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BENATEK-BENCOOLEN.

by Mirzapore. It extends in N. lat. between 25° 7' | Indies, on the 19th August 1702, he came up and 25° 32', and in E. long. between 82° 45' and with a superior French force under Admiral Du 83° 38'; and thus measuring about 30 miles by Casse. For four days he kept up a running-fight about 55, it embraces an area of about 1000 square with the enemy, almost deserted by the rest of his miles. In 1848, the census gave a population of squadron. On the morning of the 24th, his right leg 741,426, or about 750 to a square mile, the Hindus was smashed by a chain-shot. His officers condoled being 676,050, and all others, 65,376. The district with him. 'I had rather have lost them both,' said is traversed by the Ganges in a north-east direction the sturdy admiral, 'than have seen this dishonour for about 45 miles. Besides other rivers, such as brought upon the English nation. But, hark ye-if the Karamnosa, the Goomtee, and the Burna, and another shot should take me off, behave like men, several inferior streams, lakes and tanks are numer- and fight it out!! As soon as his wound was ous, but small, the largest not exceeding a mile in dressed, he was carried to the quarter-deck, and circuit. The annual rain-fall, though averaging less directed the fight while it lasted. The enemy susthan in the lower parts of the Ganges, is still con- tained severe loss; but the infamous cowardice siderable, always exceeding 30 inches, and amount of the other captains, who actually refused to obey ing in 1823 to 89. Considering that the tract is the admiral's signals, made the contest hopeless, and barely beyond the tropics, and but little elevated B. sailed away to Jamacia. He died of his wound above the sea, the range of the thermometer is on the 4th November. The recusant officers were unusually great, being between 45° in January, and tried by court-martial, and two captains were shot. 111° in May. The mean temperature is stated at B.'s employment of explosive vessels at St Malo, 77o, pretty near the middle point between the two seems to have been an anticipation of Lord Dunextremes. The soil, though here and there sterile, donald's method at Basque Roads. is in general characterised by great fertility, more BENCH. a. hall or court where justice is admin. particularly to the left of the Ganges.

ne branges.

In the lister

In the istered. In this sense, however, it has in modern growth of opium, indigo, and sugar--more especially | times received a more limited acceptation, signiof the last the district surpasses nearly every other fu portion of British India. In fact, the state of agri- 1 chamber where the judges sit to administer the

fying the dais or elevated part of a court-room or culture is such as may be expected from the density law

ty laws. In English courts of justice, this seat is in of the population. The rich fields, the thriving form literally a bench or couch running along one villages, and the luxuriant groves, render the aspect of the country very delightful; and perhaps the their places on this bench being marked by separate

e aspect end of the court-room, the number of judges and best proof of the presence of industry and civilisa- |

desks, one for each judge; but in Scotland and tion is the fact, that elephants, rhinoceroses, buffaloes,

noceroses, ou aloes, Ireland, the arrangement is different, the judges in lions, and tigers, which were hunted in 1529, have

020, have these countries sitting on chairs placed at a long entirely disappeared. After a Hindu domination,

n; and, as in Scotland, a semicircular, table, which is in according to popular faith, of 2400 years, the district

a raised position. The term B. is also applied, by sank under the Mussulman yoke in 1193; and, in

way of distinction, to the judges themselves as a the first half of the 16th c., it was annexed by

by class; thus, we speak of the B. and bar. It has Baber to the Mogul Empire. On the dismember-| likewise popularly and conventionally, an eccle. ment of that dominion, it fell to the share of the

siastical application, the bishops of the Church of Nawab of Oude, whose grandson, in 1775, ceded items

England being, as a body, sometimes designated by to the East India Company, about ten years after i

it; hence the expression, ‘B. of Bishops. See BANC. that body had acquired the sovereignty of Bengal.

