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BORER-BORGIA.

and has a swollen hood-like appearance, the head of the king of Arayon. He died in 1458.-Rodrigo being, as it were, received within it. This insect has B. ascended the papal throne in August 1492, under long been noted for the pertinacity with which it the name of Alexander VI. (q. v.). Before his eleva

tion to the popedom he had a number of children by a Roman woman named Vanozza (Giulia Farnese), of whom two, Cesare and Lucrezia, share their father's extraordinary historic infamy:-CESARE or CÆSAR B., was one of the greatest monsters of a time of depravity, when the court of Rome was the scene of all the worst forms of crime. He unscrupulously

made use of the most sacred things as means to the Borer ( Anobium striatum),

most iniquitous ends. He had early received high Natural size, and magnified.

ecclesiastical preferment, and his father, soon after

becoming pope, invested him with the purple. But simulates death. This instinct appears to be common his father conferring upon his brother Giovanni the to the whole tribe, as it is also to many other insects. Duchy of Benevento, with the counties of Terracina ---Another species of the same genus, Anobium tesse- and Pontecorvo, Cæsar, as was believed, moved with latum, has become an object of interest as one of envy, caused his brother to be assassinated. He the insects which, being sometimes heard to make obtained the duchy and counties for himself, and a peculiar ticking noise, are connected with super- was permitted by his father to resign the purple stitious fancies and fears, and receive the name of and to devote himself to the profession of arms. Death-watch (q. v.).

He was sent in 1498 to France, to convey to Louis

XII. a bull of divorce and dispensation from his BORGHE'SÉ, a family of great distinction in the marriage with Anne of Brittany. Louis rewarded republic of Siena, and afterwards at Rome. CAMILLO

him for the pope's complaisance with the Duchy B. ascended the papal throne in 1605 as Paul V., livres of yearly revenue, and a promise of support in

of Valentinois, a body-guard of 100 men, 20,000 and by him other members of the family were advanced to high positions. A marriage with the his schemes of ambition. In 1499 Cæsar married heiress of the family of Aldobrandini brought the a daughter of the king of Navarre; and accomB. family into the possession of great wealth. panied Louis XII. to Italy, where he undertook the CAMILLO FILIPPO Ludovico B., Prince B., born at conquest of the Romagna for the Holy See. The Rome in 1775, joined the French army when it rightful lords of that country, who fell into his invaded Italy; and in 1803 married Pauline, the hands, were murdered, notwithstanding that their

In 1501 he sister of Napoleon Bonaparte, and widow of lives had been guaranteed by his oath. General Leclerc. His wife subsequently received was named by his father, Duke of Romagna. In the the principality of Guastalla, and he was created same year, he wrested the principality of Piombino Duke of Guastalla, and under the French Empire | acquire Bologna and Florence. He took Camerino,

from Jacopo D’Appiano, but failed in an attempt to he was for some time governor-general of the provinces beyond the Alps. He held his court at and caused Giulio Di Varano, the lord of that town, Turin, and was very popular among the Pied to be strangled along with his two sons. By treachery montese. He sold the B. collection of artistic as much as by violence he made himself master of treasures to Napoleon for 13,000,000 francs, re

the Duchy of Urbino. A league of Italian princes ceiving in part-payment the Piedmontese national

was formed to resist him, but he kept them in awe domains; but when these were reclaimed by the by a body of Swiss troops, till he succeeded in winking of Sardinia in 1815, he received back some

ning some of them over by advantageous offers, of the works of ancient art. After the overthrow employed them against the others, and then treacherof Napoleon, he separated from his wife, and broke ously murdered them on the day of the victory, 31st off all connection with the Bonaparte family. Ke December 1502, at Sinigaglia. He now seized their lost Guastalla, but retained the principalities of possessions, and saw no obstacle in the way of his Sulmona and Rossano, his hereditary possessions. being made king of Romagna, of the Marchi, and of He died in 1832.—The Borghese Palace is one of the Umbria, when, on 17th August 1503, his father died, most magnificent at Rome. The noble portico of probably of poison which he had prepared for twelve the inner court is composed of 96 granite columns ; design (and who, like his father, had long been

cardinals. Cæsar, also, who was a party to the the collection of paintings is remarkably fine.

