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exhibit meadows, pastures, and cultivated spots. | which signifies Ox-ford or Cow-ford, was given to it The principal river of the country is the Save, on because here, according to the legend, Io, transthe northern border, into which flow the Unna, the formed into a cow, swam across ; or, as is very Verbas, the Bosna, and the Drin. The Narenta and generally supposed, because it is so narrow that an the Boyana fall into the Adriatic Sea. The air is ox might swim across. Afterwards, as the same salubrious, the climate temperate and mild. It is name was bestowed upon other straits, this was only in the plain that agriculture is carried on to a designated the Thracian Bosporus. Its south and considerable exteot; grain, maize, hemp, vegetables, north entrances have two light-houses each. Its fruits, and grapes are produced in great abundance; shores are elevated, and throughout its length the and their cultivation would be much more exten- strait has 7 bays or gulfs, with corresponding sively and actively prosecuted, but for the heavy promontories on the opposite side. One of these impositions laid upon this branch of industry by the gulfs forms the harbour of Constantinople, or, as it Turkish government. Game and fish abound, as is often called, the Golden Horn. The length of the well as wild animals, such as bears, wolves, lynxes, Thracian B. is about 17 miles, with a breadth of &c. The country is celebrated for the breeding of from a little more than a third of a mile to two miles. sheep, swine, goats, and poultry; and bees, both | At the middle of this strait, where it is about 2800 wild and tame, are very numerous. The gipsies and feet in breadth, Darius made his bridge of boats Morlacks dig for lead, quicksilver, coal, and iron; when he marched against the Scythians. The name but beyond this, mining, owing to repressive govern of CIMMERIAN Bosporus was given by the ancients ment, is entirely neglected, although the country to the Strait of Kaffa (q. v.), also called the Strait is rich in metallic ores. Commerce and manufac- of Yenikalé or of Theodosia. The country on both tures-chiefly limited to the fabrication of firearms, sides of the Cimmerian B. formed, in ancient times, sabre-blades, and knives--are entirely confined to the kingdom of Bosporus, which was founded by the the towns. The position of B. gives it the transit Archæanactidæ, 502 B. C. They reigned till 480. A trade between Austria and Turkey. There are new dynasty began with King Spartocus, 480—438 almost no good roads in the country. The popu- B. c. Under Satyrus I., who died in 393, the kingdom lation consists of Bosnians, Croats, Morlacks, Mon- was extended along the Asiatic coast; and under tenegrines, Turks, Germans, Illyrians, Dalmatians, Leucon I., after whom his descendants were called &c., the much greater part being of the Slavonian Leuconides, Theodosia was united with it in 360.

The Bosnians, or Bosniaks, who form about King Leucanor became tributary to the Scythians a third of the inhabitants, are partly Mohammedans in 290 ; and this tribute afterwards became so and partly of the Greek and Roman Catholic oppressive, that Parisades, the last of the Leuconides, Churches. They are brave, hardy, rapacious, and preferred to become subject to Mithridates, king cruel; rude and repulsive towards strangers, yet of Pontus, who in the year 116 B. C. vanquished the among themselves they are peaceful and honest ; Scythians, and set bis son, Machares, on the throne they are also industrious, simple in their habits, of Bosporus. He having taken his own life, and and temperate. The Moslem women in B. are Mithridates having followed him to the grave, the less secluded than in the other Turkish provinces, Romans gave the country, in 63 B. C., to Pharnaces, and have long enjoyed the liberty of appearing the second son of Mithridates, and after his assassiin public more or less veiled. The Croats, who | nation, to several princes who gave themselves out form about a sixth of the population, belong partly for descendants of Mithridates. When at last the to the Greek and partly to the Roman Catholic family became entirely extinct, in 259 A. D., the Church; only a few are Mohammedans. They Sarmatians made themselves masters of the kingdom, are principally engaged in agriculture, the feeding from whom the inhabitants of the Chersonesus took of cattle, and the barter trade. The Morlacks, it in 344. Along with Tauric Chersonesus, it afterwho number about 150,000, dwell mostly in the wards formed a part of the Eastern Roman Empire, district of Herzegovina, are courteous, clever in until the Chazars, and afterwards the Tatars, under business, and extremely ready in adapting them- Mongolian princes, made themselves masters of it. selves to anything. They are inveterate enemies See Tauria. of the Turks. Three-fourths of them are Greek

