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from civitas, favouring the Roman view; whilst which the youngest son inherits the property within B. from the root above indicated, and town, from borough in preference to luis elder brothers. The the Saxon tun or dun, a fortified hill, support the reason assigned for it is, that the youngest son, on Teutonic. But the discussion forms a branch of a account of his tender age, is not so capable as his very wide subject, which has divided recent writers elder brothers to maintain himself. A posthumous into two opposite schools, and of which we can here son is entitled to this privilege, and dispossesses his only indicate the existence. On the Roman side, elder brother. The right of representation also Sir Francis Palgrave is the most uncompromising, exists with reference to it, for should the youngest and Mr. Allen, as it seems to us, the more judicious son die in his father's lifetime leaving a daughter, champion. The Teutonic side is espoused by most of she will inherit the property. This custom obtains the Anglo-Saxon scholars of England, and in general in the manor of Lambeth, Surrey, in the manors of by German writers. But from whatever source Hackney, St. John of Jerusalem in Islington, Hestan, derived, that the boroughs of England existed, not and Edmonton in Middlesex and in other counties. as aggregates of houses merely, but as corporate See Custom, GAVELKIND, INHERITANCE.

. bodies, in the Saxon time, is now generally admitted.

BOROUGH FUND. This is a fund which is The B. system of Scotland is also of great antiquity. - A Hanse, or confederation of boroughs for mutuai expressly defined by the Municipal Corporations defence and the protection of trade, existed, in Act

, 5 and 6 Will. IÙ. c. 76, by which it is declared Scotland, and was known by this name in the and the interest, dividends, and annual proceeds of

that the rents and profits of all hereditaments, reign of David I., about

a century before the formation of the Hanseatic League of the con

all moneys, dues, chattels, and valuable securities tinental cities; and the famous burgh laws date in conjunction with a borough in the schedules, or

belonging or payable to any body corporate named from about the same period. This code of Scotch burghal regulation, in Mr. Innes's opinion, though to any member or officer thereof, in his corporate collected in the reign of David, and sanctioned by offence against this act (the application of which has

capacity, and every fine or penalty for every him, was the result of the experience of the towns of England and Scotland;' and he goes on to shew not been already provided for), shall be paid to the the very close resemblance between these laws which he shall so receive shall be carried by him to

treasurer of such borough ; and all the moneys and the burghal usages of Newcastle, and even of the account of a fund to be called “The Borough Winchester, which seems to suggest their common fund;' and such fund, subject to certain payments Saxon origin. Mr. Innes speaks favourably of the and 'deductions, shall be applied towards the payB. life of our ancestors ; and he considers the burgh domestic architecture, of which monuments and of the police magistrate, when there is a

ment of the salary of the mayor, and of the recorder, remain sufficient to shew that “the burgess of recorder or police magistrate, and of the respective the Reformation period lived in greater decency salaries of the town-clerk and treasurer, and of numerous following, which no doubt gave dignity every other officer whom the council shall'appoint; if it diminished food. I am not sure that this class has gone on progressively, either in outward signs the property of corporations in boroughs, which,

The Court of Chancery exercises jurisdiction over of comfort, or in education and accomplishment, since the Municipal Corporations Act, are equal to their neighbours. The reason, I suppose, sidered to hold their property in trust for charitable is obvious. The Scotch burgher, when successful, does not set himself to better his condition and his uses; and the trusts are applicable as well to the

personal as to the real estate. See Grant on family within the sphere of his success, but leaves it, and seeks what he deems a higher. In confir- Corporations, 1850; and sce Fund. mation of this view, Mr. Innes elsewhere mentions BOROUGH JUSTICES were first created in that many of the old citizen-merchants of Edin- the time of Charles I. Under the Municipal Corburgh had studied at the university, and appear in porations Act, 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76, these justices the list of graduates.'