familiar with that mode of despatching those who BORGHE'SI, BARTOLOMMEO, Count, a distin- stood in the way of his ambition, or whose wealth guished antiquarian, born at Savignano, Central he desired to obtain), had himself partaken of the Italy, on the 11th July 1781. His father, Pietro poison, and the consequence was a severe illness, Borghesi, who was one of the most accomplished exactly at a time when the utmost activity and prescholars of his time, trained him to an early delight sence of mind were requisite for his affairs. Enemies in learned pursuits

. He studied at Bologna, and rose against him on all hands, and one of the most afterwards devoted himself to archæological re- inveterate of them ascended the papal throne as searches. He arranged the numismatic collection in Julius II. Cæsar was arrested and conveyed to the Milan, and that of the Vatican, of which he drew Castle of Medina Del Campo, in Spain, where he lay up a catalogue. In reward for this work, he obtained imprisoned for two years. At length he contrived from the pope exemption for himself and family to make his escape to the king of Navarre, whom from the observance of fasts. In 1821 he fixed his he accompanied in the war against Castile, and residence in the republic of San Marino.

was killed on the 12th March 1507 by a missile principal work yet published is his Nuovi Fram- from the Castle of Biano. With all his båseness and menti Dei Fasti Consolari Capitolini Illustrati (?cruelty, B. was temperate and sober. He loved and vols., Milan, 1818—1820). His contributions to patronized learning, and possessed in a remarkable Forcellini's Latin Lexicon are very highly prized. degree a ready and persuasive eloquence. Macchia

BO'RGIA, a family originally Spanish, but which velli has delineated his character in his Principe.acquired great eminence in Italy after the elevation LUCREZIA B. was a woman of great beauty. She was of Alfonso Borgia to the popedom, as Calixtus III., married first to Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, in 1455. He had previously been a privy-councillor but forsook him, and lived in incestuous intercourse

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with her two brothers and with her own father. 2. For Artesian wells, and for the discovery of She then married, in 1498, Alfonso, Duke of Biscaglia, the mineral contents of the earth.--As the borings a natural son of Alfonso II. of Naples; but he was for these purposes are performed in the same assassinated by her brother Cæsar in 1501. In Sep- manner, it is unnecessary to give them separate tember of the same year, she married Alfonso of notices. The object in boring for Artesian wells is Este, who afterwards inherited the Duchy of Ferrara. to open a passage for the escape of water from She died in 1520. Like her brother Cæsar, she water-logged strata. See ARTESIAN WELLS. In the shrank from no crime; but she also was a patroness search for minerals, B. is had recourse to as a cheap of art and learning, and upon this account homage method of discovering the mineral wealth of a diswas paid to her by Pietro Bembo and other poets of trict, and whether the quantity and quality of the that time.

contained minerals are such as to make the working BO'RGO, a name given to a number of towns remunerative. It should, however, never be under and villages in Italy and the Southern Tyrol, and taken without a previous geological survey of the indicating the growth of the town or village around locality; the neglect of this has caused an immense a castle or castellated rock, the original Borgo. See loss of time and money in futile searches for Borough. Thus B. di val Sugầna is a place of 3500 minerals, as in the innumerable cases of bores driven inhabitants , with a castellated hill, in the Tyrol; B. into Silurian and Old Red Sandstone strata, in search

B. is also of use even after the presence Lavezzano, B. San Dalmazzo, and B. Manero are places of 2000—7000 inhabitants, in the Sardinian of coal has been ascertained, to determine the most territory; B. San Donnino, a place of 6000 inhabit- advantageous position for sinking the shaft by ants, in the Duchy of Parma ; B. San Sepolcro, a method of operating is as follows: The boring instru

which the coal is to be drawn up. The general town of 4000, in Tuscany, &c.