BENCH, Common, COURT OF. This is a BENA'TEK, a small town of Bohemia, on the

technical name sometimes given to the Court of right bank of the Iser, a few miles distant from

Common Pleas. See COURTS OF COMMON LAW. Prague. It is worthy of note as being for a long time the residence of the celebrated astronomer

1 BENCH, King's or QUEEN's, the supreme court of Tycho Brahé.

common law in the kingdom. See COURTS OF Com

MON LAW.
BENBECU'LA, one of the Hebrides or Western
Isles of Scotland, between North and South Uist,

BENCH, UPPER, the name given to the Court of 20 miles west of Skye, and belonging to Inverness

King's Bench, in the time of Cromwell. See precedshire. It is 8 miles long, and 8 broad, low and flat,

ing notice, and Courts oF Common Law. and consists chiefly of bog, sand, and lake, resting BENCHERS. The governing bodies of the four on a substratum of gneiss rock, with a very broken great Law Societies in England, or Inns of Court coast-line. Pop. 1718, consisting of fishermen and Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple, Middle Temple, and small farmers, who fertilise the soil with the sea- Gray's Inn—are so called. They are generally weed which is cast ashore on the island.

Queen's counsel or barristers of distinction; and BENBOW, John, a brave English admiral, was they annu

they annually elect a president or treasurer, as he: horn in Shropshire in 1650. He first distinguished |

ed is called, who takes the chair at their corporate himself as captain of a merchantman in a bloody meetings, and speaks and acts in their name. See action with Salle pirates. He attracted the notice

INNS OF COURT. of James II., who gave him a commission in the

| BENCH-WARRANT, is a warrant signed by a bavy. After the Revolution, he obtained the com- superior judge or two justices of the peace, during inand of a large ship, and in the course of a few the assizes or sessions, to apprehend a defendant, years was made rear-admiral. The hiớh confidence against whom a bill of indictment has been found. reposed in him by King William is borne in memory | See WARRANT. by a very bad pun on his name, said to have been BENCOOʻLEN, a Dutch establishment on the perpetrated by the taciturn monarch. Objecting south-west coast of Sumatra, near the outer entrance to several names proposed for the command of an of the Strait of Sunda, being in lat. 3° 47' S., and expedition, he said: No; these are all fresh-water long. 102° 19' E. It was founded by the English in beaus, we need another kind of beau : we must send | 1685; but, in 1825, it was exchanged for the Dutch Benbow. The most memorable of this gallant possessions in the peninsula of Malacca. Its popusailor's exploits was his last, where his stubborn lation is said to be about 13,000. Its principal valour contrasted nobly with the dastardly beha- export is pepper; and its external trade is carried viour of his captains. Off St. Martha, in the West I on chiefly with Batavia, Bengal, and Holland.

25

BEND-BENEDICITE.

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BEND, one of the honourable ordinaries, or more of Schadow's, and his portrait of her is one of his best important figures in Heraldry. It is formed by works.

two parallel lines, which may be BENDER, a fortified town, with a citadel, in the either straight, or indented, engrailed, province of Bessarabia, Russia. The town is situ&c. (q. v.), drawn from the dexter to ated on the right bank of the Dniester, 48 miles the sinister base, and consequently from its mouth, and has paper-mills, tanneries, passing athwart the shield. The B. forges, and saltpetre-works. Pop. 15,000, including occupies a fifth part of the shield in many Armenians, Tartars, Moldavians, and Jews.

breadth, if plain ; and a third part, | In 1770, the Russians captured the place, and put Bend. if charged. The B. is supposed to the garrison and inhabitants, then amounting to

represent a shoulder-belt, or scarf about 30,000, to the sword. It was restored to the worn over the shoulder. When heralds speak of | Turks in 1774, and again stormed by the Russians ithe B., simply the B. dexter is understood, the B. in 1809. The peace of Jassy gave it back to the sinister being always expressly mentioned

Turks, from whom it was again taken by the Bend Sinister is the bend dexter reversed, and Russians in 1811, who were confirmed in the pospassing from the left to the right side of the shield, session of it by the treaty of Bucharest in the as the dexter does from the right to the left. See | following year.-Charles XII. of Sweden lived for Bar and BASTARD BAR.

some time, 1709-1712, at Varnitza, a village near There are four diminutives of the Bend-viz., the Bender. bendlet, the garter, the cost, and the ribbon.