consist of the mayor during his year of office, and for Borough, in England, is properly a city or other one year after it determines; the recorder ex officio; town that sends burgesses to parliament-a privilege, and such persons as the crown may appoint by conthe nature and extent of which will be explained mission. Their duties cannot be delegated ; and under PARLIAMENT, and PARLIAMENTARY REFORM before acting, they must make the same declaration, ACTS (q. v.); and in this sense it is also called and take the same oaths the recorder does on entera parliamentary borough. But in the interpretation ing his office. See JUSTICES. clause of the Municipal Reformi Act, 5 and 6 Will. BOROUGH LAWS, in Scottish legal history, c. 76, s. 142, the word borough is declared, for the was the name given to a collection of ancient laws purposes of the act, to mean a city, borough, port, relative to boroughs or burghs, which have long cinque port, or town corporate, and whether sending ceased to have any force, but serve to throw representatives to parliament or not. See Muni- light on the ancient manners and customs of the CIPAL B., MUNICIPAL CORPORATION, and MUNICIPAL country. The authenticity of these B. L. is beyond CORPORATIONS ACT.

qurstion; they are universally allowed to have been BO'ROUGHBRIDGE, a town in West Riding, enacted in the reign of King David in the 12th Yorkshire, on the right bank of the Ure, here navi- century. See REGIAM MAJESTATEM. gable for small-craft, 17 miles north-west of York.

BOROUGH RATE is a rate raised and levied İt arose simultaneously with the decline of Ald- within borough hy order of the council of the same; borough, 14 mile to the east, soon after the Con- and it has been decided by the Court of Exchequer quest, when the great north road was diverted from that such rate is valid, though not made in public. Aldborough to this place. Its chief trade is in agri- By the 92d section of the Municipal Corporations cultural produce and hardware. Pop. 1095. Edward Act. 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 76, where there is a II., in 1321, defeated the Earl of Lancaster here. deficiency of the borough fund (q. v.), the borough Near B. are three immense Druid stones, called the council is authorised and required from time to • Devil's Arrows,' 16 to 22 feet high.

time to order a B. R. in the nature of a county BOROUGH ENGLISH is a custom that prevails rate (q. v.) to be made within their borough, in some ancient boroughs in England, according to for which purpose the council shall have all the




It has


powers of county justices. As to boroughs not, as legate, and in discharging the duties of offices within the Municipal Corporations Act, the levy- connected with ecclesiastical administration ing and application of borough rates in them is Rome. Surrounded as he was with magnificence and regulated by the 17 and 18 Vict. c. 71, by the luxury, he was always grave, pious, and rigid in first section of which it is enacted that the justices his life, studious, and a patron of letters. His uncle, of the peace may make a B. R. in the nature of a the pope, made him his grand penitentiary, and did county rate, for all the purposes for which a B. R. nothing considerable without his co-operation. It may be levied, such borough justices also having was in a great measure by his influence that the the same powers as county justices. The council re-opening of the Council of Trent was accomplished, of a borough cannot make a retrospective rate ; and and that its deliberations were brought to a conthe provision of the 7 Will. IV. and i Vict. c. 81, clusion so favourable to the papal throne. He s. 2, which declared lawful all such retrospective committed its decrees to memory, had the principal rates as might be made within six calendar months part in drawing up the Catechismus Romanus for after the passing of the act, was merely for a ten- exposition of them, and proceeded to give all possible porary purpose. The Municipal Corporations Act effect to them in his archiepiscopal province. B.'s directs that all sums levied in pursuance of a exertions, not only for the improvement of ecclesiB. R. shall be paid over to account of the borough astical discipline, but also for the reformation of fund; and there is a provision as to Watch Rates morals in the archbishoprie of Milan, drew upon him (q. v.).

the hostility of the monastic orders, and also to some Where parties consider themselves aggrieved by a extent that of the Spanish authorities in Milan, who B. R., they may appeal to the recorder at the next were jealous of the extension of his jurisdiction. An quarter-sessions for the borough in which such rate attempt was even made upon his life in 1569. He has been made; or if there be no recorder, to the spent great part of his income in beautifying the next county quarter-sessions.

cathedral and other churches. With a view to proBORO’VSK, or BORO'FSK, a town of Russia, Helvetic College at Milan. He brought about an

vide well-qualified priests, he founded, in 1570, the in the government of Kalouga, and 49 miles north- alliance of the seven Catholic cantons, known as north-east of the town of that name. Conjointly the Golden Borromean League, for the united with Kalouga it gives title to a bishop. extensive manufactures of sail.cloth, and a trade in defence of their faith. In the fimine of 1570, and

during the plague in Milan in 1576, he displayed leather, flax, and hemp. Its onions and garlic are celebrated. In its vicinity is a convent, founded equal energy, benevolence, and derotedness, saving in 1444, one of the richest in the empire. Pop. which he made for necessary relief. Exhausted by