ment consists of an iron shank, having a cross-bar BORING, as a process in carpentry and in the at the top and a hollow screw at the bottom; to this

working of metals, is per. all the successive B. instruments are fastened. A formed in a variety of ways. simple chisel is first attached to the screw, and one For boring holes in wood or two men press upon the cross-bar, and at the same the carpenter makes use of time force it l'ound like an auger; while another awls, which simply displace workman, by means of a lever erected overhead, a portion of the wood, and with a chain descending from it to the cross-bar, of gimlets, augers, and bits of gives an up and down motion to the instruvarious kinds, these last ment. When the chisel becomes clogged, from the being applied by means of accumulation of material which it has loosened, it the crank-shaped instrument is exchanged for a cylindrical auger, provided with called a brace. All these are a valve, which scoops out the separated material; too familiar to need descrip- and thus by alternate chopping and scooping the tion. The boring of holes work is carried on. The nature of the strata is in metal plates for making determined with considerable facility and certainty attachments, is effected by by examining the fragments brought up by the means of drills driven by auger. As the work advances, successive lengths machinery. The annexed of rod are screwed on at the upper end. Three figure shews the essential poles are erected over the well, for the purpose of parts of such

boring elevating the rods, to permit the change of the tools. machine. The drill is inserted The cost of B. varies with the material through THE LEAN in the end of a vertical which the operation is carried on. In strata of P

spindle, P, which revolves moderate hardness, the cost is about 108. a fathom
in a fixed frame, and is for the first ten fathoms, and an additional 6s. for
driven by the bevel-wheels each 5 fathoms beyond.
G. The metal to be bored A simple method of B. has long been in use

is placed on a table or other among the Chinese, by which the great loss of time Boring Machine. support below the drill; and arising from the screwing and unscrewing the rods,

the and down motion, or at each elevation of the chisel or anger, is saved. end-pressure and off-action, of the drill is effected The chisel and scooping instrument are fastened to by the hand-gear, O, N, turning the screw M; a rope, which is alternately elevated and allowed to which being coupled to the top of the spindle descend by the simple force of gravity ; the instruat L, presses it down or raises it, according ment thus forces its way through the ground. In to the way it is turned. The spindle slides verti- the softer rocks of the newer formations this method cally to the collar forming the axis of the bevel has been successfully employed in boring for Artesian wheel, but is carried round with it by means of the wells. pin I, which projects into a groove seen at J.

A still greater saving in time and money has been The boring of Cannon and of Cylinders for obtained by a process invented by M. Fauvelle, steam-engines is most conveniently described under and described by him before the British Association Cannon FOUNDING and CYLINDER; see also LATHE. in 1846. His apparatus consists of a hollow boring

Boring, applied to the earth and to rocks, has rod, formed of wrought-iron tubes screwed end two chief uses. 1. For Draining.--In some districts, to end, armed at the lower end with a hollow owing to the existence, near the surface, of a bed of perforating tool. The upper end of the hollow rod clay impervious to water, the surface-water is retained is connected with a force-pump by a flexible tube. in hollows, of greater or less extent. The expense By means of the force-pump à current of water is of deep draining has been so great as to induce sent down the rod into the bore-hole as it is sunk, proprietors to neglect such land; but this expense and the water coming up again brings with it all has lately been avoided by leading drains to the the drilled particles, so that, except for the renewal lowest portion of the hollow, and then opening of the perforating tool, the rods do not require to be a bore through the clay to the pervious strata of elevated. M. Fauvelle found, by experience, that sand or gravel beneath. This is done by a simple when he was passing through gravel, or required to instrument, an auger of 2] or 3} inches in diameter, bring up considerable masses of broken-off“ rock, it wrought by means of a cross-bar by one or two men. was better to inject the water by the bore-hole and

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let it rise through the hollow tube. In this way he | unhealthy for Europeans, but in the higher grounds, has succeeded in raising stones 24 inches long by 17 towards the north-east, the temperature is generally inch thick.

as moderate as that of Europe. The rainy season BORLASE, REV. WILLIAM, an English antiqua- lasts on the west coast from November to May, and rian, was born at Pendeen, Cornwall, February 2, the thermometer varies in the middle of the day 1696. Ordained a priest in the English Church in from 81° to 91° Fahr. Vegetation is extremely 1720, he was, in 1732, presented to the vicarage of his luxuriant. . Besides vast forests of ironwood, teak, native parish of St. Just. Devoting himself to a study the gutta-percha tree, ebony, &c., the products of of the natural history and antiquities of Cornwall