BE'NDIGO, one of the most productive goldfields in the colony of Victoria, having, in 1857, yielded, according to the official returns, 525,018 ounces. It is about 25 miles to the north of Mount Alexander, which, again, is about 75 miles inland from Melbourne.

BE'NÉ, a town of about 6000 inhabitants, in the

province of Mondori, Piedmont, 18 miles north-east Bendlet.

Garter.

of Coni. It occupies the site of the ancient Augusta Bagiennorum, destroyed by Alaric. Many interesting vestiges are found in the neighbourhood; and the ruins of an aqueduct, baths, and amphitheatre are still visible.

BENEDEK, LUDWIG Von, an Austrian general, born in 1804' at Odenburg, in Hungary, where his

father was a physician of repute. He received his Cost.

Ribbon.

military education at the Neustädt Academy, and at

its close entered the army as ensign in 1822. In The terms in bend, per bend, bendy, &c., are of

1843, he was promoted to the rank of senior lieufrequent occurrence in heraldic works, and signify

tenant, and on the occasion of the insurrection that the charge is placed, or the shield divided,

ed, in Galicia in 1846, had several opportunities of diagonally in the direction of the bend.

distinguishing himself. In August 1817, as comBEND is the name for one among many kinds of mandant of Count Gyulai's infantry-regiment, he knot by which ropes are fastened on shipboard. moved to Italy, where a still more brilliant career Seamen imply this meaning when they speak of

awaited him. On the occasion of the retreat from 'bending the cable,' bending a sail,' the carrick

Milan, and especially after Curtalone, where he had B.,' the .fishermen's B.,' the sheet-B.,' &c.

led on the assault with great skill and gallantry, BENDEMANN, EDUARD, one of the most distin- his name was mentioned in the army reports by guished painters of the Düsseldorf school, was born Marshal Radetsky in the highest terms; and, in Berlin in 1811. Although he had received a very consequently, he received the cross of the Order of careful scientific education, he devoted himself to Maria Theresa. He afterwards distinguished himart, became a pupil of Schadow's, and soon proved | self at the taking of Mortara, and in the battle of that he had not mistaken his vocation. As early as Novara. In April 1849 he was made major-general 1832, his great picture of the Captive Jews was and brigadier of the first body of reserve of the exhibited at Berlin, and at once acknowledged to army of the Danube. He commanded the avantbe a master-piece. His next important work, in garde at Raab and Oszony, and received a slight 1833, represented Two Girls at a Fountain. It was wound in the affair at Uj-Szegedin ; which did not, followed, in 1837, by Jeremiah at the Ruins of however, prevent him from taking a most active Jerusalem, a very large picture, which excited uni- | part in the subsequent engagements of Szörny and versal enthusiasm in Paris, where it was exhibited, Ozs Ivany, where he was wounded in the foot. At and for which he obtained a prize-medal. In 1838, the close of the Hungarian campaign, he was ordered B. was summoned to Dresden as member of the again, high in command, to Italy. In the Italian Academical Council, and professor of the Academy campaign of 1859, B. commanded the eighth corps of of Art; and the execution of the largest frescoes the Austrians. At Solferino, B. occupied the ground in the palace was intrusted to his skill. An affec-between Pozzolengo, and San Marino, and drove tion of the eyes, from which he suffered for several back the Piedmontese with great slaughter, but years, interrupted the work, which is now, however, was ordered to retreat by the emperor, whom he completed, and embraces a wide range of historical obeyed with tears in his eyes. In the war with and mythological subjects. B.'s artistic bias is Prussia he commanded the Austrian army at the characteristic of the Düsseldorf school, his pictures | battle of Sadowa, July 3, 1866, but was soon after being rather lyrical than dramatic. But he is superseded by the Archduke Albert. distinguished by a peculiar grace and charm of BENEDI'CITE, a hymn or song of the three his own, arising from a most perfect symmetry in children in the fiery furnace, sung in the Christian drawing and composition, an exquisite naïveté in Church as early as the time of St. Chrysostom, and conception, and a tender, harmonious, yet always used in the Anglican Church in the morning-services truthful colouring. He married, in 1838, a daughter / when the Te Deum is not sung.