BOSQUET, PIERRE FRANÇOIS JOSEPH, a distinChristians, and the rest Roman Catholics. The Turks form more than a fourth of the inhabitants, at Mont de Marsan, in the department of Landes,

guished French marsbal, born 8th November 1810 the number of Greeks and Jews is between 20,000 entered, in 1829, the Polytechnic School at Paris, and 30,000. B., being a frontier province, is impor- and in 1833 joined the artillery as sub-lieutenant. tant as a line of defence, and has consequently a In June 1834, he proceeded with his regiment to great number of fortifications. B., in ancient times, Algeria, where he became conspicuous for his military was included in Pannonia ; and previous to the 7th tact, energy, and valour. In 1847, he had attained c., was governed by princes of its own, called Bans the rank of colonel, and the following year he was or Waiwodes, who became dependent on Hungary. named general of brigade by the republican governBeing conquered by the Turks, it was finally ment. In the end of 1853, he returned to France, annexed to the Ottoman empire, in 1522, by Soly: and in 1854 was appointed by the emperor general man the Magnificent.

Since the introduction of of division. He had the command of the second reforms, denuding the former hereditary chiefs of division of the French army in the Crimea, and at their highest prerogatives, and a great part of their the battle of the Alma, 25th September, bis successrevenues, B. has been the seat of almost perpetual ful maneuvres against the Russian left wing were disturbance, and several campaigns have had to be mentioned in Marshal St. Arnaud's dispatch to the undertaken against it by the Turkish government. emperor as deciding the fate of the day. At InkerA most dangerous rebellion broke out in 1851, mann, 25th November, he contributed greatly to the which was not quelled by Omar Pasha until he had defeat of the Russians. His conduct on this occainflicted several defeats on the rebels, and stormed sion was noticed with praise by Lord Raglan in his some of their fortresses. Since that time the country dispatch, and the British parliament voted its thanks has been more quiet.

to him in a special resolution. He also took a leading BO'SPORUS, the ancient name of the channel part in the capture of the Malakoff, 8th Sept. 1855 ; now known also as the Strait of Constantinople, but a wound he received from the bursting of a shie! which separates Europe from Asia, and connects the obliged him to retire to France. In 1856 he was madle Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora. The name, field-marshal of France. He died February 3, 1861.


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BOSS, in Architecture, a raised ornament, cover- | church obtained for him the bishopric of Cordan. ing the intersections in the ribs of ceilings. They The king having, in 1670,.intrusted to him the eduare more frequently seen in vaulted roofs, as in the cation of the Dauphin, he resigned his bishopric in

1671, because he believed that he would be unfaithful to his duty if he retained it during a continued absence from his diocese. He was now made a member of the Academy. The care with which he attended to the education of the Dauphin was rewarded, in 1680, by his nomination as first almoner of the Dauphin, and in 1681 by his appointment to the bishopric of Meaux. He was the author of the four articles, which secured the freedom of the Gallican Church, and the rights of the king in regard to it, against the aggressions of the pope; and his eloquence in the Assembly of the French clergy, in the year 1682, obtained their adoption of

these articles. In 1697, he became a member of the Boss.-From Notredame la Riche, Tours.