, the vegetable kingdom include dye-woods, nutmeg he in 1753 published, at the Oxford press, a volume, sago, camphor, cinnamon, citrons, betel, pepper, entitled Observations on the Antiquities, Historical ginger, rice, grain, sweet potatoes, yamis, cotton, and Monumental, of the County of Cornwall. This and bamboo. The animal kingdom rivals the vege. was followed in 1758, by the Natural History of table. It produces elephants, rhinoceroses, leopards, Cornwall, printed at the same press. B. paraphrased bears, tigers, ounces, buffaloes, various kinds of deer, the book of Job, and wrote several pieces of a religious the baby roussa, a pes, amongst which the orangnature, was active in the supervision of his parish, outangs are very numerous, and domestic animals and took an especial interest in the improvement of also eagels, vultures, parrots, owls, the swallows of its highways. But that which makes his name

whose edible nests the Chinese are so fond, birds most interesting now, is the fact that he was one of of paradise, flamingoes, peacocks, &c.; many kinds Pope's correspondents, and furnished to the poet of snakes, lizards, and tortoises ; while in the surmost of the curious fossils of which the Twickenham rounding seas are whales, seals, and cachalots, grotto was composed. He died August 31, 1772. many kinds of fish, and pearl muscles. Among the

mineral products are coal (said to be better than BO'RNEENE, FLUID BORNEO CAMPHOR, Newcastle in quality); gold, which in the district of or OIL OF CAMPIIOR, is a thin liquid, lighter Sambas alone yields half a million of pounds sterling than water, with a fragrant odour (somewhat resem- annually; antimony, iron, tin, and zinc; also rockbling turpentine), obtained by distilling native oil of crystals and diamonds, which sometimes are of 20 to Borneo camphor, or oil of Valerian. The B. is employed in perfuniery.

The population consists chiefly of Malays, Dyaķs, BO'RNEO (called by the natives Pulo-kalamantin), Papus, Chinese, and Bugis. The Malays, who form next to Australia the largest island in the world, the principal and most civilised part of the popuis situated in the Indian Archipelago, and extends lation on the coasts, are very bold, but dangerous from lat. 7° 4' N. to 4° 10' S., and from long. 108° 50' from their rapacity and passion for revenge. They to 119° 20' E. Divided by the equatorial line into are partly Mohammedans and partly heathens, and two portions, nearly equal in surface, though of live, like their countrymen at Malacca, under suldifferent shape, it is bounded on the E. by the Sea tans and rajahs. The Dyaks, dwelling more inland of Celebes and the Macassar Strait, on the S. by the than the Malays, are unquestionably the aboriginal Sea of Java, and on the W. and N. by the China inhabitants of the island. They are well formed, Sea. Its length is about 800 miles, with a breadth yellowish in colour, cruel, and wild. They subsist of 700, and an area estimated at 300,000 square by hunting, fishing, and piracy. Their poisoned miles. The population is variously stated, but the weapons make them formidable enemies; but when probable number is about 2,500,000. The coasts of their favour has been won, they prove trustwortly B., which are often low and marshy, and rendered friends. The principal tribe of them is that of the dangerous to navigation by numerous islets and Kajan. The Papus or Negritos are probably also rocks, present no deep indentatións, though they are aboriginal inhabitants; they live in the deepest pierced by numeroiis small bays and creeks. Of woods and solitudes, in caves, and upon trees, naked, the interior, as yet comparatively little is known. uncivilised, and separate from the rest of mankind. Indeed, with the exception of certain not very The Chinese immigrants, about 250,000 in number, extensive advances inland, made by Dutch and who form an independent commonwealth, and reject British enterprise, from the south and west and the despotic rule of the Dutch, occupy themselves north-west, the country may be said to be wholly with trade and the working of mines; and some of unexplored. Two chains of mountains run throngh them return rich to their native country. Finally, the island in a nearly parallel direction, from south- the Bugis, who have mostly come from Celebes, west to north-east; the one rising in Sarawak (q. V.), live amongst the Dyaks; they are a people of some gradually increases in elevation until it attains in consequence, enriched by trade, and still more by its termination in Mont Kini Balu, on the north daring piracy. coast, a lieight of 13,698 feet-a cross chain, branch- Cultivation may almost be said to be confined to ing off in about lat. 2° N., extends in a south-east the coasts, and is interrupted by many marshes and direction through Banjermassin (q. v.): the other forests. The internal trade is carried on by the range, which is much lower, intersects the equator in Bugis; the export trade by the Malays, the Dutch, long. 113° E. Between are well-watered plains. B. and the British. The imports are opium, tea, and has numerous fine rivers, especially on the north and a few manufactured goods. B. is divided into sevewest coast. About their upper course, however, little ral states. On the west coast lies that of Sanıbas, or nothing is known. The principal are the Batang- whose sultan has a number of rajahs under him. lopar, with a breadth of 4 miles at its mouth in the Within this district are gold diggiligs and diamond China Sea, in lat. 1° 30' N.; the Borneo or Brunai, mines. Besides the Chinese colonies, the most on which Borneo the capital of the island is situated, important towns are Sambas, the residence of the on Seriboe, the Morotaba or Sarawak, the Pon- sultan and a seat of the opium trade, and Pontianak, tianak, and the Majak. On the south are the the centre of the Dutch power on this coast. On Pembuan, Sampet, Mendawa, Kahajan, Murong, and the south-west coast lies the territory of Succadana, Banjer; and on the east, the Koetei and the Berou. or Sacadina, which is subdivided into a number of Several of these rivers reach the sea by wide states; it has been ceded to the Dutch, but is not, estuaries or deltas, and most of them are navigable. properly speaking, governed by them. The capital Kini Balu, south-east of the mountain of the same is Succadana, which has a brisk trade with the name, is the only known lake of any extent. The Chinese, especially in opium. On the south coast is climate in the low grounds is moist, hot, and the state of Banjermassin, under a prince of some