BENEDICT.

BENEDICT, SAint, the founder of monachism, afterwards to many secular productions. It is in the west, was born of a rich and respected family remarkable that the founder of the most learned of at Nursia, in Umbria, Italy, 480 A. D. At an early all the monastic orders was himself so little of a age B. was sent to the schools of literature and scholar, that St Gregory the great described him jurisprudence at Rome, but soon grew dissatisfied as being 'scienter nesciens, et sapienter indoctuswith the sterile character of the instruction dis- learnedly ignorant, and wisely unlearned. St B. pensed. The world was full of distractions, impuri- died March 21, 543. ties, and ignorance, but the learned doctors, under BENEDICT is the name of fourteen popes. Of whom he studied, were like their heathen predeces- these only the following are historically important sors, serenely unconscious of the colossal evils by enough to deserve special mention.—BENEDICT which men were environed; only, therefore, in the VIII., son of Count Gregory of Tuscoli, was elected devotions of religion, in the holy silence of solitary in 1012; but was driven from Rome by the antimeditation, did B. see a safe refuge from the sins of pope Gregory. In 1014, he was restored to the the time, and the possibility of realising a spiritual popal chair by the Emperor Henry II., and afterstrength which would enable him to stem the tide wards defeated the Saracens, and took from them, of corruption that was setting in. He resolved to with the help of the Pisans and Genoese, the island leave the city, and betake himself to some deep of Sardinia ; and also various places in Apulia from solitude in which the murmur of the world would be the Greeks, by the help of Henry. He distinguished inaudible, and alone in the rocky wilderness wrestle himself as a reformer of the clergy, and interdicted, with his own nature, until he had conquered it at the synod of Pavia, both clerical marriage and and laid it a sacrifice on the altar of God. In pur- concubinage. He died in 1024.-BENEDICT IX., a suance of this resolution, when he had only reached, nephew of the preceding, was elected pope during according to some, the age of 14, he departed from his boyhood, in 1033; but in 1038, the Romans Rome, accompanied for the first 24 miles by the rose in indignation, and banished him on account of nurse whom his parents had sent with him as an his almost unexampled licentiousness. He was attendant to the city. B. then left her, and retired reinstated by Conrad II. ; again formally deposed to a deserted country lying on a lake, hence called by the faction of Consul Ptolemæus, and the antiSublacum (now Subiaco). Here, in a cavern (which pope, Sylvester III. ; and after three months, was afterwards received the name of the Holy Grotto), once more installed as pope by means of bribery. he dwelt for three years, until his fame spread He sold his papal dignity to John Gratianusover the country, and multitudes came to see Gregory VI.—but was still regarded as pope. The him. He was now appointed abbot of a neigh- Emperor Henry III., to remove such gross scandals bouring monastery; but soon left it, as the from the church, deposed all the three popes-B., morals of the half-wild monks were not severe Sylvester, and Gregory-at the synod of Sutri enough for his taste. This, however, only excited a in 1046; but after the death of Clement II., 1047 livelier interest in his character, and as he lived in who was probably poisoned-the deposed B. IX. a period when the migration and interfusion of again gained the papal see by force of bribery, races and nations were being rapidly carried on, and held it eight months, until 1049, when he was he could not fail to draw crowds of wanderers displaced, first by Damasus II., and afterwards by about him. Wealthy Romans also placed their sons Leo IX. He then sank into obscurity, and died in under his care, anxious that they should be trained some convent.--BENEDICT XIII., 1724–1730, was a for a spiritual life. B. was thus enabled to found learned and well-disposed man, of simple habits and twelve cloisters, over each of which he placed a pure morals, though rather strict in his notions of superior. The savage Goths even were attracted the papal prerogative. He unfortunately yielded to him, and employed in the useful and civilising himself to the guidance of Cardinal Coscia, a greedy, practice of agriculture, gardening, &c. He now unscrupulous personage, who greatly abused the sought another retreat, and, along with a few confidence reposed in him. B. always exhibited followers, founded a monastery on Monte Cassino, great moderation in politics, and an honourable love near Naples, afterwards one of the richest and of peace, and was instrumental in bringing about the most famous in Italy. Here he extirpated the Seville treaty of 1729. During this pontificate, a lingering relics of paganism, and had his cele remarkably large number of saints, chiefly from the brated interview with Totila, king of the Goths, to monastic orders, were added to the calendar.whom he spoke frankly and sharply on his errors. BENEDICT XIV. (PROSPERO LAMBERTINI), the most In 515, he is said to have composed his Regulo worthy to be remembered of all the pontiffs so Monachorum, in which he aimed, among other named, was born at Bologna in 1675. Before his things, at repressing the irregular and licentious life elevation to the papal chair, he had distinguished of the wandering monks, by introducing stricter himself by extensive learning, and the faithful discipline and order. It eventually became the discharge of his duties in the several offices of common rule of all western monachism. The Promotor Födeí, Bishop of Ancona (1727,) cardinal monasteries which B. founded were simply religious (1728), and Archbishop of Bologna (1732). Succeedcolleges, intended to develop a high spiritual char-ing Clement XII., he began his pontificate, in 1740, acter, which might beneficially influence the world. with several wise and conciliatory measures; founded To the abbot was given supreme power, and he was chairs of physic, chemistry, and mathematics in told to acquit himself in all his relations with the Rome; revived the academy of Bologna, and instiwisdom of God, and of his Master. The discipline tuted others; dug out the obelisk in the Campus recommended by St B. is, nevertheless, milder than Martius, constructed fountains, rebuilt churches; that of oriental monachism with regard to food, caused the best English and French books to be clothing, &c.; but enjoins continual residence in the translated into Italian; and, in many other ways, monastery, and, in addition to the usual religious proved himself the zealous friend and munificent exercises, directs that the monks shall employ them- patron of literature and science. His piety was selves in manual labours, imparting instruction to sincere, enlightened, and tolerant, and his doctrines youth, copying manuscripts for the library, &c. By were well exemplified in his practice. He was this last injunction, St B., though without intending extremely anxious that the morals of the clergy so to do, preserved many of the literary remains should be untainted; and, to that effect, established of antiquity; for the injunction, which he gave a board of examiners for all candidates to vacant vnly with regard to religious books, was extended sees. In proof of his toleration, he shewed the