the lives of multitudes by the prompt arrangements

his labours and his austerities, he died on 3d BORROME'AN ISLANDS, a group of small November 1584. Many supposed miracles at his islands in the Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy. They tomb led to his being canonised in 1616. His theoare situated in the western arm of the lake, called logical works were published at Milan in 1747, in the Bay of Tosa, and are named after the family of 5 vols. folio. On the western bank of the Lago Borroneo, which for centuries has been in posses- Maggiore, in the neighbourhood of his birthplace, is sion of the richest estates in the neighborhood. a colossal brazen statue of him.-His brother's son, They are sometimes also called Isole dei Conigli, on Count Frederico Borromeo, born 1563, was also a account of the number of rabbits found on them. cardinal, and from 1595 to 1631 archbishop of Milan, They were little more than naked rocks, till Vitaliano, and was the founder of the Ambrosian Library Count Borromeo, master-general of ordnance to (q. v.). the king of Spain, about 1671, caused soil to be

BORROW, GEORGE, an English author, born at carried to them, built terraces, and converted them Norfolk in 1803. He displayed from bis earliest into gardens, the beauty of which and of their years an extraordinary talent for languages, and a situation has won for them the name of the Enchanted strong inclination for adventure. In his youth he Islands. The two most celebrated are I sola Bella lived for some time aniong gypsies, by this means and I sola Madre. On the west side of I sola Bella acquiring an exact knowledge of their lunguage, stands a palace of the Borromeo family, containing manners, and customs. His travels, as agent for many admirable paintings and other works of art. the British and Foreign Bible Society, through The Salle terrene, a series of grottos, inlaid with almost all countries of Europe and a part of Africa, stones of various colours and adorned with fountains, made him familiar with many modern languages, connect the palace with the gardens, the terraced even to their dialectic peculiarities. Whatever was style of which gives to the whole island the appear. little known had peculiar charms for him, and he ance of a truncated pyramid; a colossal winged shrunk neither from toil nor dange True to his unicorn, the armorial device of the Borromeo family, youthful predilection, he made the gypsies scattered crowning the whole. I sola Madre is laid out in the over every part of Europe one of the principal subsame terraced style, and is crowned by a castle.jects of his study. His first work, The Zincali, or The odours of flowers from the islands, upon which an Account of the Gypsies in Spain (2 vols., Lond. grow many plants of tropical climates, are wasted 1841), made a favourable impression by its lively far over the lake. The I sola de' Pescatori now and dramatic style. It was followed by The Bible contains a village of about 400 inhabitants, who in Spain (2 vols., Lond. 1843), a book to which its derive their subsistence from fishing and smuggling. author is chiefly indebted for his celebrity, and

BORROME'O, CARLO, Count, a saint of the which consists of a narrative of personal adventures Church of Rome, was born on the 2d October 1538, as various as it is interesting. The graphic power at the Castle of Arona, on the Lago Maggiore, the of the style amply compensates for the rather family seat of his ancestors. He studied law at ivmethodical arrangement of the book. After a Pavia, and took the degree of doctor in 1559. His long interval, B. published a work long before uncle, Pope Pius IV., on being raised to the pontifi- announced, Lavengro, the Scholar, the Gypsy, and cate in 1560, appointed him, notwithstanding his the Priest' (3 vols., Lond. 1851), which was generally youth, to a number of high offices, and made him regarded as an autobiography, with a spice of fancy à cardinal and archbishop of Milan. B. displayed mingling with fact. The principal character is degreat faithfulness and ability in governing Ancona, picted with extravagant exaggeration; and the someBologna, and other parts of the States of the Church | what bizarre originality which gave a peculiar zest

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to the author's earlier works here appears as man- BORROWING DAYS. The last three days of nerism. The book left the hero in the midst of his March are so called in Scotland and some parts of adventures, which were not continued until 1857, England. The popular notion is, that these days when B. published The Romany Rye, a sequel to are borrowed or taken from April, and may be Lavengro, a more unsatisfactory work than any of its ; expected to consist of cold or stormy weather. predecessors. In 1862 he published Wild Wiles. Although this notion dates from a period before