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consequence, who, however, is in some degree sub- summits it appears that they are all in the same ject to the Dutch, whose fort of Tatis is in the plane. The name is perhaps derived from the frevicinity of the capital. On the east coast lie the quent application of the implement to borders or kingdoms of Passir, Kuti Lama, and Tirun ; on the edgings. north-east coast, the kingdom of the sultan of Sulu;

BO'RNU, a powerful state of Central Africa, and on the north-west coast, the Malayan kingdom extending between lat. 10° and 15° N., and long. of B. or Bruni, whose sultan has many rajahs and 12° and 18° E., and bounded on the E. by Lake penjerans under him. The capital is Brunai, or B., Tsad, S. by Mandara, W. by Hausa, and N. by on the river of the same name, a town having a Kanem and the Sahara. The greater part of the considerable trade, especially with Singapore. It

country is perfectly level, and much of it is liable is the residence of a sultan, and contains about to be overflowed in the rainy season, which lasts 20,000 inhabitants. Part of the houses are built on from October to April, when fevers and other rafts and part on stakes, and canals pass through diseases consequently prevail.

The heat from the town in all directions. The Portuguese, March to June is excessive, ranging from 104° 10 who visited B. as early as 1518, effected a settle- 107° F. The two principal rivers are the Shary and ment in 1690 at Banjermassin ; from whence they the Yeou or Yo, both of which fall into Lake Tsad. were, however, soon expelled. The Dutch alone The soil is fertile, and although the cultivation is succeeded in concluding a treaty of commerce with very imperfect, produces plentiful crops of maize, the princes of Banjermassin; ard in 1643 they millet, barley, rice, various kinds of pulse, cotton, erected a fort and a factory at the village of Tatis, and indigo. The inhabitants possess elephants, a second in 1778 at Pontianak, and a number of horses, buffaloes, oxen, sheep, &c. Wild beasts, as others since. The British made unsuccessful lions, panthers, &c., are rery numerous, having their attempts in the years 1702 and 1774 to effect a chief haunts in the forests which occur only in the settlement in B. ; but they have, within the last vicinity of the rivers, and which abound also in twenty years, acquired a preponderating influence on birds of many kinds, snakes, crocodiles, &c. Wild the wiiole western coast. This has been in a great bees are extremely plentiful. The country produces measure owing to the enterprise of Sir James no iron, that which is used being brought from Brooke (q. v.) and his vigorous government as rajah Mandara. Much care is bestowed upon the manuof Sarawak on the north-west coast, and in part facture of coats-of-mail, both for horses and their also to the occupation of the small island of Labuan riders. The only other manufacture carried to any (q. v.) as a colony and naval station. The British considerable extent is that of cotton clotlı, which is government has, however, recently refused, upon dyed with beautiful blue strips by means of indigo, Sir James Brooke's retirement from Sarawak, to and much exported to Fezzan. The population, accept it and annex it to the British empire. which is estimated at from eight to nine millions, The piracy carried on by the inhabitants of B. has are mostly of Negro race, and called Kanowry. The ofien demanded severe chastisement, and piratical ruling race, called Shouas, are of Arab descent, flotillas have been destroyed by the British.-The and bigoted Mohammedans; but many traces of Duteh have also recently extended their dominions Fetishism remain among the masses. Whatever in B., have constituted them into one government, they have of civilisation is derived from the Arabs. hare sent expeditions into the interior, and have re- The slave-trade is eagerly prosecuted, and gives newed their treaties with the native princes.