Council of State, and in the following year first

almoner to the Duchess of Burgundy. He spent the aisles of a church, but occur also where the ceiling last year of his life in his diocese, where he died

is flat. In early Norman works 12th April 1704. He was alike strict in morals and there are generally no bosses, and in religious doctrine: his strictness in the latter he they become richer and more frequent showed particularly in his controversy with Fénélon, as we advance towards the decorated | whom he reproached as a heretic for his defence of and perpendicular styles. In the Quietism (q. v.). His style is vigorous and artistic. decorated style the B. usually con- ( His orations at the funerals of the Duchess of sists of foliage, sometimes combined Orleans and the great Condé are particularly noted with animals, heads, and the like. as master-pieces of this kind of eloquence. All his Coats-of-arms, charged with armorial writings attracted much attention. For the defence bearings, came then also to be used of those dogmas of the Catholic Church which are for this purpose, though they were rejected by Protestants, he wrote his Exposition de more frequent in the perpendicular. la Doctrine de l'Eglise Catholique sur les Matières de -The B. of a bit is the ornament Controrerse (Par. 1671). His greatest controversial

with which a bridle-bit terminates work is his celebrated Histoire des Variations des Boss, on

at each end. It was borne in the Eglises Protestantes (2 vols., Par. 1688), in which he Normau shield. arms of the corporation of Lorimers. founds his argument chiefly upon the doctrinal See LORIMER.

diversities of the churches of the Reformation. To BOSSI, Luigi, an Italian archæologist and histo- the defence of the four articles of the Gallican rian, was born at Milan in February 1785; studied Church he devoted his Defensio declarationis celeberat Pavia, and became a canon of the cathedral rimæ, quam de Potestate Ecclesiæ sanxit clerus Galliof Milan ; but when the French entered Italy, he cus a. 1682 (2 vols., Luxemb. 1730). With a view took the side of the invaders, and was appointed to the instruction of the Dauphin, he wrote his Disby Bonaparte agent of the French government at

cours sur l'Histoire Universelle jusqu'à l'Empire de Turin, and afterwards prefect of the archives of Charlemagne (Par. 1681), a work particularly dethe kingdom of Italy. He died at Milan 10th serving of notice, as the first attempt at a philoso

The continuation of April 1835. He was an extremely prolific author, phical treatment of history. and produced more that 80 works, great and small, it to the year 1661 (Par. 1805) is entirely derived including theological and religious works, disser- from materials which he left behind him, but to tations on antiquarian subjects, historic works, which the last touch of his own hand was wanting. works on subjects connected with the fine arts, Another fruit of his political and historical studies, tragedies, comedies, &c. That his works have was the Politique tirée de l'Ecriture Sainte (Par. afforded many opportunities for unfavourable criti- 1709). The most complete edition of his works is cism, is only what might be supposed, from their that published under the care of the Benedictines (46 number and variety. His Introduzione allo Studio vols., Versailles, 1815-1819).-His nephew, JACQUES delli Arti del Disegno, is instructive and much Bossuet, died bishop of Troyes, 12th July 1743. esteemed. His most important bistoric works are a His very extensive correspondence, chiefly devoted much enriched translation of Roscoe's Life of Leo X. to the elucidation and investigation of the views of (12 vols., Milan, 1816—1817); Researches concerning Fénélon, is included in the above-mentioned edition Christopher Columbus (Milan, 1818); and a History of the works of his uncle. of Italy (19 vols., Milan, 1819–1823).

BOSSUT, CHARLES, a French mathematician and BOSSUET, JACQUES BÉNIGNE, a distinguished natural philosopher, born 11th August 1730, at French pulpit orator, was born, 27th September Tartaras, near Lyon. So early as the year 1752, 1627, at Dijon; received his earlier education in the he became professor of mathematics in Paris, and Jesuit college there; and then came to Paris to the in 1768 was received into the Academy of Sciences. College of Navarre, where he studied the Sacred | The revolution deprived him of his situation and Scriptures, the works of classical antiquity, and the his income, and he lived in the greatest seclusion, Cartesian philosophy. In 1652, he was made a and in almost misanthropical discontentment, till doctor of the Sorbonne, and a canon in Metz. Here under the Empire he was appointed a professor in he was called by the bishop to reply to the Catechism the Polytechnic School. He died 14th January of the Protestant minister, Paul Ferri, and this he 1814. His works are very numerous. The followdid in a way that commanded the admiration evening may be mentioned as particularly valuable : of Protestants. He soon attained great distinction Recherches sur la Construction la plus avantageuse

a pulpit orator, and in 1661 he was made des Digues (Par. 1764); Recherches sur les Altérapreacher to the court. His discourse on the occa- tions que la résistance de l'éther peut produire dans sion of Marshal Turenne's conversion to the Catholic Ile Mouvement des Planètes (Par. 1776); Nouvelle