BORROWING has, in the case of money, several the change of the style, a few days of broken and legal applications of a general nature, in which the unpleasant weather about the end of March still law with regard to honds, mortgages, and other afford a sanction for old notions concerning the similar securities, has to be considered. See the borrowing days. The origin of the term B. D. articles on these subjects. More strictly, B. may

is lost in the mists of antiquity, though we are be described as a contract under the law of baii inclined to hazard the conjecture that it has no ments (q. v.),* and may be briefly and simply defined higher source than the popular rhyme in which it as asking or taking a loan. The essentials of this is introduced as a poetic fiction. The most dramatic contract are, that there must be a certain specific form of this rhyme in Scotland is as follows: thing lent, such as a book, an article of furniture, a March said to April : horse, or it may be a house, land, or even an incor- • I see three hoggs on yonder hill; poreal right. But in the law of England the

And if you'll lend me days three, contract is confined to goods and chattels or personal

I'll find a way to gar (make) them die!'

The first o' them was wind and weet, property, and does not extend to real estate. Lord Chief Justice Holt's definition described it as a

The second o' them was snaw and sleet,

The third o' them was sic a freeze, B. of a thing lent, in contradistinction to a thing It froze the birds' feet to the trees. deposited, or sold, or intrusted to another for the But when the borrowed days were gane, sole benefit or purposes of the owner. Again, the The three silly hogys came Kirplin [limping] hame. B. must be gratuitous and for the borrower's use, which use must be the principal object, and not The superstition, if we may so call it, respecting a mere accessory.

Such use, too, may be for the B. D., though now little else than a jocular a limited time or for an indefinite period. The fancy, was so strong in Scotland in the 17th c., that contract must also be of a legal nature, for if it is when the Covenanting army, under Montrose, immoral, or against law, it is utterly void ; this, marched into Aberdeen on the 30th March 1039, however, is a necessary qualification of all contracts. and was favoured by good weather, a minister Lastly, the property which is the subject of the pointed it out in his sermon a miraculous contract must be borrowed or lent to be specifically dispensation of l’rovidence in behalf of the good cause. returned to the lender at the determination of the See Gordon of Rothiemay's History of Scots Affairs agreement, in which respect it differs from a loan from 1637 to 1641. For further notice of the B. D. for consumption.

we refer to Brand's Popular Antiquities. The persons who may borrow and lend are all

BORROWSTOUSSE'SS, or BONE'SS, a those who can legally make a contract; a capacity, port in Linlithgowshire, on a low peninsula on the therefore, which excludes married women, unless Firth of Forth, 17 miles west-north-west of Edinburgh. they act with the consent of their husbands, when It has coal mines extending under the bed of the it binds the latter and not the wives.

Firth; and manufactures of salt, soap, malt, vitriol, It is not necessary that the lender should be and earthenware, and a trade in grain. Ironstone, absolute proprietor of the thirg lent or borrowed; limestone, and freestone also exist in the parish. it is sufficient if he have either a qualified or a Graham's Dike, a part of the Roman wall of special property therein, or à lawful possession Antoninus, traverses the parish. Dugald Stewart thereof. As to the borrower, he has the right to lived near Borrowstounness. Pop. 2645. In 1858, use the thing during the time and for the purpose 60 vessels of 5624 tons belonged to the port; intended, whether such intention is expressed or and 1658 vessels of 149,455 tons entered and implied; but beyond this he cannot go.

The cleared it. following quotation from Mr. Justice Story's (ele

BORY DE SAINT VINCENT, JEAN BAPTISTE brated work on barlments (to which reference is generally made), is useful for popular information : GEORGE MARIE, a French traveller and naturalist, A gratuitous loan is to be considered as strictly of Lot-et Garonne. In 1798, he proceeded, along

was born in 1780 at Agen, now in the department personal, unless, from other circumstances, a differ with Captain Baudin, in a scientific mission to New ent intention may fairly be presumed. Thus, if A Holland, but separated from him before they reached lends B her jewels to wear, this will not authorise their destination. Among the fruits of his travels B to lend them to C to wear. So, if C lends D his

were his Essai sur les lles Fortunées de l'antique horse to ride to Boston, this will not authorise D to Atlantide, ou Précis de l'Ilistoire Générale de allow E to ride the horse to Boston. But if a man lends his horses and carriage for a month to a friend dans les quatre principales Iles des Mers d'Afrique

l'Archipel des Canaries (Par. 1803), and his l'oyage for liis use, there, a use by any of his family, or for family purposes, may be fairly presumed; although (3 vols., Par. 1804). Ílaving returned to his native not a use for the benefit of mere strangers. During Ulm and Austerlitz, went to Spain, and became

country, he became a captain in the army, served at the period of the loan, the borrower has no property military intendant in the staff of Marshal Soult. in the thing, but a mere right of possession and use of it. But, notwithstanding, if the thing lent and 1815, he served as a colonel, and after the battle of borrowed be injured by a stranger, it would appear his colleagues in the Chamber against submitting

