses. For an account of these and plan and execute daring military exploits. During other architectural remains on the border, we must the reigns of Elizabeth and James VI., strenuous refer to the Boriler Antiquities of England and efforts were made to preserve peace on the border, Scotland, by Sir Walter Scott, 2 vols. folio, illusand this was attained only by extraordinary severi- trated with plates; also to Billings's Baronial and ties. Many of the more audacious reivers were Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Scotland, 4 vols. 4to, hanged, and great numbers were banished. Some illustrated with plates. account of the measures adopted at this period to Assimilated in habits to the rest of the popusuppress border outrages will be found in the lation, the old Scottish border families are still Memoirs of Sir Robert Cary, who long acted as Eng. distinguishable by their surnames—as, for example, lish warden on the marches; also in the Domestic : the Maxwells, Johnstons, and Jardines on the west, Annals of Scotland, by R. Chambers, vol. i. After and the Elliots, Armstrongs, Scotts, and Kerrs on the accession of James to the English tlırone, at the middle and eastern marches. The principal sweeping clearance of the Scottish border was Scottish border families of rank are the Scotts, effected. The laird of Buccleuch collected under Dukes of Buccleuch, descendants of a famed border his banners the most desperate of the border chief, Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch; and the marauders, whom he formed into a legion for the Kerrs, Dukes of Roxburgh, who are sprung from service of the states of Holland. At the same time, an equally celebrated borderer, Sir Robert Kerr of the Debatable Land was cleared of the Græmes, a Cessford. The possessions of both families are extendaring sept of freebooters, who were transported sive, particularly those of Buccleuch (q. v.), which to Ireland, and their return prohibited under pain spread throngin several counties. The family of of death. The legislative union of 1707, and the corresponding rank within the English border is firm administration of justice, along with a general that of the Percies, Dukes of Northumberland. improvement in manners, finally terminated the long Local intercourse across the border is considerably course of misrule,
obstructed by the long range of hills and the moors In the present day, there is nothing to distinguish which generally lie on the line of boundary; and the border froin other districts of the country, the circumstance of the peculiar civil and eccleunless it be the prevalence of picturesque ruins of siastical institutions of the two kingdoms shedding old castles, generally roofless, but, from the vast off here towards different centres, still further thickness and strength of the walls, still in a good tends to lessen community of feeling. At no disstate of preservation. The border strengths were tant day, certain
tant day, certain exciseable articles were charged of three kinds-regular fortresses, large baronial with a less duty in Scotland than England, and castles, and the lesser kind of towers. On the east, the consequence was an active contraband trade on the English owned the fortified town of Berwick, and the border, chiefly by the mountain-passes and the at no great distance Newcastle-on-Tyne; and on the Solway. Now, these duties are assimilated, and west, Carlisle. The chief Scottish border fortresses this demoralising kind of traffic has disappeared. were the royal castles of Roxburgh, Jedburgh, and The great channels of communication across the Lochmaben; and we might almost include Edin- border are two lines of railway, one by way of burgh Castle, for it is only 60 miles distant. Among Berwick, and the other by Carlisle. There are the baronial castles on the English side were num- also good roads in various directions for those who bered Norham, Alnwick, Bamboroughi, Naworth, wish to explore this interesting district of country. Brougham, Penrith, and Cockermouth. Among Besides the books relative to the border already the Scottish fortlets of the baronial class may be referred to, there are some works of local note, mentioned Newark, Hermitage, and Caerlaverock. among which the most comprehensive is RichardThe smaller kind of towers on both sides of the fron- son's Borderer's Table-book, 8 vols. royal 8vo (Newtier appear to have been exceedingly numerous, and castle-on-Tyne); we may also refer to Jeffrey's it is their remains that form the more conspicuous History and Antiquities of Roxburghshire, 3 vols. ; memorials of old border strife. These buildings and Ridpath's Border History, 1 vol. 4to. consist of a single square tower, usually of three BOʻRDER-WARRANT, in the law of Scotland, floors; the lower vaulted, for the reception of is a warrant issued by the judge ordinary-that is, cattle; while the two upper, consisting of but one by the sheriff or county court judge, or by magis. small apartment each, with narrow slit-hole win- trates of royal burglis within the royalty, or by dows, comprised the accommodation for the family. justices of the peace-on the borders between ScotIt is conjectured, however, that retainers lived in land and England, on the petition of a creditor who thatched huts outside, which are now obliterated, desires to arrest the person or effects of a debtor and were brought into the tower, along with the residing on the English side, and to detain him cattle, only in the case of an anticipated attack. until he finds bail for his appearance in, and abiding These towers, known as bastel-horises or peels, once the result of, any action which may be brought for the residences of a warlike yeomanry, are thickly the debt within six months. The creditor must studded over the south of Scotland, more particularly swear to the truth of the debt, and before resorting along the vale of the Tweed ; and by the lighting to imprisonment of the debtor, it is proper to of beacons on their summits, the whole country examine him as to his domicile, or usual residence, between the border and the Forth could be speedily and occupation. These warrants are in use in the summoned to arms. On the English side, there are counties of Dumfries, Roxburgh, and Berwick. similar towers, such as those of Thirlwall, Fenwick, They are more used in the country districts thau
is very similar.
in the burghs, though not frequently even in the whether the old smooth-bore iron guns can not only country districts. In Dumfriesshire and Berwick- be bored-up, but rifled at the same time. There kbire, border-Warrants are granted exclusively for are 15,000 of such guns belonging to the British arresting the persons of alleged debtors. In Rox- government, and it is suggested that they onght to burghshire—with the exception of the courts of the be improved in efficiency, instead of being cast aside justices of the peace in Kelso and Melrose districts, as useless in the event of the success of the Armwhich follow the practice of the two first-named strong and Whitworth guns. counties-the warrants are granted for the purpose BOʻREAS, the Greek name of the north-east of arresting both the debtor's person and goods, wind, blowing towards Hellas from the Thracian In the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and in Wigton- mountains, and personified in mythology as the son shire, they are unknown.