27

BENEDICTINES-BENEDICTION.

frankest kindness to all strangers visiting his capital, of Dunfermline, Coldingham, Kelso, Arbroath, whatever the nature of their religious opinions. The Paisley, Melrose, Newbottle, Dundrennan, and only accusation brought against him by his Roman others. In Germany, several Benedictine monks subjects was, that he wrote and studied too much, distinguished themselves as promoters of education buť ruled too little,' or left affairs of business too in the 10th c.; while in the latter half of the much in the hands of the Cardinal Valentine. After 11th c., the B. Lanfranc and Anselm, archbishops a painful illness, B. XIV. died May 3, 1758.--His of Canterbury, laid the foundation of medieval most important work is that on Synods. A complete scholasticism. In Italy, also, the B. gained disedition of his writings was published under the care tinction as literati, jurists, and physicians; but of the Jesuit de Azevedo (12 vols., Rome, 1747– | alniost everywhere corruption of manners appears 1751), and in 16 vols., Venice, 1777.

to have accompanied increasing wealth, until graduBENEDICTINES. the general name of all the ally it became the practice to receive, almost monks following the rule of St Benedict. The first exclusively, the sons of noble and wealthy persons Benedictine monastery was that founded at Monte as novices among the 'Black Monks. Several Cassino, in the kingdom of Naples, about 529. by St / of the popes attempted a reformation of the order, Benedict himself. The order increased so rapidly. I and at the general Council of Constance, 1416. after the 6th c. that the B. must be regarded as the a plan of reform was laid down, but failed in main agents in the spread of Christianity, civilisa

being carried into practice. In the 15th c., the B. tion, and learning in the west. They are said at

said at had 15,107 monasteries, of which only 5000 were one time to have had as many as 37,000 monasteries,