Expérience sur la Résistance des Fluides, par d'Alem-, of municipal borough, 14,773 ; of parliamentary, bert, Condorcet, et Bossut (Par. 1777); Traité élémen- which returns two members to parliament, 17,518. taire de Mécanique et de Dynamique (Charleville 1763); B. is a great market for cattle and sheep, and has Cours Complète des Mathématiques (7 vols., Par. manufactures of canvas, iron, brass, ropes, leather, 1795—1801); Cours de Mathématique à l'Usage bricks, whiting, and hats. In 1857, 141 vessels of des écoles Militaires (2 vols., Par. 1782); éssai sur 6573 tons belonged to the port; and in 1858, 972 l'Histoire Générale des Mathematiques (2 vols., 2d ed., vessels of 49,455 tons entered and cleared it. Fox, Par. 1810), one of the best works on the history of the martyrologist, was born in Boston. inathematics; and Traité du Calcul Differentiel et Intégral. All his works are distinguished by metho- BOSTON, the second commercial city of the dical arrangement and great clearness. He was United States, capital of Mass., in Suffolk co., is 464 a great admirer of Pascal, and edited his works miles by railroad N. E. of Washington, and 236 miles (15. vols., Par. 1779), to which he prefixed an N. E. from New York; lat. 42° 21' 27" N., lon. 710 introductory Discours sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de 03' 30" W. The city consists of five parts, Boston Pascal, in 5 vols.

proper or Old Boston, East Boston, South Boston, BOSTA'N (EL), a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the Boston Highlands (formerly Roxbury, annexed in pashalic of Marash, situated in a plain on the 1868), and Dorchester (annexed in 1870). Boston Sihun, on the north side of Mount Taurus. Lat. proper occupies a peninsula, joined by the “Neck” to

Boston Highlands on the south. South Boston ex39° N., long. 36° 23' E. B. can be surrounded with tends about 2 miles along the south side of the harwater on the approach of an enemy; it has several bour, and adjoining it is Dorchester, which embraces mosques, and a considerable trade in wheat. . It “ Dorchester Heights,” of Revolutionary memory. occupies the site of the Cappadocian Comana, which East Boston occupies'" Noddle's Island. The area had a celebrated temple dedicated to a deity which of Boston is now 9987 acres. is “supposed to have been called Ma in the language

B. was settled Sept. 7 (O.S.), 1630, by colonists of the country, and to be the moon-goddess.' Pop. chiefly from Boston (St. Botolphstown), England. St. between 8000 and 9000.