occasion to many warlike expeditions. B. appears BO'RNEOLE, or BORNEO CAMPHOR. See to have existed as a state for many centuries, but

in the beginning of the present century it was conBO'RNHOLM, an island in the Baltic Sea, quered by the Fellatahs, whose yoke, however, was belonging to Denmark, and situated about 90 miles soon shaken off, under the leadership of a fanatic east from Seeland, and half-way between the island faki, named Mohammed el Amin, whose services of Rügen and the Swedish coast, lat. 54° 59'—55° were called in by the sultan. The Bornuese after18' N., long. 14° 42—-15° 10' E. Area, including wards transferred their allegiance from the sultan to three small islands, in its vicinity, about 230 square Mohammed, whose descendant now rules in Bornu. miles, with a population of 28,949. It is rocky, and BORO BUDDOR (the Great Buddha), a splentraversed from north to south by a high mountain-did Buddhist temple in Java, the most elaborate ridge, the slope of which is in great part a waste monument of the Buddhist style of architecture heath, but elsewhere it is not unfertile, and agri- anywhere existing. Buddhism (4. v.) was probably culture and cattle husbandry are successfully prose- introduced into Java about the 10th or 12th c. of cuted. High cliffs, sand-banks, and breakers, make our era, and the date of the temple is assigned to the coast dangerous. The most notable product of the 14th century. The figure (copied from Fergusthe island is porcelain clay, with which the porcelain son's Ilandbook of Architecture) represents a section manufacture of Copenhagen is carried on. The capi- through one halt, and an elevation of the other half, tal of the island is Rönne, or Rottum, on the western of the building. Mr. Fergusson describes it as a coust, a place of 4500 inhabitants.

nine-storied pyramid of a square form, measuring BOʻRNING-PIECE (Fr. borner, to bound), a about 400 feet across. The five lower stories concommon and very simple instrument, used by sist of narrow terraces running round the building, gardners in laying out grounds, to make the sur- rising on an average about 8 feet the one above the face either level or of perfectly regular slope. It other. On their outer edge is a range of buildings consists of two slips of board, one about 18 inches of the most various and fantastic outline, covered long, and the other about 4 feet, the shorter fastened with small spires and cupolas of various shapes and by the middle to one end of the longer, and at right forms, the principal ones covering 436 niches, occuangles to it. One B. being placed at one end of a pied by as many statnes of Buddha as large as life, line drawn in the piece of ground which is being seated in the usual attitude with his legs crossed. laid out, with the edge of the shorter slip of board Between each of these are one or two bas-reliefs along the line, and the longer slip erect, others of representing the god in the same attitude, besides the same size are similarly placed at the other end architectural ornaments and carvings of all sorts. and in other parts of the line; and the requisite Below these, on the lower story, is an immense basuniformity of surface is obtained by filling up with relief running round the whole building, and conseearth, or removing it, until on looking along their quently 1600 feet long, representing scenes from the

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BORODINO-BOROUGH.

life of Buddha and religious subjects. These are / seated figures, and architectural ornaments carried all on the outside, but the inner faces of the five to an extent unrivalled, so far as I know, by and ranges of buildings are even more profusely and other building in any part of the world. more minutely ornamented with bassi-relievi, and • Above and within the upper square terrace are