Waterloo made an eloquent but fruitless appeal to that the lender may maintain an action for the

to the Bourbons, and was compelled to go into recovery of damages; the mere possession of

exile. At Brussels he edited, along with Van Mous, property without title being sufficient against a

the Annales des Sciences Physiques (8 vols.). He wrong-vloer. See Contract, Loan, Hire, besides also produced an admirable work on the subterthe subjects above referred to.

ranean quarries in the limestone hills near Maestricht * The article on Bailments having been accidentally (Par. 1821). He returned to France in 1820), wrote omitted at its proper place, the reader will find the for liberal journals, and for Courtin's Encyclopédie, &c. subject explained under CoxTRACT.

Iu 1827 appeared his L'Homme, Essui Zoologique


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sur le Genre humain. He wrote what relates to taken prisoner. Next year, now admiral of the cryptogamic plants in Duperrey's Voyage autour blue, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the di Monde (Par. 1828). He rendered an important powerful expedition against Cape Breton, as the service to science by editing the Dictionnaire fruit of which that island and St. John's were taken Classique de l'Histoire Naturelle. When, in 1829, after some hard fighting. B. crowned his career by the French government sent a scientific expedition his signal victory over the French Toulon fleet, in to the Morea and the Cyclades, the first place in the Bay of Lagos, August 18, 1759. On his return it was assigned to B. de S. V.; and the results home, he received the thanks of parliament, a penof his researches were given to the world in the sion of £3000 a year, a seat in the privy council, Expé-lition Scientifique de Morée (Par. and Strasb. and the command of the marines. In the following 1832, &c.), and in the Nouvelle Flore du Péloponnèse summer, while his fleet lay idle in the Bay of et des Cyclades (Par. 1838). In 1839, he undertook Quiberon, ravaged by scurvy, B. and some of his the principal charge of the scientific commission men employed themselves in cultivating a garden which the French government sent to Algeria. on a small island, in order to supply the sick with He died 220 December 1846.

vegetables. He died in the following year. Lord BOS. See Bovinæ aud Ox.

Chatham is said to have testified that when he BOS, LAMBERT, a Dutch philologist, was born proposed expeditions to other commanders he heard at Workum, in Friesland, 230 November 1670, and only of difficulties, but when he applied to B., he

found him ready with suggestions and expedients. studied at the university of Franeker, where, by the advice of Vitringa, he devoted himself espe

BOSCH, HIERONYMUS DE, born at Amsterdam cially to the Greek language. In 1704, he was 23d March 1740, died there ist June 1811, was appointed Greek professor in that university. He unquestionably the most distinguished Latin poet of died 6th January 1717. All his works are charac- recent times, and a philologist of varied acquireterised by thorough scholarship and remarkable ments. His Poemata first appeared at Leyden in acuteness, and notwithstanding the advances of 1803 (2d ed. Utr. 1808). He rendered an important classical criticism since his day, some of them are service to classical literature by his edition of the still consulted, such as his Vetus Testamentum ex Anthologia Græca, with a metrical translation by Versione Septuaginta Interpretum (Franeker, 1709; Hugo Grotius never before published (4 vols., Utr. new edit., Oxford, 1805), his Ellipses Greecce (Frane- | 1795–1810, to which Van Lennep added a fifth ker, 1702), and more particularly his Antiquiłatum volume, Utr. 1822). His Discourses and Treatises Græcarum præcipue Atticaruin Descriptio Breves on subjects of literature, which are mostly composed (Franeker, 1714).

in the Dutch language, display profound learning, BOSA, a town of the island of Sardinia, in the excellent judgment, and refined taste. division of Cape Sassari, near the mouth of the

BO'SCOBEL, an extra-parochial liberty of EngTermo. Lat. 40° 17' N., long. 8° 27' E. Notwith land, in the county of Shropshire, about 6 miles eaststanding its fine situations

, partly on the side of a north-east of Shiffnal. The population of B. is only hill and partly on a plain, it is an unhealthy place. It about 20 ; but the place is interesting in connection is surrounded by decaying walls ; has an old castle, with the escape of Charles II. after his defeat at a cathedral, several monasteries and churches ; and Worcester in 1651. After the battle, Boscobel llouse a trade in wine, oil, grain, and, cheese. Its' port being proposed as a secure retreat, thitherwards admits only vessels of sinall size. Pop. 6500.