Botolph (boat help) was deemed the patron saint of BOSTANJI, a class of men in Turkey who, mariners, hence his name is not inappropriately aporiginally the sultan's gardeners (the name being plied to a commercial city. derived from bostan, a garden), now perform, in B. contains a public park covering about 44 acres, addition to their garden labour, a variety of duties, long known as the “ Common,” in which are many such as mounting guard at the seraglio, rowing the fine elms and the “Liberty tree," noted in Revolusultan's barge, and attending on the officers of the tionary annals. imperial household. They are under a chief called The more noted public buildings are the State Bostanji Bashi, who holds the rank of a pasha, and House, 160 feet long and 80 feet wide ; Faneuil Hall, is governor of the sultan's residences, and steersman the “ Cradle of Liberty ;" Quincy Market, 500 feet of his barge. He also holds the inspector-general- long and 50 feet wide, and cost about $150,000; ship of the woods and forests in the vicinity of the United States Custom House, 140 feet long, 95 wide, capital, has the jurisdiction of the shores of the and cost upward of $1,000,000; the Merchants ExBosporus and Sea of Marmora, and is, altogether, change, which cost $175,000; the City Hall, which cost so important a functionary that only personal $600,000; the Court House; the City Prison ; the Trefavourites of the sultan can hope to fill the office. mont Temple, built by the Free Masons at a cost of The financial reforms of Sultan Mahmoud, however, $400,000, having a hall 130 feet long by 73 wide, and have greatly lessened the emoluments of the post. 45 feet high, and the Boston Music Hall, 130 feet by The B. at one time amounted to 5000, and were 80 and 65 feet high. The last is considered one of divided into companies like the janissaries, with the finest concert halls in the world, and contains the whom they were united in military duty. In war- “Great Organ,” with 6000 pipes, which cost $60,000. time, their strength was 12,000. A scarlet bonnet, The foundation has been laid for a new post-office of excessive dimensions, formed the distinctive part 240 feet by 100 feet, which will cost $1,500,000. of their costume. Their number now does not

In B. there are 129 churches--20 Unitarian, 17 amount to more than 600.

Congregational, 16 Baptist, 20 Methodist, 14 Episco

pal, 15 Roman Catholic and 7 Universalist, &c., &c. BO'STON, an ancient English borough and sea

B. contains numerous literary, scientific and eduport in Lincolnshire, on both sides of the Witham, cational institutions, among which are the Boston 28 miles south-east of Lincoln. It is supposed Athenæum with a library of 100,000 volumes; the to be identical with the Icanhoe, where St. Botolph Mass. Historical Society, with 19,000; the “Old founded an abbey in 654, destroyed in 870 by Boston Library” with 18,000; the American Acad

Under the Normans, B. became a emy of Arts and Sciences ; the Mercantile Library place of importance, and in 1204 it paid the largest Association with 20,000; the State Library of 30,000, dues (£780) of any English port except London and the Public Library which cost $363,333, con(£836). In the reign of Edward III., many foreign taining 160,000 volumes, and free to every citizen traders settled, and the merchants of the Hanseatic of B. Among other institutions wł ich reflect the League established a guild in Boston. After their enlightened spirit of B. and the liberality of her departure, the town declined, and the suppression of opulent citizens may be named the Society of Nathe monasteries by Henry VIII, further injured it; tural History, the Institute of Technology and the but his grant of a charter of incorporation, and Mary's Lowell Institute, the last of which was endowed by subsequent grant of extensive lands, partly compen- John Lowell, Jr., with a legacy of $250,000. In the sated for this. The modern town consists chiefly last, free lectures are maintained throughout the year. of two good streets, one on each side of the river. Closely identified with the history of B. is her The parish church of St. Botolph (1309), 245 by 98 system of public instruction, the first free school feet, is one of the largest without cross aisles in having been established in 1635. There are now England, and has a fine tower 300 feet high, sur- (1870) 328 primary schools with 15,091 pupils, 36 mounted by a lantern visible 40 miles out at sea. grammar schools with 18,735 pupils, and 5 high The clearing of the river of silt and the closing schools with 1355 pupils. Total, 35,181 receiving free of the adjacent fens have greatly promoted the instruction. The salary of the masters of the high trade of Boston. Vessels of 300 tons can reach the schools is $4000; that of sub-masters of the high heart of the town. The chief export is corn. Pop. I schools and masters of the grammar schools $3000 ;

the Danes.