{ left after the Reformation, and now not more and counted among their branches the great order

than about 800 can be counted. As early as 1354, of Clugny, founded about 910; the still greater order

this order could boast of having numbered among of the Cistercians, founded in the following cen- its followers 24 popes, 200 cardinals, 7000 archtury: the congregations of Monte Cassino in 1408. bishops, 15,000 bishops. 1560 canonised saints. of St Vanne in 1600, and of St Maur on the Loire, and 5000 holy persons judged worthy of canonisain 1627. To this last congregation all the Benedic- tion, and 37,000 monasteries, besides 20 emperors, tine houses in France were affiliated. It had after- 10 empresses, 47 kings, above 50 queens, 20 sons of wards its chief seat at St Maur, near Vincennes, and emperors, 48 sons of kings, 100 princesses, and an more lately at St Germain-des-Prés, near Paris.

Tra immense number of the nobility.
Its

Tanner (Notit. fine conventual buildings at St Maur on the Loire, |

Loima | Monast.) enumerates 113 abbeys and other instituwere destroyed during the revolutionary troubles.

stions of B. in England, and 73 houses of BeneNumbering among its monks such scholars as

dictine nuns. From their dress—a long black Mabillon, Montfaucon, Sainte-Marthe, D'Achery,

gown, with a cowl or hood of the same, and a Martene. Durand. Rivet. Clemencet.. Carpentier scapulary--the B. were commonly styled 'Black Toustain, and Tassin, it has rendered

Corvices Monks.
services

The institution of convents for nuns of to literature which it would be difficult to over

this order cannot be traced back beyond the 7th c. estimate. Besides admirable editions of many of

The rule of St Benedict was less severe than that the fathers, the world of letters owes to the B. of St which the eastern ascetics followed. Besides implicit Maur, the Art de Vérifier les Dates (1783-1787, in 3 |

obedience to their superior, the B. were to shun vols. fol.); a much enlarged edition of Ducange's

laughter, to hold no private property, to live sparely, Glossarium Medio et Infimce Latinitatis (1733—

to exercise hospitality, and, above all, to be industri1736, in 6 vols. fol.), with a Supplement (1766, in 4

ous. Compared with the ascetic orders, the B., both vols. fol.); the De Re Diplomatica (1681 and 1709,

in dress and manners, may be styled the gentlemanly fol.); the Nouveau Traité de Diplomatique (1750

order of monks; and whatever may be said of their 1765 in 6 vols. 4to); L'Antiquité Expliquée (1719

religion, they deserve a high tribute of respect for 1724, in 15 vols. fol.); the Monuments de la Monarchie

their artistic diligence and literary undertakings. Francaise (1729_1733. in 5 vols. fol.); the Acta Speaking of the great productions of the B. above Sanctorum S. Benedicti (1688-1702. in 9 vols, fol.): noticed, Sir Walter Scott characterises them as the Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti (1713_1739, in 6 ) works of general and permanent advantage to vols. fol.); a new and much improved edition of the the W

roved edition of the the world at large; shewing that the revenues Gallia Christiana (1715-1856, in 14 vols. fol.): the of the B. were not always spent in self-indul. Veterum Scriptorum Spicilegiuin (1653_1677. in 13 | gence, and that the members of that order did vols. 4to): the De Antiguis Monachorum Ritibus not uniformly slumber in sloth and indolence.' (1690, in 2 vols. 4to); the De Antiquis Ecclesice

| Among the chief works on the history of the Ritibus (1700--1702, in 3 vols. 4to); the Thesaurus | B.

wie B. are the Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti, and the Novus Anecdotorum (1717, in 5 vols. fol.); the

the | Acta Sanctorum S. Benedicti, already referred to; Veterum Scriptorum et Monumentorum Amplissima Reyner's Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia Collectio (1724-1733, in 9 vols. fol.); the Histoire

|(Douai, 1626, fol.); the Bullarium Cassinense Litteraire de la France (1733 1749, in 9 vols. 4to). /