Charles turned his steps. At White-Ladies, a seat of

the Giffard family, which was reached in the early BOSCAN-ALMOGA VER, JUAN, Spanish morning, the king had his long hair cut, his hands poet, born in the year 1500 at Barcelona, of and face smeared with soot; and for his royal dress an ancient noble family. He received from his he substituted the green and greasy suit of a counparents a careful education, and came to Granada, I tryman, and a leathern doublet. Thus disguised, to the court of Charles V. The education of the Charles passed through a secret door into a neighcelebrated Duke of Alva was afterwards intrusted bouring wood, in the thickest part of which he sat to him. He spent the latter part of his life at Bar- shivering in the rain until dusk, when he stole out, celona and was employed in editing his own works and along with a guide endeavoured to reach Wales, and those of his friend Garcilasso de la Vega, where it was now thought he would be safer than when he died some time prior to 1544.

at Boscobel. They reached a royalist's house at the first to make use of Italian measures in Spanish Madeley, on the banks of the Severn, at midnight, verse, and thus became the creator of the Spanish and it was then found that they could not escape to

By the introduction of various Italian Wales, on account of the vigilance of the Puritans; forms, he made an epoch in Spanish poetry. His and once more, after a day's rest in a stable loft, the poems are still esteemed, but his other literary pro- king started for Boscobel wood, where he arrived ductions are forgotten. The best edition is that of about five o'clock in the morning. He imunediately, Leon, 1549.

along with Major Carlis, who had led the forlornBOSCAWEN, EDWARD, an eminent English hope at Worcester, ascended a thick pollard oak, admiral, second son of Viscount Falmouth, was from which they could watch at intervals during born in 1711, and highly distinguished himself at the day the Roundheads in search of them passing the taking of Puerto-Bello, and at the siege of by unaware of their near presence. In the evening, Carthagena in 1740. In April 1744, he captured the they descended from their elevated hiding-place, and French ship Medée, with 800 prisoners. He had an made their way to the manor house, where the king important share in the victory off Cape Finisterre remained hidden for two days. After other adven(May 3, 1747), and six months after received the tures, Charles contrived to escape from England on command of the East Indian expedition ; he dis- the 17th October.—The title of BoscoBEL TRACTS played high military skill in conducting the retreat has been given to certain contemporaneous writings, from Pondicherry. He returned in 1750, and in the first published in 1662, giving a graphic description following year became a lord of the Admiralty of this passage of the monarch's life. The authorIn 1755, he was again afloat, and intercepted the ship is generally attributed to Thomas Blount, a French' fleet off Newfoundland, capturing two loyal gentleman of Worcestershire ; but Nash, his 64-gun ships and 1500 men, including the French grandson, in his history of Worcestershire, denies commander, Hoquart, whom he had twice before that they were his, on the authority of Blount


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himself. But the author, whoever he was, was BU'SJESMAN'S COUNTRY, a region in Africa manifestly a stanch royalist, and his narrative to the north of the Cape Colony. The inhabitants, a bears evidence that he had good opportunity for ascertaining the truth of all the statements in it.

BOʻSCO TRE-CA'SÉ, a town of Naples, situated at the southern base of Mount Vesuvius. It has several churches and convents, and a royal manufactory of arms and gunpowder. Wine and silk are raised in the district. Pop. 8500.