As a

other grades of teachers receiving from $2400 to man's paradisiacal integrity, his ruin by the fall $700 per annum. The amount expended for in- his begun regeneration on earth, and consummate struction in 1869, exclusive of buildings, was bliss or woe hereafter. An excellent little treatise of $982,677, and the entire value of school-buildings B.'s is entitled The Crook in the Lot. As a pastor, B. in 1870 was $4,297,403. There is also a public was eminently laborious, and deservedly popular. In school for deaf mutes, and public evening schools are the ecclesiastical courts he distinguished himself by maintained during the winter season.

his zeal in defence of the church's independence, The benevolent institutions of B. are numerous and in the controversy regarding the Marrow of and well endowed. Among the most noted are the Modern Divinity (which was objected to as being Massachusetts General Hospital; the McLean Asylum too free in its offers of salvation), he was one of for the Insane; the Perkins Institution for the the ten ministers who declared their approval of

the “ Farm School,” which accommodates that work. See MARROW CONTROVERSY. 100 poor boys; the Almshouse and the House of In- theologian, B. is perhaps the most •Representative dustry and Reformation on Deer Island; the Eye and Man' in the whole list of Scottish divines. His Ear Infirmary, the school for idiotic children, and language, sentiments, and peculiar modes of expressthe Home for Aged and Indigent females, and the ing the peculiarities of Calvinistic psychology, have Free City Hospital, completed in 1864 at a cost of coloured the style of Scottish preaching more than $400,000.

any other writer of the same school has done. There are issued in B. 100 periodical publications, Although often displaying what we should now 9 of which are dailies.

call narrowness and ignorance, B. exhibits also The total number of vessels that entered the port flashes of insight and beauty, quaint felicities of in 1869 was 4831 (tonnage 1,885,862); of these diction--as, for instance, when in The Crook in the 3476 were from foreign ports (tonnage 791,838). Lot, be warns the profligate against the possibility Of the last named, 642 were American vessels (ton- of a leap out of Delilah's lap into Abraham's nage 256,960), and 2834 were foreign (tonnage bosom'-and an occasional shrewdness of thought, 534,878). The coast-wise arrivals were 1355 (ton- which are even yet worth studying. B.'s autonage 1,094,024). The total number of vessels cleared biography used to be a great favourite with the during 1869 was 5576 (tonnage 1,952,902); for for- Scottish peasantry. eign ports, 3334 (tonnage 648,382), of which 630 BOʻSWELL, JAMES, Esq., of Auchinleck, in were American (tonnage' 223,792), and 2714 were Ayrshire, celebrated as the friend and biographer of foreign (tonnage 424,590). The number cleared Dr. Samuel Johnson, was born October 29, 1740, at coast-wise was 2242 (tonnage 1,304,520).

Edinburgh, where his father was one of the judges The total value of imports by sea in 1869 was of the Court of Session, and as such was styled $44,628,395 and of exports, $14,301,878. The total Lord Auchinleck. He was intended by his father imports by sea for the year ending June 30, 1868, for the profession of an advocate, and studied first was $37,039,736, and exports, $15,690,873. The] at Glasgow, and afterwards at the then famous chief imports in 1869 by land and sea were, cotton, university of Utrecht, to which he went in 1763. $31,000,000; flour, $13,000,000; leather, $21,500,000, When in London in that year he made the acquaintand wool, $23,250,000. The chief exports were pro- ance of Johnson, an event of decisive importance visions, lard, &c., $1,550,000; cotton, petroleum and for his whole subseqnent life. The acquaintance tobacco were manufactured, each about $1,000,000. was earnestly sought by himself, and originated in Fish and spirits, ench about $500,000.

his strong literary tastes and his ardent admiraIn 1870 there were in B. 70 banks, with an aggre- tion of Johnson's writings. He spent one winter at gate capital of $48,600,000 and a circulation of Utrecht, and then proceeded on a tour through Ger$26,300,000. Eight great lines of railroad terminate in the city. I with a letter of introduction from Rousseau to

many, Switzerland, and Italy, and visited Corsica Boston is abundantly supplied with excellent water Paoli, with whom he contracted a warm and lasting from Lake Cochituate, situated about twenty miles friendship. He enthusiastically adopted the cause W. of the city, and covering an area of 650 acres.