(Venice, 1650, 2 vols. fol.); Tassin's Histoire de The B. were suppressed in France, along with the la Congregation de St Maur (Paris, 1770); other monastic orders, at the Revolution in 1792;

Chronică de la Order de San Benito (Salamanca, and their splendid conventual buildings at St Maur

1609—1512, 7 vols. fol.); Regula S. Benedicti et on the Loire were destroyed. They have lately been

Constitutiones Congregationis S. Mauri (Paris, 1.70, revived; and the B. of Solesme, established in 1837, aspiring to follow in the footsteps of the B. of St BENEDI'CTION (from the Lat. benedicere, to Maur, have resumed some of the works which that speak well), signifies a solemn invocation of the hody left unfinished, and entered on literary enter. Divine blessing upon men or things. The ceremony prises of their own, such as the Spicilegium Solesmense, in its simplest form may be considered almost coeval in 10 vols. 4to, of which three have already appeared. with the earliest expressions of religious feeling. We The chief B. houses in Germany were those of know from Holy Writ that the Jewish patriarchs Prüm, Ratisbon, Fulda, Ellwang, and Saltzburg ; before they died invoked the blessing of God upon in Spain, they had Valladolid, Burgos, and Mont. their children, and at a later period the priests were serrat; in Italy, Monte Cassino, Padua, and Capua. commanded to implore the Divine blessing upon the In England, most of the richest abbeys and all people. Christ sanctioned the custom, which was the cathedral priories (excepting Carlisle) belonged to consequently carried forward into the primitive this order. In Scotland the B. had the monasteries church, where it gradually developed itself in

[graphic]

BENEDICTUS_BENEFIT SOCIETIES.

W

different forms, till, under the elaborate ritual of the bishop within whose province or diocese they are
papacy, it has come to be considered an essential locally situated.
preliminary to almost all important acts, and is There are, in general, four requisites to the enjoy.
often performed with great pomp. One of the most ment of a benefice. Ist, Holy orders, or ordination
superb spectacles that a stranger at Rome can witness, at the hands of a bishop of the established church
occurs on Easter Sunday, when the pope, in his or other canonical bishop (a Roman Catholic priest
august robes of office, and attended by his cardinals, may hold a benefice in the Church of England on
pronounces after mass, in the presence of worship- abjuring the tenets of his church, but he is not
ping thousands, a solemn B. urbi et orbi (on the city ordained again); 2d, Presentation, or the formal
and the world). The B., however, is not confined gift or grant of the B. by the lay or ecclesiastical
to a form of prayer, but is accompanied with sprink- patron; 3d, Institution at the hands of the bishop,
ing of holy-water, use of incense, anointing, making by which the cure of souls is committed to the
the sign of the cross, &c. The cases in which a B. clergyman; and 4th, Induction, which is performed
is bestowed are too numerous to mention, but the by a mandate from the bishop to the archdeacon to
chief are as follows: The coronation of kings and give the clergyman possession of the temporalities.
queens, the confirmation of all church dignitaries, Where the bishop is himself also patron, the pre-
and the consecration of church vessels, bells, and sentation and institution are one and the same
sacred robes; the nuptial ceremony, the absolution act, and called the collation to the benefice. In
of the sick penitent (called the Beatific B.), and Scotland, the law on this subject is regulated by
the last sacrament. Besides these, lands, houses, the 6 and 7 Vict. c. 61, passed in 1843, and com-
cattle, &c., often receive a B. from the priest. In monly called Lord Aberdeen's Act. See ESTATE,
the English church-service, there are two benedic- LIVING, PARISH, PLURALITIES.
tions; in the Scotch, only one. In the Greek

BENEFI'CIARY is a legal term sometimes
Church, when the B. is being pronounced, the priest.

applied to the holder of a benefice. It may also denote disposes his fingers in such a manner as to convey

a person who is in the enjoyment of any interest or symbolically to those of the faithful who are

he estate held in trust by others, in which latter sense close enough to observe the arrangement, the

| it is strictly and technically used in the law of Scotdoctrine of the Trinity and the twofold nature of Christ.