of Astræus and of Eos or Aurora, and the brother In English practice, the warrant to arrest and of Notus, Zephyrus, and Hesperus. B. was said 10 absconding debtor, which includes any foreigner | dwell in a cave of the Thracian Hæmus, to which who may be in England on business or pleasure, he carried Oreithyia, the daughter of the Athenian
See ARRESTMENT FOR FOUNDING king Erechtheus, who bore him Zetes and Calais-JURISDICTION;
ABSCONDING ; FOREIGN | employed as the symbols of swiftness-and CleoATTACHMENT ; JURISDICTION, .
patra, the wife of Phineus. According to Homeric BO'RDURE, or BORDER, in Heraldry. Coats fable, he begat, with the mares of Erichthonius, of arms are frequently surrounded with a B., the twelve horses of extraordinary fleetness. The rape object of which is generally to shew that the bearer of Oreithyia was represented on the ark of Cypselos, is a cadet of the house whose arms he carries. where B. instead of feet has the tails of serpents. The character of the B. often has reference to the Ile had a temple in Athens, because he destroyed profession of the bearer: thus a B. einbattled, is the ships of the Persians under Xerxes; and at granted to a soldier; and a B. ermine, to a lawyer. Megalopolis, a yearly festival was celebrated in his BORE is a tidal phenomenon at the estuaries of honour, because upon one occasion he helped the
Megalopolitans against the Spartans. certain rivers. When a river expands gradually
BO'RECOLE. See KALE. towards a very wide mouth, and is subject to high tides, the spring flood-tide drives an immense BORELLI, GIOVANNI Alfonso, a distinguished volume of water from the sea into the river; the mathematician and astronomer, and the founder Water accumulates in the estuary more rapidly of the iatro-mathematical school, born at Naples than it can flow up into the river; and thus there in 1608, was educated at Florence, and became prois gradually formed a kind of watery ridge stretch- fessor of mathematics at l’isa, and afterwards at ing across the estuary, and rushing up towards Messina. Ilaving taken part in a revolt, he was the river with great violence. In some cases, obliged to leave Messina, and spent the remainder this ridge, or B., is many feet in height, and con- of his life at Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage tends against the descending stream with frightful of Queen Christina of Sweden, and where he died noise. This phenomenon is observable in several in 1679. He carefully observed the motions of the British rivers, as the Severn, Trent, Wye, and satellites of Jupiter, then little known, and seems to Solway. The most celebrated bores, are those of the have been the first to discover the parabolic paths Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus: in the Hoogly of comets. He made many valuable observations branch of the Ganges, the B, travels 70 miles in 4 on a malignant fever in Sicily, and wrote a treatise hours, and sometimes appears suddenly as a liquid on the causes of such fevers. He wrote also an wall 5 feet in height.
account of an eruption of Etna, and a number of BORE is a name for the internal carity of a
works on subjects of applied mathematics, of which cannon, mortar, howitzer, rifle, musket, fowling the most celebrated is that De Motu Animaliuin piece, pistol, or other kind of firearm. It is in most (Rome, 1680)— 1681). In this work, he applies the cases cylindrical; but in the Lancaster gun the B. laws of mechanics to the motions of animals, regardis oval; in the Whitworth gun, it is hexagonal; ing the bones as levers, in which the power acts while in the Armstrong, and many other kinds between the weight and the fulerum, and endeaof gun, it is furrowed by spiral grooves. Tech- vouring to calculate the power of muscles from a nically, the B. of a gun often means simply the consideration of their fibrous strueture, and the Ciameter of the cavity, as when we speak of a gun All more recent authors on the same subject have
manner in which they are united to the tendons. ' of 8-inch bore;' and in that case its meaning is
been much indebted to Borelli. equivalent to calibre.'
The Boring of a cannon is a process which BORER, a name common to many insects of may best be described in connection with Caxxon the Linnæan genus Ptinus, the tribe Ptiniores of FOUNDING.
It is desirable to mention in the Latreille, coleopterous (q. v.) insects of small size, present plaee, however, that there is an operation the larvæ of which--small, white, soft, worm-like called "boring-up'conducted at Woolwich Arsenal, creatures, with six minute feet-are furnished with for enlarging the bore of a gun. It has been strong cutting jaws (marille), by means of which found in recent years that many of the old cannon they eat their way in old wood, and similar subare thicker and heavier than needful for the size stances, boring little holes as round as if made with of shot propelled, and that they could be fitted a fine drill. Every one is familiar with the appearfor the discharge of larger shot without danger. ance of these holes, and with the injury done by A change was begun in the armament of the these insects to furniture, &c. The holes are filled British fleet in 1839 by substituting heavier broad-up, as the insect works its way onward, with a fine sides; and as one part of the process, many powder, formed from the wood which it has eaten ; of the old 24-pounders were bored up' to 32s; and finally it constructs for itself a little silky even some of the 18-pounders were found to be cocoon, and having passed through the pupa state thick and strong enonigh to undergo this process. in the bottom of its hole, comes forth a winged More than 2000 iron naval guns were thus treated insect-a small beetle, in the widest popular sense at Woolwich preparatory to the change in 1839; of that term. One of the most common British and many others have since been similarly bored-up. species is Anobium striatunn, a dark-brown insect, At the present time, May 1860, important experi- not much above one line in length. The thorax, as ments are in progress at Woolwich, to determine in the whole tribe, is proportionately rery large,