of Corsican independence; and after his return to The city was incorporated in 1822. It is divided Scotland, published an Account of Corsica, with into 16 wards and governed by a mayor and“ city Memoirs of General Pasquale Di Paoli (Glasg., council,” composed of a board of twelve aldermen and 1768; 3d ed., Lond. 1769), which was speedily a common council of 64 persons. Pop. in 1800, translated into several languages. B. became a 24,937 ; 1810, 33,250 ; 1820, 43,298; 1830, 61,391 ; member of the Faculty of Advocates in 1766, but 1840, 93,383; 1850, 136,881; 1860, 177,840; 1870,

devoted himself with earnestness to the 250,526.

business of law. In 1773, he was admitted into the , factures in B., and the value of annual production Literary Club instituted by Johnson, and of which was $36,109,825. Capital invested, $13,828,030.

From this time he made it his principal BO'STON, Thomas, a Scottish divine, once exten- business to note down the sayings and doings of sively popular, was born of poor parents at Dunse, Johnson, with whom he associated on most intiBerwickshire, March 7, 1676. As early as his 12th mate terms, and whom he accompanied on his tour year he was concerned about the state of his soul, in Scotland and the Hebrides in 1773. Boswell was and while only a boy at the grammar-school, he married in 1769 to a lady named Montgomery, by formed a society of three for religious conference whom he had several children. Led by his taste for and social prayer.

After a hard struggle, he suc. London society, he removed thither at a mature ceeded in entering Edinburgh University in 1691. period of life, and entered at the English bar, but He received licence as a preacher in 1697, and was without attaining to any success in the profession. greatly appreciated by the serious portion of the After Johnson's death in 1784, he employed himself community; but his uncompromising character pre- in arranging the materials which he had collected, vented him from receiving a clerical charge for two and preparing his long-contemplated biography. years. He was then ordained minister of Simprin, His Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides appeared in and in 1707 was translated to Ettrick, where he died 1785, his Life of Samuel Johnson, in 2 vols., in 1791. on the 20th May 1732. Of his voluminous works Both have gone through many editions. Boswell has the best known, but not the most agreeable, is the been emphatically styled by Macaulay the first of Fourfold State, published in 1720. It discourses of biographers.' His work is indeed full of details, but




they are such as exhibit character, and are arranged supposed to be also a native of other parts of India, in the most interesting manner. He neither con- and of Persia, Arabia, and perhaps Abyssinia. B. ceals his own faults nor those of Johnson, but glabra, a very similar species, a native of India, also presents a picture of which the truthfulness is too yields a resin, comparatively coarse, which is someevident to be questioned ; and Johnson is perhaps times used for incense, and is boiled with oil as a already better known by the pages of B. than by substitute for pitch. any of his own writings. B. died in London, June 29, 1795. Besides the works already mentioned, he

BO'SWORTH, or MARKET BOSWORTH, a was the author of one or two minor productions of market-town in Leicestershire, on an eminence in a temporary interest. In December 1856, there was

very fertile dietrict, 12 miles west of Leicester. Pop. published a posthumous volume of Letters of James of town, 1058 ; of parish, 2449, many being employed Boswell, addressed to the Rev. W. J. Temple, froin in knitting worsted stockings. On a moor in the in

vicinity was fought, 1485, bthe attle in which character of the man very strongly appears. His Richard III. was slain, and which terminated the

Wars of the Roses. eldest son, SIR ALEXANDER BOSWELL, Baronet, of

On an elevation, called Auchinleck, born 1775, was the author of a num

Crownhill, Lord Stanley placed the crown on the ber of Scottish songs, full of humour, which he head of the Earl of Richmond, Henry VII. Here collected into a volume, entitled, Songs, chiefly in the Simpson the mathematician was born ; Dr. Johnson Scottish Dialect (Edin. 1803), and some of which Salt, the Abyssinian traveller, and Richard Dawes,

was an usher in the Free Grammar School, in which attained considerable popularity. He also wrote Edinburgh, or the Ancient Royalty, a picture of the Greek critic, were educated. Scottish manners in the dialogue form, and edited BOSWORTH, JOSEPH, D.D., a distinguished many of the older productions of Scottish literature. philologist, is a native of Derbyshire, where he was A duel with Mr. Stuart of Dunearn, occasioned by born in 1788. He graduated first at Aberdeen, and personal allusions in a publication connected with a afterwards at Leyden ; he also took the degrees of parliamentary election, resulted in his death op B.D. and D.D. at Cambridge and Oxford. He March 26, 1822.