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three circular ones, the outer ornamented with 32, | the oxygen of the air. Recently, however, Wöhler the next with 24, and the upper with 16 small and Deville have obtained B. by heating in a domes, each containing a seated statue of Buddha, ! crucible at a high temperature a mixture of pure which can be seen through the open work of their dry boracic acid and the metal aluminium, when the roofs. The whole is surmounted by what must be latter takes the oxygen forming alumina (Al2O3), considered as the pagoda (q. v.) itself, which is now and leaves the B. as minute crystals interspersed empty, its centre being occupied only by a sunken through the earth alumina. These crystals possess chamber 10 feet deep, meant originally, no doubt, to great interest from their similarity in properties to contain the relic for which this splendid temple was pure crystallised carbon, or the diamond, and they erected.' Mr. Fergusson considers that the five lower are now known among scientific chemists as B. terraces are copied from and represent a Buddhist diamonds. They are remarkably transparent, are vihara or monastery; and that the niches contain- tinged yellow or red (though the colours may be ing the cross-legged figures were, in the originals, accidental), and rival the ordinary diamond in their cells, each occupied by a shaven priest. The struc- lustre and refractive power. B. dianionds not only ture is thus a compound of a tope (q. v.) with a scratch glass, but also the corundum and the copy, in durable architecture, of the frail cells of a sapphire; and a real diamond, with which a few vihara.

B. diamonds were crushed, had its edges worn BORODI'NO, a village of Russia, in the govern- away. It is apparent, therefore, that the B. crystals ment of Moskwa, and about 70 miles west from the possess in a high degree the characters of the ordicity of that name. It is situated on the Kalouga, nary diamond; and though they have as yet only an affluent of the Moskwa, and gave name to the been obtained in minute specks, yet it is not too great battle fought between the French army much to expect that the size will be increased, and under Napoleon, and the Russian under Kutusow, the artificial B. diamond come into market as an Barclay de Tolly, and Bagration, 7th September article of ornament, to rival the natural carbon

The battle of B. was one of the most diamond in its mysterious power of flashing back the obstinately disputed in history, and the loss on rays of light. Indeed, so like are these two kinds of both sides was almost equally great. Out of diamonds, that they can scarcely be distinguished 240,000 men engaged, between 70,000 and 80,000 by outward characters or signs; and it has been were killed and wounded. The Russians retreated gravely suggested that some of the diamonds which on the following day, but it was in the most perfect now adorn the brow, the neck, or the arın, may be order, and without the enemy venturing to attack natural B. diamonds. They are very indestructible, them. The Russians, therefore, have always held requiring a high temperature to destroy them; and, this battle as a victory, and in 1839 raised a fine like the true diamond, heat ultimately forms them mausoleum on the battle-field. To the French, how- into a coke. ever, certainly belongs the honour, as they not only BO'ROUGH (Ang. Sax. byrig, burg, burh ; It. remained on the field of battle, but in seven days borgo ; Fr. bourg ; Seot. burgh). The original meanafter, they had pushed on to Moscow. The French ing of this word, by which we now designate a corname it the battle of the Moskwa, from the river porate township, seems to have been a hill, risingof that name, and it gave Marshal Ney his title of ground, or heap of earth ; and it was probably from Prince of Moskwa.

the elevated positions on which places of defence BO'RON is a non-metallic element present in were erected, that it afterwards came to signify Boracic Acid (q. v.) and Borax (q. v.).

a fortification or castle, and latterly the aggregate discovered in 1808 by Gay Lussac and Thenard of houses, churches, and other structures, which, in in France, and Davy in England. The process unsettled times, usually gathered under the walls of followed in procuring B. till lately, was to mix a castle ; together with their inhabitants, and the pure and dry boracic acid (B03) with thin slices arrangements which were made for their governof the metal potassium (K), and heat them in a ment. The questions whether we owe our municitube, when three atoms of the potassium abstracted pal corporations to Roman, or to Saxon and other the oxygen, forming potash (KO), and set free Teutonic influences, or to both; and if to both, then the boron (B). On cooling and washing the mix- to what extent they have severally contributed to ture with cold water, the potash dissolved out, their formation, have been keenly discussed by conand left the B. as a dark greenish-brown powder, stitutional historians. In so far as etymology goes, which, when heated, burned with it green flame, and its authority is pretty equally divided, the term was re-formed into boracic acid, by combining with municipal, from the Latin municipalis, and city,

It was

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