BOʻSCOVICH, ROGER JOSEPII, a celebrated mathematician and astror.omer, born at Ragusa 18th May 1711. He entered at an early age into the order of the Jesuits, and spent his life in scientific pursuits and important public labours. Before the completion of his course of studies in Rome, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and philosophy in the Collegium Romanum there. The pope gave him a commission to measure a degree of the meridian in the States of the Church, which he accomplished in the years 1750--1753. In 1': 64 he was appointed to a professorship in Pavia, but after some time retired from this office. He was subsequently appointed professor of astronomy and optics in the Palatine schools at Milan, and superintended the erection of the observatory in the

Bosjesman. Brera College, upon which he spent money of his

After the dissolution of his order, he went to Paris in 1774, and received a pension from the variety of the Hottentot (q. r.) race are remarkking. B. afterwards went to Bassano, to super- ably diminutive in stature, and thoroughly savage intend an edition of his works, on the completion in condition. of which he returned to Milan, but fell into a depres- BOSNA-SERAI, SERA TO, SARAJEVO sion of spirits, which at last grew into complete (Ital. Seraglio), capital of the province of Bosnia, insanity, and he died 12th February 1787. His European Turkey, is beautifully situated in the works include dissertations on a great variety of midst of gardens on both sides of the Migliazza, important questions in mathematical and physical an affluent of the Bosna, about 122 miles southscience, and were published collectively under the west of Belgrade. Its population is estimated at title Opera Pertinentia ad Opticam et Astronomiam i from 40,000 to 60,000, two-thirds of whom are (5 rols., Bassano, 1785). His name is connected Turks, the rest Greeks and Jews. Four handsome with a theory of physics, first published in his stone bridges cross the river at different points of Philosophie Naturalis Theoria, Redacta ad Unicum the city, which is adorned with 150 mosques and Legem Virium in Natura Existentium (Vienna, 1758). churches, whose gilded domes and whitened minaHe was also a poet, and his Latin poem, De Solis rets and spires give it quite an oriental appearac Lunce Defectibus (Lond. 1764), has been much ance. B. has a palace built by Mohammed II., and admired.

an old castle on a height, erected in 1263 by the BOSIO, FRANÇ. Jos., Baron, an eminent sculptor, Hungarian general Cotroman; its old walls are was born 1769 at Monaco, in Sardinia ; studied at decayed, but it is defended by a citadel, well Paris ; and when only 19, returned to Italy, where provided with cannon, and has manufactures of he executed a multitude of commissions eren at that cutlery, jewelry, leather, and woollen goods. Its early age. His reputation was greatly increased by position makes it the entrepôt for the commerce of the figures which, at the request of Napoleon, he South Germany, Croatia, Dalmatia, and Turkey, executed for the column in the Place Vendôme. and it is consequently a busy place. It has imporLouis XVIII. and Charles X. also patronised B., tant iron mines and mineral baths in its vicinity. the former appointing him royal sculptor, the latter BOʻSNIA, the most north-westerly province of elevating him to the rank of baron. He also enjoyed European Turkey, forming an eyalet, governed by a several professional honours, being director of the pasha, and including, besides Bosnia proper, the Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, and member of the Turkish parts of Croatia and Dalmatia, and the Berlin Academy of Arts. He died July 29, 1845. district of Herzegovina (q. v.). It extends between B.'s principal works are the “Hercules' in the lat. 42° 30' and 45° 15' N., and long. 17° 40' and 21° garden of the Tuilleries; the incomparably beau- E. It is bounded N. by the Save and Unna; E. by tiful ‘Hyacinth' in the Luxembourg; the Nymph the Vrina, the mountain-chain of Jublanik, and a Salmacis,' a figure displaying wonderful grace and branch of the Argentaric Alps; S. by the Scardaglı purity of outline; an allegorical figure of France, Mountains; and on the W. by the mountains of 7 feet high, surrounded by the Muse of History Cosman, Timor, and Steriza. At a few points in the and a group of Genii; the statue in memory of the south it reaches to the Adriatic Sea. It has an Duc d'Enghien; the equestrian statue in the Place extent estimated at 18,800 square miles, with a des Victoires, and the monument of Count Demidov, population of about a million. With the exception 30 feet high, composed of six figures, with bas- of the northern tract, extending along the Save, reliefs, &c. Besides these, B. executed a great it is everywhere a mountainous country, and is multitude of busts of distinguished persons, such traversed by more or less elevated ranges of the as the Emperor Napoleon, the Empress, Queen Dinaric Alps, whose highest peaks rise to a height Hortensia, the king and queen of Westphalia, Louis of from 5000 to 7700 feet above the sea, and are XVIII., Charles X., &c. B.'s works are all marked covered with snow from September to June. The by grace of form, harmony of design, and elegance mountain slopes are for the most part thickly of finish. His style generally reminds one of covered with forests of oak, beech, lime, chestnut, Canova.

&c., of magnificent growth, and only here and there

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