obtained a curacy in the English Church in 1815, BOSWE'LLIA, a genus of trees of the natural and two years afterwards the vicarage of Horwood order Amyridacece (q. v.), having flowers with a Parva, Buckinghamshire. He now devoted such small five-toothed calyx, five petals, and a crenulated time as an active discharge of his parochial duties glandular disk; a triangular capsule with three left at his disposal to literature, and especially to valves, three cells, and one seed in each cell; the researches in Anglo-Saxon and its cognate dialects. seeds winged on one side ; their cotyledons intricately The result of his labours appeared in 1823 in a folded, and cut into many segments. Two or three work, entitled Elements of Anglo-Saxon Grammar. species only are known, of which the most interest. Fifteen years afterwards, he published the work by ing is B. serrata (or B. thurifera), the tree which which his name is best known, A Dictionary of the

Anglo-Saxon Language (Lond. 1838), which is considered alike remarkable for its ripe scholarship, enlarged views, copiousness, and accuracy; containing, as the Edinburgh Review remarked, ' within a moderate compass, a complete apparatus for the

study of Anglo-Saxon.' An abridged edition has b

since been issued by the author, who has also published some other works of a philological character. B. resided in Holland eleven years, from 1829 to 1840, first as British chaplain at Amsterdam, and subsequently at Rotterdam. He returned to England in 1840, and was presented to the vicarage of Walthe, in Lincolnshire. In 1865 appeared The Gospels in Gothic of 360, and the Anglo-Saxon of 995, in parallel columns with Wycliffe's Version of 1389, and Tyndale's of 1526.

BÖSZÖRME'NY, the name of two towns in Hungary, one in the county of Bihar, about 12 miles west-north-west of Grosswardein, with a popu

lation of about 15,000; the other a free town of the C

county of Szabolez, 12 miles north-north-west of Debreczin, with a population of 14,660.

BOT, BOT-FLY, and GAD-FLY, names

mon to many insects of the family (Estridæ (q. v.) Boswellia serrata :

or (Estracidæ, the genus Estrus of Linnæus. The a, part of a branchlet, with leaf and raceme of flowers; 8, name bot is sometimes restricted to the larvæ, a single flower; C, a capsule, cross section.

which appears to have been its original use, the

other names being given to the perfect insects; the yields OLIBANUM (q. v.) now very generally believed name gad-fly often to insects of the genus Tobanus to have been the FRANKINCENSE (q. v.) of the (q. v.), to which some try to restrict it. The insects ancients. It is a large timber-tree, with pinnate of this family are now supposed not to be those leaves, which have about ten pair of hairy serrated which were called Estrus by the ancients, although, oblong leaflets, and an odd one, each leaflet about like them, extremely troublesome to cattle. They 1–14 inch in length. The flowers are small and

The flowers are small and are Dipterous (two-winged) (q. v.) insects, nearly numerous, in axillary racemes, and of a pale pink allied to the Mucides (, Flesh-fly, Blowcolour. When the bark is wounded, the olibanum fly, &c.), with small 3-jointed antennæ, and mouth flows out, of a delightful fragrance, and hardens by destitute of a proboscis.—The Horse-bot, or Gadexposure to the atmosphere. The tree is found fly of the Horse (Gasterophilus, or Gastrus, or in the mountainous parts of Coromandel, and is (Estrus Equi), sometimes also called the Breeze and



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