land, all having right or interest in trust-funds and

estate being in that system called beneficiaries. The BENEDI'CTUS, in Music, a portion of the service technical term in the law of England corresponding of the mass of the Roman Catholic Church, also in- to this latter meaning of the word is cestui que trust troduced in the service of the Anglican Church, in the (q. v.). Patent rights and copyrights are denomimorning prayer, but with English words.

nated B. privileges. See Trust and TRUSTEE. BE'NEFICE, or BENEFICIUM (Lat. (a good BE'NEFIT SOCI'ETIES, associations for mutual deed,' also a favour,' and hence a grant,' or 'a benefit chiefly among the labouring classes, and provision' generally, and now more especially, a of which there are now great numbers; being better provision made for an ecclesiastical person), was a known under the name of FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, we term formerly applied to feudal estates, but is now refer for an account of them to that head. Meanused to denote certain kinds of church preferment, while, we confine attention to that particular species such as rectories, vicarages, and other parochial of associations called BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES. cures, as distinguished from bishoprics, deaneries, These are societies established for the purpose of and other ecclesiastical dignities or offices. In this raising, by periodical subscriptions, a fund to assist sense a distinction is accordingly taken by the 1 members in obtaining small portions of heritable and 2 Vict. c. 106, s. 124, between benefices and property, freehold, or otherwise. They are now cathedral preferments ; by the former being meant regulated by an act of parliament passed in 1836, all parochial or district churches, and endowed the 6 and 7 Will. IV. c. 32, which, it is declared, chapels and chapelries; by the latter, all deaneries, shall extend to all societies established prior to archdeaconries, and canonries, and generally all June of the same year. This act declares it shall dignities and offices in any cathedral or collegiate be lawful to establish such societies, for the purpose church, below the rank of a bishop. See note in of enabling the members to erect and purchase 3. Stephen's Com., p. 27. By the 5 and 6 Vict. c. dwelling-houses, or acquire other real or lease27, s. 15, which is an act to enable incumbents to hold 'estate, but which shall be mortgaged to the devise lands on farming leases, it is enacted that society until the amount or value of the shares the word B. shall be construed to comprehend all drawn on shall be fully repaid with interest and all such parochial preferment as we have above de- other appropriate payments. A share is not to exceed scribed, 'the incumbent of which, in right thereof, in value £150, and the corresponding monthly subshall be a corporation sole' (q. v.); and by an act scription is not to be more than twenty shillings. A passed in the same session, chapter 108, being an act majority of the menibers may make rules and for enabling ecclesiastical corporations to grant long regulations for the government and guidance of leases, it is, by section 31, declared that B. shall the society, such rules not being repugnant to the mean every rectory, with or without cure of souls, provisions of the act, nor to the general laws of vicarage, &c., the incumbent or holder of which shall the realm ; and for offences against these rules and be a corporation sole. But by a later act, the 13 regulations, fines, penalties, and forfeitures may be and 14 Vict. c. 98, which is an act to extend a former inflicted. No meniber shall be allowed to receive act, the 1 and 2 Vict. c. 106, against pluralities, the any interest or dividend on his share until the samo term B. is, by section 3, explained to mean B. with has been realised, except on the withdrawal of such the cure of souls and no other, anything in any member according to the rules of the society. other act to the contrary notwithstanding. Bene- The 4th section of the act appears to suggest, fices are also exempt or peculiar, by which is meant in the present state of the law, something like a that they are not to be under the ordinary control difficulty as to the precise legal character and posiand administration of the bishop; but, by section tion of these societies, unless it may be held to be 108 of the 1 and 2 Vict. c. 106, above mentioned, it removed substantially by the enactments of a recent is provided that such exempt or peculiar benefices act, which we shall presently notice. By the 4th secshall nevertheless, and so far as relates to pluralities tion referred to, all the provisions of two previous and residence, be subject to the archbishop or acts relating to friendly societies the 10 Geo. IV.

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